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Articles by Anne Toppinen

Category: Research article

article id 10151, category Research article
Jyri Hietala, Riitta Hänninen, Matleena Kniivilä, Anne Toppinen. (2019). Networks in international opportunity recognition among Finnish wood product industry SMEs. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 4 article id 10151. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10151
Highlights: In line with earlier literature, we found the networks in our study to positively impact international opportunity recognition; Despite the reliance on various network forms and levels, a strategic stance towards opportunity recognition can be characterized as being more reactive than proactive; Institutional networks represented a more systematic way of recognizing international opportunities among case companies.

Bioeconomy development will create new opportunities for firms operating in the international wood products markets, and identifying and exploiting these opportunities is emphasized as a key concept to achieving business success. Our study will attempt to address a gap in the literature on sawmill industry business development from the viewpoint of international opportunity recognition. The aim of our study is to provide a holistic description on how small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the wood products industry recognize and exploit international business opportunities, and how they utilize network perspectives in this context. The subject was examined through Finnish wood product industry SMEs by interviewing 11 managers and industry representatives. The results suggest that SMEs recognize international opportunities reactively per se. Social networks formed in professional forums were an important information channel for identifying international opportunities. Through vertical business networks, such as sales agents, firms have been able to increase their international market presence and free their own resources for other important activities. Horizontal dyadic business networks were seen to facilitate new international opportunities through cooperation, while excessive reliance on vertical networks raised concerns and seemed not to be effective in international opportunity recognition. Institutional networks formed a systematic way of recognizing international opportunities, but more so at the initial market entry stage.

  • Hietala, United Bankers, Aleksanterinkatu 21 A, FI-00100 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jyri.hietala@unitedbankers.fi (email)
  • Hänninen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: riitta.hanninen@luke.fi
  • Kniivilä, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: matleena.kniivila@luke.fi
  • Toppinen, University of Helsinki, Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science, Latokartanonkaari 7, P.O. 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anne.toppinen@helsinki.fi
article id 102, category Research article
Anne Toppinen, Katja Lähtinen, Leena A. Leskinen, Niklas Österman. (2011). Network co-operation as a source of competitiveness in medium-sized Finnish sawmills. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 4 article id 102. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.102
In the Finnish sawmill industry, inter-firm collaboration has often been brought up as a means of creating a competitive edge in global markets by achieving economies of scale. According to the resource-based view (RBV), a firm can evaluate its current or potential partners by considering firm-level collaboration as a portfolio of complementary strategic resources. The specific focus of the study is on examining the types and forms of sawmill co-operation, how the co-operation emerged and which firm-specific resources are mainly related to co-operation. Based upon this, we can see how the managers of medium-sized sawmills perceive network co-operation as facilitating the achievement of a sustainable competitive advantage. The empirical data for this study were collected by interviewing 16 managers and employees in medium-sized non-integrated sawmills, a joint-venture marketing company and other co-operative partners. The findings of the study show that meaningful and beneficial co-operation partnerships exist in the Finnish sawmilling industry, but the sawmill managers do not perceive this collaboration as a strategic resource. The marketing company was the only firm in this study that relied on its co-operative networks in seeking a sustainable competitive advantage. To make more of co-operative partnerships, the principles of co-operative networking should be understood better in the sawmilling industry in order to know what to expect from co-operation. Furthermore, the managers should have the courage to engage in more extensive co-operation in order for strategic rents to materialize. Since the selection of the right partners is fundamental, further studies could be conducted on the reasons behind failed or terminated co-operative arrangements to gather further empirical knowledge in this subject area.
  • Toppinen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anne.toppinen@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Lähtinen, Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Leskinen, Rantalankuja 4, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Österman, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 400, category Research article
Antti Mutanen, Anne Toppinen. (2005). Finnish sawlog market under forest taxation reform. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 1 article id 400. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.400
The stepwise transition in forest taxation from site productivity tax to taxation of profits from timber sales was one of the major institutional changes to impact Finnish non-industrial private forest owners in the 1990s. In this study the effect of the forest taxation reform on the aggregate supply of sawlogs was investigated using time series analysis and quarterly data. In particular, we estimated two simultaneous equations systems for the pine and the spruce sawlog markets. According to the results, the forest taxation reform strengthened the supply of spruce and pine sawlogs in the anticipatory stage of the taxation reform in 1992. Also during the fiscal transition period, which started in 1993, the supply effect of the taxation reform has clearly been positive. The strong own-price elasticity of sawlog supply found in this study indicates high sensitivity to actual and expected wood price changes in the determination of sawlog supply in Finland. Furthermore, the results indicate that the theoretical assumption of a competitive market is suitable for the Finnish sawlog market, but that separate analysis of pine and spruce sawlogs provides additional insights into market behaviour.
  • Mutanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: antti.mutanen@metla.fi (email)
  • Toppinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 1544, category Research note
Osmo Mattila, Kaisa Hämäläinen, Liina Häyrinen, Sami Berghäll, Katja Lähtinen, Anne Toppinen. (2016). Strategic business networks in the Finnish wood products industry: a case of two small and medium-sized enterprises. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 3 article id 1544. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1544
Highlights: Network-based business models are not yet common in the wood products industry; Further research is suggested on network-based co-operation to vitalize industry.

