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Articles by Pertti Pulkkinen

Category: Research article

article id 9980, category Research article
Eino Levkoev, Lauri Mehtätalo, Katri Luostarinen, Pertti Pulkkinen, Anatoly Zhigunov, Heli Peltola. (2018). Development of height growth and frost hardiness for one-year-old Norway spruce seedlings in greenhouse conditions in response to elevated temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 3 article id 9980. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9980
Highlights: Elevated temperature resulted in increased height growth, delayed onset and shortened duration of autumn frost hardiness development in Norway spruce seedlings; Elevated temperature increased variation between genotypes in height growth and frost hardiness development; Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration had no effect on the development of height or autumn frost hardiness in Norway spruce seedlings.

The mean temperature during the potential growing season (April–September) may increase by 1 °C by 2030, and by 4 °C, or even more, by 2100, accompanied by an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations of 536–807 ppm, compared to the current climate of 1981–2010, in which atmospheric CO2 is at about 350 ppm. This may affect both the growth and frost hardiness of boreal trees. In this work, we studied the responses of height and autumn frost hardiness development in 22 half-sib genotypes of one-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings to elevated temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentration under greenhouse conditions. The three climate treatments used were: T+1 °C above ambient and ambient CO2; T+4 °C above ambient and ambient CO2; and T+4 °C above ambient and elevated CO2 (700 ppm). The height growth rate and final height were both higher under T+4 °C compared to T+1 °C. Temperature increase also delayed the onset, and shortened the duration, of autumn frost hardiness development. Elevated CO2 did not affect the development of height or frost hardiness, when compared to the results without CO2 elevation under the same temperature treatment. Higher temperatures resulted in greater variation in height and frost hardiness development among genotypes. Three genotypes with different genetic backgrounds showed superior height growth, regardless of climate treatment; however, none showed a superior development of autumn frost hardiness. In future studies, clonal or full-sib genetic material should be used to study the details of autumn frost hardiness development among different genotypes.

  • Levkoev, University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: eino.levkoev@uef.fi (email)
  • Mehtätalo, University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Computing, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: lauri.mehtatalo@uef.fi
  • Luostarinen, University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: katri.luostarinen@uef.fi
  • Pulkkinen,  Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Haapastensyrjä Breeding Station, FI-16200 Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pertti.pulkkinen@luke.fi
  • Zhigunov, Saint-Petersburg State Forest Technical University, Forestry Faculty, RU-194021, Institutskiy per. 5, Saint-Petersburg, Russia ORCID ID:E-mail: a.zhigunov@bk.ru
  • Peltola, University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Science and Forestry, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: heli.peltola@uef.fi
article id 7783, category Research article
Markku T. Lehtinen, Pertti Pulkkinen. (2017). Effects of Scots pine paternal genotypes of two contiguous seed orchards on the budset and frost hardening of first-year progeny. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 5 article id 7783. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7783
Highlights: This environmentally controlled study on Scots pine demonstrated the effect of the paternal genotype on the budset and frost hardening of the progeny; With the applied study design, no significant indication of an environmental influence on the effect of the Scots pine paternal genotype was obtained.

In Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), it has been shown that the parental conditions have a role in the phenological variation among first-year seedlings. For this reason, it is argued that they should be comprehensively controlled before estimating the parental genotype effects. This controlled-cross study examined the effects of a set of fathers of Scots pines on the timing of budset and autumn frost hardening of first-year seedlings. The paternal genotypes had either a northern or southern provenance, but had spent a period of over 25 years as grafts in a shared climatic environment in two closely located southern orchards. Pollen applied in the crosses was collected from these orchards in one year and all the maternal genotypes were pollinated in only one seed orchard. The results of freeze tests and budset observations of the consequent progeny were analysed and additionally compared with results obtained using seedlings from seed lots of natural forests in order to estimate the ability of northern paternal genotypes to maintain a northern effect under southern conditions. This environmentally controlled study demonstrated a significant effect of the paternal genotype on the budset and autumn frost hardening of first-year seedling of Scots pine. With the applied study design, no significant indication of an environmental influence on the effect of the paternal genotype was obtained. The accuracy of the observations is discussed. It is concluded that the results suggest a minor role of mutability in the effects of Scots pine paternal genotypes.

