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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles by Jouni Vettenranta

Category: Research article

article id 671, category Research article
Jouni Vettenranta, Jari Miina. (1999). Optimizing thinnings and rotation of Scots pine and Norway spruce mixtures. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 1 article id 671.
The study describes a simulation-optimization system which uses spatial models for diameter and height growth, crown ratio and tree mortality for Scots pine and Norway spruce mixtures. The optimal one- and two-thinning regimes of six initial stands with varing species composition were solved by using nonlinear optimization. The soil expectation value (SEV) at 3% interest rate was used as a management objective. The regimes are determined by taking into account the stand basal areas before the thinnings, the removal percentages for small, medium-sized and large pines and spruces, and the stand basal area before the final felling. The greatest SEV (8900 FIM ha–1) was attained with the initial stand where the proportion of pines was 65% of the number of the stems. In the two-thinning regime, the first thinning was conducted at the age of 39 years when the stand basal area was 37 m2 ha–1 and the dominant height was about 15 m. After the thinning, the basal area was 27 m2 ha–1. Spruces were thinned from below, but both small and large pines were removed. The second thinning was 8 years later and much heavier: the stand basal area was decreased from 35 m2 ha–1 to 18 m2 ha–1 by removing both small and large pines and spruces. When the optimal two-thinning regime was compared to the regime presented by Forest Centre Tapio, the loss of SEV was about 30% (6070 FIM ha–1) in the case of thinnings from below, and about 20% (7250 FIM ha–1) in the case of thinnings from above.
  • Vettenranta, Kivirinnanpolku 4, FIN-40950 Muurame, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Miina, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 670, category Research article
Jouni Vettenranta. (1999). Distance-dependent models for predicting the development of mixed coniferous forests in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 1 article id 670.
Distance-dependent growth models and crown models, based on extensive material, were built for Scots pine and Norway spruce growing in a mixed forest. The crown ratio was also used as a predictor in a diameter growth model to better describe the thinning reaction. The effect of crown ratio on the growth dynamics was studied in simulation examples. Monte Carlo simulation was used to correct the bias caused by nonlinear transformations of predictors and response. After thinnings the crown ratio as a predictor was found to be a clear growth-retarding factor. The growth retarding effect was stronger among pines with thinnings from below, whereas the estimated yield of spruces over rotation was slightly greater when the crown ratio was included than without it. With each type of thinning the effect of crown ratio on pine growth was almost the same, but the growth of spruces was clearly delayed when the stand was thinned from above. Simulation examples also showed that it is profitable to raise the proportion of spruces during rotation, since spruces maintain the growth more vigorous at older ages. The total yield during 90 years rotation was about 20% higher if the stand was transformed into a pure spruce stand instead of pine.
  • Vettenranta, Kivirinnanpolku 4, FIN-40950 Muurame, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)

Category: Article

article id 5574, category Article
Jouni Vettenranta. (1996). Effect of species composition on economic return in a mixed stand of Norway spruce and Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 1 article id 5574.

The effect of species mixture was studied in a mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by simulating around 100 different treatment schedules during the rotation in a naturally regenerated even-aged stand located on a site of medium fertility in North Karelia, Finland. Both thinning from below and thinning from above were applied. Optimum rotations were determined by maximising the net present value calculated to infinity and different treatment schedules were compared with the net present value over one rotation as per rotation applied. In the optimum treatment programme, the proportion of pines was decreased by half of the basal area in the first thinning stage and by the end of the rotation to about one third. In thinning from above, the proportion of pines can be maintained at a slightly higher level. It is economically profitable to maintain the growing stock capital at approximately the level recommended by Forest Centre Tapio, a semi-governmental forestry authority. With non-optimum species composition, the loss in net present value over one rotation can be about 10 % in thinning from below and about 20 % in thinning from above.

  • Vettenranta, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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