The use of network-based business models has been brought up as a means of creating com-petitive edge in the tightening global competition. In practice, adopting network-based models has not yet become common in the wood products industry. The objective of this study is to gain better understanding of types of network-based business models using a case study of two small and medium-sized wood industry companies in Finland (for a sake of anonymity named as A and B). The network of company A is found to consist of mostly of established actors with a new-in-the-market value creation system, whereas network for company B is more stable and has an established value system aiming at growth and incremental innovations. Both networks had experienced difficulties in finding partners and lacked some strategic resources. Via this example we wish to stimulate further research interest on the sources of network-based competitive advantage in the traditional wood product industry in a need of renewal of business models.

  • Mattila, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, FI-00014 Helsingin yliopisto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: osmo.mattila@helsinki.fi
  • Hämäläinen, Siparila Oy, Varaslahdentie 1, FI-40800 Vaajakoski, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kaisa.hamalainen@siparila.fi
  • Häyrinen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, FI-00014 Helsingin yliopisto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: liina.hayrinen@helsinki.fi
  • Berghäll, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, FI-00014 Helsingin yliopisto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: sami.berghall@helsinki.fi
  • Lähtinen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, FI-00014 Helsingin yliopisto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: katja.lahtinen@helsinki.fi
  • Toppinen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, FI-00014 Helsingin yliopisto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anne.toppinen@helsinki.fi (email)

Category: Article

article id 5620, category Article
Anne Toppinen. (1997). Testing for Granger-causality in the Finnish roundwood market. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 2 article id 5620. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8521

The existence and direction of causal relationships between the time series for the Finnish roundwood market for the period 1960–1994 is tested. Using simple bivariate analysis, we found evidence that for both logs and pulpwood, the lagged prices are helpful in forecasting quantity for the next year, but not vice versa. Saw log stumpage prices have significantly Granger-caused pulpwood prices over the business cycles, but the effect has diminished towards the present time. For quantities traded, the direction of causality was rather from pulpwood to saw logs. The consistency of bivariate test results was checked by the Granger-causality tests within trivariate VAR-models for both markets, and the results were found to be fairly similar to bivariate tests. The price fluctuations in the international markets for forest products have been found to be carried to domestic wood markets dominantly via the pulpwood part of the market.

  • Toppinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5570, category Article
Anne Toppinen, Riitta Hänninen, Susanna Laaksonen. (1996). A dynamic forecasting model for the Finnish pulp export price. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 4 article id 5570. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8505

This study investigates the relationship between Finnish sulphate pulp export prices and international pulp inventories using the Johansen cointegration method. Long-run equilibrium is found to exist between pulp price and NORSCAN inventory for the study period, 1980-94. Granger causality is found to exist from inventory to price but not vice versa. A simple short-run forecasting model for the Finnish pulp export price is formed. In preliminary analysis, the explanatory power of model is found to be acceptable but only under stable market conditions.

  • Toppinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hänninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laaksonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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