  • Lehtinen, University of Helsinki, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Latokartanonkaari 5 and 7, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: markku.t.lehtinen@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Pulkkinen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green Technology, Haapastensyrjäntie 34, FI-12600 Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pertti.pulkkinen@luke.fi
article id 1510, category Research article
Tähti Pohjanmies, Sakina Elshibli, Pertti Pulkkinen, Mari Rusanen, Pekka Vakkari, Helena Korpelainen, Tomas Roslin. (2016). Fragmentation-related patterns of genetic differentiation in pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) at two hierarchical scales. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 1510. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1510
Highlights: While long-lived, widespread tree species should be resistant to genetic impoverishment, we detected high differentiation among populations and pronounced genetic structure within populations of Quercus robur in Finland; These patterns seem indicative of population processes active at range margins, and of disequilibrium following historic habitat change; Preservation of remaining genetic variation is thus important in the conservation of Q. robur.

Populations at species’ range margins are expected to show lower genetic diversity than populations at the core of the range. Yet, long-lived, widespread tree species are expected to be resistant to genetic impoverishment, thus showing comparatively high genetic diversity within populations and low differentiation among populations. Here, we study the distribution of genetic variation in the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) at its range margin in Finland at two hierarchical scales using 15 microsatellite loci. At a regional scale, we compared variation within versus among three oak populations. At a landscape scale, we examined genetic structuring within one of these populations, growing on an island of ca 5 km2. As expected, we found the majority of genetic variation in Q. robur to occur within populations. Nonetheless, differentiation among populations was markedly high (FST = 0.12) compared with values reported for populations of Q. robur closer to the core of its range. At the landscape level, some spatial and temporal sub-structuring was observed, likely explained by the history of land-use on the island. Overall, Q. robur fulfils the expectation of the central-marginal hypothesis of high differentiation among marginal populations, but the notable population differentiation has most likely been influenced also by the long, ongoing fragmentation of populations. Finnish oak populations may still be adjusting to the drastic habitat changes of the past centuries. Preservation of genetic variation within the remaining stands is thus an important factor in the conservation of Q. robur at its range margin.

