Wood properties focused in forest tree breeding should be of economic importance, have a large total variation and a high heritability. The properties of interest are those that influence the strength and durability of sawn products or the amount and properties of pulp produced. The following wood properties are treated: width of the annual ring, juvenile wood, late wood content, heart wood, tracheid dimensions, basic density, stem straightness and branch diameter. The provenance variation in wood properties can be related to differences in growth phenology. In the northern part of distribution P. sylvestris (L.) provenances transferred a few degrees southwards have a high survival and yield but stem wood production is low. Trees from these provenances will be straight and with few spike knots or other injuries. The shoot elongation period will be short and the temperature sum required for wood formation sufficient. Provenances transferred southwards will form thin annual rings, few and thin branches, little early wood, high basic density and slender tracheids with thick cell walls in comparison to local provenances. An example of the effect of alternative transfers on the yield and wood properties is evaluated. In regions with deviating climatic patterns alternative provenance transfer patterns may be better. The objectives of the land owner should influence the provenance choice. The importance of integrating tree improvement with silvicultural management is discussed with reference to spacing.