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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles by Jussi Juola

Category: Research article

article id 10331, category Research article
Jussi Juola, Aarne Hovi, Miina Rautiainen. (2020). Multiangular spectra of tree bark for common boreal tree species in Europe. Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 4 article id 10331. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10331
Highlights: Novel multiangular measurement set-up for hyperspectral imaging; Multiangular spectra of silver birch (Betula pendula), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) stem bark samples were collected; Intra- and interspecific variations in reflectance were analyzed; Demonstration of tree species identification based on stem bark spectra; Collected spectra openly available in SPECCHIO Spectral Information System.

Despite the importance of spectral properties of woody tree structures, they are seldom represented in research related to forests, remote sensing, and reflectance modeling. This study presents a novel imaging multiangular measurement set-up that utilizes a mobile handheld hyperspectral camera (Specim IQ, 400–1000 nm), and can measure stem bark spectra in a controlled laboratory setting. We measured multiangular reflectance spectra of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stem bark, and demonstrated the potential of using bark spectra in identifying tree species using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based approach. Intraspecific reflectance variability was the lowest in visible (400–700 nm), and the highest in near-infrared (700–1000 nm) wavelength regions. Interspecific variation was the largest in the red, red-edge and near-infrared spectral bands. Spatial variation of reflectance along the tree height and different sides of the stem (north and south) were found. Both birch and pine had increased reflectance in the forward-scattering directions for visible to near-infrared wavelength regions, whilst spruce displayed the same only for the visible wavelength region. In addition, spruce had increased reflectance in the backward-scattering directions. In spite of the intraspecific variations, SVM could identify tree species with 88.8% overall accuracy when using pixel-specific spectra, and with 97.2% overall accuracy when using mean spectra per image. Based on our results it is possible to identify common boreal tree species based on their stem bark spectra using images from mobile hyperspectral cameras.

  • Juola, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6050-7247 E-mail: jussi.juola@aalto.fi (email)
  • Hovi, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4384-5279 E-mail: aarne.hovi@aalto.fi
  • Rautiainen, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland; Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, P.O. Box 15500, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6568-3258 E-mail: miina.a.rautiainen@aalto.fi
article id 10270, category Research article
Aarne Hovi, Matti Mõttus, Jussi Juola, Farshid Manoocheri, Erkki Ikonen, Miina Rautiainen. (2020). Evaluating the performance of a double integrating sphere in measurement of reflectance, transmittance, and albedo of coniferous needles. Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 2 article id 10270. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10270
Highlights: Adaptation of a compact double integrating sphere for spectral measurements of coniferous needles; Double integrating sphere is fast to operate and suitable for monitoring purposes and collection of large spectral databases; Measured spectra showed negative bias, which could potentially be reduced by building an optimized measurement setup.

Leaf reflectance and transmittance spectra are essential information in many applications such as developing remote sensing methods, computing shortwave energy balance (albedo) of forest canopies, and monitoring health or stress of trees. Measurement of coniferous needle spectra has usually been carried out with single integrating spheres, which has involved a lot of tedious manual work. A small double integrating sphere would make the measurements considerably faster, because of its ease of operation and small sample sizes required. Here we applied a compact double integrating sphere setup, used previously for measurement of broad leaves, for measurement of coniferous needles. Test measurements with the double integrating sphere showed relative underestimation of needle albedo by 5–39% compared to a well-established single integrating sphere setup. A small part of the bias can be explained by the bias of the single sphere. Yet the observed bias is quite significant if absolute accuracy of measurements is required. For relative measurements, e.g. for monitoring development of needle spectra over time, the double sphere system provides notable improvement. Furthermore, it might be possible to reduce the bias by building an optimized measurement setup that minimizes absorption losses in the sample port. Our study indicates that double spheres, after some technical improvement, may provide a new and fast way to collect extensive spectral libraries of tree species.

  • Hovi, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, P.O.Box 14100, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4384-5279 E-mail: aarne.hovi@aalto.fi (email)
  • Mõttus, VTT Technical Research Centre Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Finland ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2745-1966 E-mail: matti.mottus@gmail.com
  • Juola, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, P.O.Box 14100, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jussi.juola@aalto.fi
  • Manoocheri, Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, Metrology Research Institute, Maarintie 8, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3935-3930 E-mail: farshid.manoocheri@aalto.fi
  • Ikonen, VTT Technical Research Centre Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Finland; Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, Metrology Research Institute, Maarintie 8, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6444-5330 E-mail: erkki.ikonen@aalto.fi
  • Rautiainen, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, P.O.Box 14100, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland; Aalto University, School of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, P.O. Box 15500, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6568-3258 E-mail: miina.a.rautiainen@aalto.fi

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