  • Pohjanmies, University of Helsinki, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Spatial Foodweb Ecology Group, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland; University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tahti.t.pohjanmies@jyu.fi (email)
  • Elshibli, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green technology, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland; University of Helsinki, Department of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: sakina.elshibli@helsinki.fi
  • Pulkkinen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green technology, Haapastensyrjäntie 34, FI-12600 Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pertti.pulkkinen@luke.fi
  • Rusanen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green technology, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mari.rusanen@luke.fi
  • Vakkari, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green technology, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pekka.vakkari@luke.fi
  • Korpelainen, University of Helsinki, Department of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: helena.korpelainen@helsinki.fi
  • Roslin, University of Helsinki, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Spatial Foodweb Ecology Group, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, P.O. Box 7044, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: tomas.roslin@helsinki.fi
article id 1274, category Research article
Juho Hautsalo, Paul Mathieu, Sakina Elshibli, Pekka Vakkari, Juha Raisio, Pertti Pulkkinen. (2015). Variation in height and survival among northern populations of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.): results of a 13-year field study. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 2 article id 1274. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1274
Highlights: A height-sum function allowed us to compare the combined growth and survival of northernmost stands of pedunculate oak; Individuals from Turku-Katariinanlaakso performed the best, although other families performed more consistently across trials, which should be considered in future conservation and breeding. Surprisingly, trees planted in a trial location beyond the natural northern limit of pedunculate oak showed the best performance.
We analysed the adaptive potential of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) in terms of variation in height and survival in five field trials located in southern and central Finland. The trials were established with Finnish native material from six different seed origins. Thirteen years after planting, the number of living trees was counted and measured for height. Analysis of height and survival revealed a significant effect of origin, i.e., a genetic basis to individual tree performance. Two origins from the Turku region (Ruissalo and Katariinanlaakso) performed the best while trees originating from Parainen (Lenholmen) performed the worst. In order to study the effects due to tree origin, a comparison of families (half-sibling trees, i.e. those sharing the same ‘mother’ tree) was made by combining height and survival through a height-sum equation (i.e., the product of mean survival and height of each family in each trial) and used to calculate family- and origin-level ecovalences. Ecovalence is a metric for performance consistency, and indicates how much each variable contributes to the total variation; the higher the value, the lower the consistency of trees across the trials based on their origin or family. Analysis of consistency showed similar results to growth and survival, with Turku families performing the best and families from Parainen performing the worst. Families in the Katariinanlaakso stand (Turku) generally had more stable ecovalence values and more dispersed height-sums, while Ruissalo (Turku) families had higher mean height-sum but higher variability in ecovalence values. These results suggest that seed origins (i.e., genotypes) can be optimized in terms of their suitability for commercial or ecological forest management.
  • Hautsalo,  Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green technology, Antinniementie 1, FI-41330 Vihtavuori, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juho.hautsalo@luke.fi (email)
  • Mathieu, Agrocampus Ouest, 35000 Rennes, France ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Elshibli, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vakkari, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pekka.vakkari@luke.fi
  • Raisio, City of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pulkkinen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pertti.pulkkinen@luke.fi
article id 63, category Research article
Leena Koivuranta, Tarja Latva-Karjanmaa, Pertti Pulkkinen. (2012). The effect of temperature on seed quality and quantity in crosses between European (Populus tremula) and hybrid aspens (P. tremula x P. tremuloides). Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 63. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.63
Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. Populus tremuloides Michx.) plantations are expanding in Fennoscandia and the Baltic countries; however, the possible effects of plantations on the native European aspen (P. tremula) and the level of gene flow between European and hybrid aspen have not been investigated. We studied seed quantity and quality in intraspecific and interspecific crosses of the European and hybrid aspens over a two year period. In order to study whether elevated temperatures due to climate change would benefit the species differently, we performed the crosses in different temperatures. In both years, interspecific crosses produced more seeds with higher quality than intraspecific crosses. This result was most distinct in crosses between female hybrid aspen and male European aspen. In higher temperatures, relative germination difference between hybrid aspen seeds and seeds from P. tremula P. tremula crosses seems to increase. These results suggest that hybrid aspen may have a significant genetic impact on the European aspen, and this effect may be strengthened by climate warming.
  • Koivuranta, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Latva-Karjanmaa, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pulkkinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pertti.pulkkinen@metla.fi (email)
article id 93, category Research article
Pertti Pulkkinen, Saila Varis, Raimo Jaatinen, Aulis Leppänen, Anne Pakkanen. (2011). Increasing survival and growth of Scots pine seedlings with selection based on autumn coloration. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 4 article id 93. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.93
This study evaluates the possibility of using autumn coloration of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings as an indicator of adaptation to harsh climate conditions. One-year old seedlings from natural stands with different origins and seed orchards were classified as “red/reddish” and “green” based on the needle color after artificially increased night length in nursery and then measured after 14 years in field trials. In almost all the studied groups seedlings classified as “red/reddish” had significantly higher survival rate than seedlings classified as “green”. The survival of “red/reddish” was 14.2% higher than “green” among natural stand seed material and 56.2% among seed orchard material. During the study period the survival difference between “red/reddish” and “green” seedlings tended to increase. The seedling color had limited connection with the height growth, even though the trees classified as “red/reddish” were slightly taller than those classified as “green”. However, the total productivity over all field trials, described here as a heightsum, of “red/reddish” trees was 15% higher than productivity of “green” trees from natural stand material, and 61% higher than those from seed orchard material. It seems that controlled selection based on autumn color can be utilized within seed crops of different types with the aim to increase the adaptability of seed material to different environmental conditions.
