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Articles by Seppo Neuvonen

Category: Research article

article id 1408, category Research article
Anna Katharina Franke, Pasi Aatsinki, Ville Hallikainen, Esa Huhta, Mikko Hyppönen, Vesa Juntunen, Kari Mikkola, Seppo Neuvonen, Pasi Rautio. (2015). Quantifying changes of the coniferous forest line in Finnish Lapland during 1983–2009. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 4 article id 1408. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1408
Highlights: Volume of the growing stock of spruce and pine has increased in forests and in timber lines during the past 26 years; Spruce stem numbers increased on average, while pine stem numbers remained stable and location-specific variation was observed; Presuming that the ongoing trend of increasing temperature will remain, the enhanced forest regeneration and growth may result in extension of forests in the future.

The boreal timber- and tree-line forests grow in harsh environmental conditions in their outermost distribution limit. Here even small environmental changes may cause dramatic changes in the distribution of tree species. We examined changes of the forest lines of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Finnish Lapland five times during 1983–2009. We monitored the number of stems and the volume of the growing stock in thirteen different locations in forest-line areas. The linear temporal trends and the variations of these response variables were used as indicators of a possible change during the study period. Spruce showed a significant increase both in the volume of the growing stock (up to 40% increase) and in the total stem number (up to 100% increase). A significant increase in the volume of the growing stock was observed in the pine data as well (up to 70% increase), whereas the stem number stagnated or even decreased. The results suggest that spruce needs favourable conditions to have an abundant regeneration, but after the establishment the seedlings seem to be more resistant against biotic and abiotic disturbances than pine seedlings. The increasing stand volume might result in a climate-related northward and upward extension of forests in the future. However, our results show that responses in the boreal forest line are species and location specific and a more favourable climate does not necessarily lead to an advance of the coniferous forest line.

  • Franke, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anna.franke@fau.de (email)
  • Aatsinki, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pasi.aatsinki@luke.fi
  • Hallikainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ville.hallikainen@luke.fi
  • Huhta, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: esa.huhta@luke.fi
  • Hyppönen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.hypponen@luke.fi
  • Juntunen, The Sámi Education Institute, Menesjärventie 4, P.O. Box 50, FI-99871 Inari, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: vesa.juntunen@sogsakk.fi
  • Mikkola, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Economics and society, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kari.mikkola@luke.fi
  • Neuvonen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: seppo.neuvonen@luke.fi
  • Rautio, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bio-based business and industry, Eteläranta 55, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pasi.rautio@luke.fi
article id 329, category Research article
Vesa Juntunen, Seppo Neuvonen. (2006). Natural regeneration of Scots pine and Norway spruce close to the timberline in northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 329. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.329
Two different datasets were analyzed in order to clarify the factors that affect regeneration success of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the climatically extreme areas in northern Finland. First, pine seed maturity and the number of cones in the trees were investigated at five pairs of study sites during the period 1997–2003. Secondly, the rate of seedling establishment and seedling survival of Scots pine and Norway spruce were monitored and compared among three different timberline zones (forest zone, timberline, tree line) in 13 localities during the period 1983–1999. The first study showed that both cone production (bud formation) and seed maturity may be limiting factors for successful reproduction in the climatically marginal habitats. Seed maturity correlated well with the temperature sum of the summer, but variation in the number of cones had a periodic component rather than strictly following the temperature sum of the summer of bud formation. Monitoring surveys since 1983 showed that pine and spruce regenerated more or less regularly in all the zones during 1983–1999. However, seedling mortality of pines was much higher compared to spruce. In general, initially small sized seedlings showed higher mortality compared with larger ones. The results suggest that besides restrictions in reproduction, stand dynamics in the timberline habitats are strongly controlled by seedling mortality due to a variety of causes.
  • Juntunen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kolari Research Unit, Muoniontie 21, FI-95900 Kolari, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: vesa.juntunen@metla.fi (email)
  • Neuvonen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5585, category Article
Päivi Lyytikäinen, Jarmo K. Holopainen, Pirjo Kainulainen, Anne Nerg, Seppo Neuvonen, Tarmo Virtanen. (1996). Performance of pine sawflies under elevated tropospheric ozone. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5585. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9230

Concentration of the phytotoxic air pollutant, ozone (O3) is continually increasing in the lower layer of the troposphere. The purpose of this study was to compare performance of pine sawflies on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in ambient and future levels of ozone. Scots pine seedlings were grown in field fumigation system where the ozone doses in fumigated plots were 1.5–1.6 times the ambient level. Larvae of the European pine sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer Geoffroy and Gilpinia pallida Klug) were reared on the foliage of Scots pine. The levels of resin acids and monoterpenes in foliage were analysed. There were no significant effects of ozone fumigation on sawfly performance or levels of defence compounds in pine foliage. The results suggest that the elevated ozone concentrations do not strongly affect the needle quality of young Scots pine and the importance of these two diprionid sawfly species forest pests.

  • Lyytikäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kainulainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nerg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Neuvonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Virtanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5584, category Article
Tarmo Virtanen, Seppo Neuvonen, Pekka Niemelä, Ari Nikula, Martti Varama. (1996). Climate change and the risks of Neodiprion sertifer outbreaks on Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5584. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9229

The European Pine Sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer Geoffroy) is one of the most serious defoliators of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in northern Europe. We studied the pattern in the regional occurrence of the outbreaks of N. sertifer in Finland in years 1961-90, and made predictions about the outbreak pattern to the year 2050 after predicted winter warming. We tested whether minimum winter temperatures and forest type and soil properties could explain the observed outbreak pattern. We analysed outbreak patterns at two different spatial levels: forest board- and municipal-level.

The proportion of coniferous forests on damage-susceptible soils (dry and infertile sites) explained a significant part of the variation in outbreak frequency at small spatial scale (municipalities) but not at large spatial scale (forest boards). At the forest board level, the incidence of minimum temperatures below -36 °C (= the critical value for egg mortality) explains 33% of the variation in the outbreak pattern, and at the municipal level the incidence of cold winters was also the most significant explaining variable in northern Finland. Egg mortality due to cold winters seems to be the most parsimonious factor explaining why there have been so few N. sertifer outbreaks in northern and north-eastern Finland. We predict that climate change (increased winter temperatures) may increase the frequency of outbreaks in eastern and northern Finland in the future.

  • Virtanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Neuvonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Niemelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nikula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Varama, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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