  • Pulkkinen, Metla, Haapastensyrjä, Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pertti.pulkkinen@metla.fi (email)
  • Varis, Metla, Haapastensyrjä, Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jaatinen, Metla, Haapastensyrjä, Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Leppänen, Metla, Haapastensyrjä, Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pakkanen, Metla, Haapastensyrjä, Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 28, category Research article
Lu-Min Vaario, Kim Yrjälä, Matti Rousi, Timo Sipilä, Pertti Pulkkinen. (2011). Leaf number indicates salt tolerance of young seedling families of European aspen (Populus tremula L.) growing in different soils. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 1 article id 28. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.28
Soil salinity limits plant productivity and quality. We evaluated the response of 12 aspen (Populus tremula) families to salt stress in two different soils irrigated for 4-weeks with 0, 80 or 160 mM saline solution. Easily measurable characteristics such as shoot height, leaf number, dry mass as well as the distribution of sodium (Na+) ions were measured in 5-month-old aspen seedlings raised in controlled greenhouse conditions on two different soils. Growth among families varied significantly, and the interaction between family and soil type was significant. From 2–5 months, leaf number correlated with that of the first month and salinity tolerance. Sodium ions varied significantly within plants and among families; seedlings that accumulated higher Na+ concentrations in root had more leaves and lower Na+ in shoot. These results suggest that leaf number indicates salt tolerance in young seedlings. Seedling performance was also affected by soil type, especially the root/shoot ratio, suggesting an interaction between salt tolerance and growth medium. This study has identified significant intra-specific variation in salt tolerance of aspen in 160 mM saline and highlighted the potential to select and develop a method for efficient pre-screening of trees to be used in the reclamation of salt-affected land.
  • Vaario, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P. O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: lu-min.vaario@metla.fi (email)
  • Yrjälä, MEM group, Department of Biosciences, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rousi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P. O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: matti.rousi@metla.fi
  • Sipilä, Department of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 56, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pulkkinen, Pulkkinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä Research Unit, Haapastensyrjäntie 34, FI-12600 Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pertti.pulkkinen@metla.fi
article id 168, category Research article
Saila Varis, Anne Pakkanen, Aina Galofré, Pertti Pulkkinen. (2009). The extent of south-north pollen transfer in Finnish Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 5 article id 168. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.168
In order to evaluate the possibility of long distance gene flow in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), we measured the amount and germinability of airborne pollen and flowering phenology in central, northern, and northernmost Finland during 1997–2000. Totally 2.3% of the detected germinable pollen grains were in the air prior to local pollen shedding. The mean number of germinable pollen grains m–3 air per day was lower prior to local pollen shedding, but in the year 2000 there were more germinable pollen grains in the air of central study site prior to local pollen shedding. Prior to the onset of pollen shedding, 7.5% of female strobili which we observed were receptive. On average female strobili became receptive three days earlier than local pollen shedding started. During the period of pollen shedding in the central study site, we detected germinable airborne pollen in the northern site in years 1997, 1999 and 2000. At the northermost site, we detected germinable airborne pollen during the pollen-shedding period of the northern site in 2000. Our detection of germinable airborne pollen and synchrony of strobili maturation from south to north suggest that populations of Scots pine in central and northern Finland may provide genetic material to populations in northern and northernmost Finland, respectively.
  • Varis, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: saila.varis@metla.fi (email)
  • Pakkanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Galofré, Passeig de l’estació 21, 5-1, 43800 Valls, Tarragona, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pulkkinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä Breeding Station, Karkkilantie 247, FI-12600 Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 194, category Research article
Ane Zubizarreta Gerendiain, Heli Peltola, Pertti Pulkkinen. (2009). Growth and wood property traits in narrow crowned Norway spruce (Picea abies f. pendula) clones grown in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 3 article id 194. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.194
We investigated the growth, yield, wood density traits and fibre properties in 13 narrow crowned Norway spruce (Picea abies f. pendula) clones grown at a spacing of 2 m x 1.5 m (about 3300 seedlings/ha) in a field trial established in 1988 in southern Finland on a forest soil. For comparison, we used 3 normal crowned Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) genetic entries grown as a mixture in the same trial representing southern Finnish breeding regions. We found that wood density traits and fibre properties showed, on average, lower phenotypic variation than growth and yield traits regardless of crown type. Narrow crowned clones also had, on average, lower stem volume and fibre length, but higher overall wood density. More over, the phenotypic correlations between studied growth and wood properties ranged, on average, from moderate (normal crown) to high (narrow crown). These results were opposite to previous findings for narrow and normal crowned genetic entries grown in narrower spacing (1 m x 1 m) in southern Finland. Thus, this indicates lower plasticity of narrow crowned clones to the increasing growing space compared to normal crowned ones, so, they should be grown at denser spacing in order to fully utilise its space efficiency capacity. However, this field trial was established as a mixture of normal and narrow crown trees, so that 90% of genetic entries were narrow crowned ones, and therefore the crown competition would be much higher for normal crowned trees when the whole trial would consist of that entry alone. In the latter case, we could expect significantly lower productivity of normal crowned genetic entries with this spacing.
  • Zubizarreta Gerendiain, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ane.zubizarreta@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Peltola, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pulkkinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä Breeding Station, FI-12600 Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 193, category Research article
Jaume Gort, Ane Zubizarreta Gerendiain, Heli Peltola, Pertti Pulkkinen, Johanna Routa, Raimo Jaatinen. (2009). Differences in fibre properties in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) genetic entries grown at different spacing and sites. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 3 article id 193. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.193
In forest breeding, stem volume growth and sawn timber quality indicators have been used as the most important selection traits for Scots pine, whereas less attention has been given to characteristics such as fibre properties. In the above context, we investigated the differences in fibre properties (i.e. fibre length, fibre width and coarseness) in 20 year old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) genetic entries as affected by spacing and site, but also the phenotypic correlations between fibre properties, yield and wood density. The study was based on materials harvested from 10 genetic entries grown in a spacing trial (site 1) in central Finland, with a current stand density of 2000 (spacing 1), 2000–2500 (spacing 2) and 4000 trees/ha (spacing 3). In order to study the effects of site, we harvested additional material (4 of 7 genetic entries same as on site 1) from a trial located in southern Finland with a corresponding stand density of 2000 trees/ha (site 2). On site 1, spacing 1 and 3, all average values for analysed fibre properties were similar. In spacing 2 average values were slightly higher. On site 2, the average values for different fibre properties were similar compared to the corresponding spacing 1 on site 1. Spacing affected (p < 0.05) all average fibre properties on site 1; as did also site, when comparing same genetic entries grown on both sites. Regardless of spacing and site, the phenotypic correlations between average fibre length, fibre width and coarseness showed, on average, moderate to strong correlation (p < 0.05). Fibre width showed, in general, low and positive phenotypic correlation with diameter at breast height, stem volume and wood density on site 1. However, as a whole, the ranking of genetic entries changed depending on the trait and spacing considered. Thus, no overall ranking between genetic entries was possible.
  • Gort, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaume.gort@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Zubizarreta Gerendiain, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peltola, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pulkkinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä Breeding Station, Karkkilantie ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Routa, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jaatinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä Breeding Station, Karkkilantie ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 192, category Research article
Heli Peltola, Jaume Gort, Pertti Pulkkinen, Ane Zubizarreta Gerendiain, Jouni Karppinen, Veli-Pekka Ikonen. (2009). Differences in growth and wood density traits in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) genetic entries grown at different spacing and sites. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 3 article id 192. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.192
In forest breeding, stem volume has typically taken as the most important selection trait, whereas less attention has been given to wood density traits. In this work, we investigated the effects of spacing and genetic entry on the growth, yield and wood density traits in 20 year old Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) based on 10 genetic entries harvested from a spacing trial (stand density range 2000–4000 trees/ha) in central Finland. In order to study also the site effects, we harvested additional material from a trial located in southern Finland (stand density of 2000 trees/ha). Compared to growth and yield properties, wood density traits showed a lower phenotypic variation. Phenotypic correlations among different traits were negative, and mostly moderate to high, suggesting that selection for one trait would simultaneously affect the others. In addition, moderate to strong phenotypic correlations were found among different wood density traits. Stem volume (V) and breast height diameter (DBH) were the largest in widest spacing, whereas in the densest one tree height (H) and latewood percentage were the highest. Genetic entry affected H and wood density traits regardless of spacing. When comparing two sites (with same stand density), genetic entry affected H, whereas site affected DBH and wood density traits. Ranking between genetic entries changed depending on the trait, spacing or site considered. Therefore, no overall ranking was possible. However, we could identify genetic entries having a high V and a relatively high wood density, showing potential for future forest regeneration material.
  • Peltola, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: heli.peltola@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Gort, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pulkkinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä Breeding Station, Karkkilantie 247, FI-12600 Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Zubizarreta Gerendiain, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Karppinen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ikonen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 247, category Research article
Ane Zubizarreta Gerendiain, Heli Peltola, Pertti Pulkkinen, Veli-Pekka Ikonen, Raimo Jaatinen. (2008). Differences in growth and wood properties between narrow and normal crowned types of Norway spruce grown at narrow spacing in Southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 3 article id 247. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.247
In recent years there has been increased interest in the so called narrow crowned Norway spruce (Picea abies f. pendula), which is a rare mutant of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten), as a suitable wood raw material source for pulp and paper production. This is because it is less sensitive to competition than the normal crowned Norway spruce, and thus, could be more productive especially at dense spacing. In the above context, we investigated how the growth and yield (such as height, diameter, stem volume and ring width) in addition to wood density traits and fibre properties (such as wood density, fibre length and width, cell wall thickness and fibre coarseness) were affected in trees from 9 full-sib families representing narrow crowned Norway spruce grown at narrow spacing of 1 m 1 m in Southern Finland. For comparison, we used normal crowned Norway spruce trees from 6 breeding regions. We found that, compared to growth and yield traits, wood density traits and fibre properties showed, on average, lower phenotypic variations. In addition, these variations were smaller for narrow crowned families than for normal crowned genetic entries. Narrow crowned families also showed, on average, higher growth and yield and fibre length, but lower wood density. Moreover, the phenotypic correlations between growth, yield, wood density traits and fibre properties, ranged, on average, from moderate (narrow crowned) to high (normal crowned). As a whole, the growth and wood properties of narrow crowned families were found to be less sensitive to tree competition than the normal crowned genetic entries used as a comparison.
  • Zubizarreta Gerendiain, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ane.zubizarreta@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Peltola, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pulkkinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä Breeding Station, Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ikonen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Jaatinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Haapastensyrjä Breeding Station, Läyliäinen, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5497, category Article
Pertti Pulkkinen. (1993). Frost hardiness development and lignification of young Norway spruce seedlings of southern and northern Finnish origin. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5497. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15658

Seedlings from four Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands originating from areas with effective temperature sums ranging from 710 d.d. to 1,150 d.d. were raised under artificial light and temperature treatment. After a 10-week growing period the hardening process was started by subjecting the seedlings to +8°C night temperature and +15°C day temperature, and increasing the night length by 1.5 hour/week. Hardiness was measured by means of artificial freezing treatment (-10°C or -15°C), followed by visual estimation of the degree of needle injury. The stem height, lignification and bud development were measured before the freezing treatment. The amount of injury increased the more southern the origin of the tested material was. Furthermore, the proportion of non-lignified part of the seedling stem was negatively correlated with the latitude of the provenances. The proportion of seedlings with clearly visible buds was more than 90% in the northernmost entry and less than 1% in the southernmost one. The overall correlation coefficient between the needle injuries and the proportion of non-lignified part of the stem was rather high, but varied considerably from 0.3 in the northernmost material to over 0.6 in the southern provenances. According to the results, it seems to be possible to use growth characteristics as an indicator of frost hardiness at the provenance level.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pulkkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5459, category Article
Pertti Pulkkinen. (1991). Crown form and harvest increment in pendulous Norway spruce. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 4 article id 5459. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15617

Crown characteristics and the distribution of three years’ (1986–88) biomass production of 20 pendulous Norway spruce (Picea abies f. pendula (Lawson) Sylvén) trees with heritable narrow crown and 15 normal-growned spruces (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were studied in a 19-year-old mixed stand.

The form of the crown is conical in normal-crowned trees, columnar and narrow in pendulous trees. The partitioning of aboveground biomass to stems during the studied 3-year period was significantly higher in pendulous (0.281) than in normal-crowned trees (0.255) and also the ratio between growth of stemwood and growth of needle biomass during three years was higher in pendulous trees (0.67 g g-1) than in normal-crowned trees (0.52 g g-1). The needle biomass was distributed higher in the crown in pendula than in normal-crowned trees and they had a higher needle biomass/branchwood biomass ratio than normal trees. The difference in harvest increment between the two crown types are mostly due to the significantly lower branchwood biomass values in pendulous than in normal-crowned trees. The higher needle ’efficiency’ in pendulous trees is probably connected with high partitioning of needle biomass to the upper part of the crown in pendulous trees.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pulkkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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