Black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] regeneration emerges in clusters near the pre-existing boles within a few years after the passage of fire. This paper tested the hypothesis that black spruce forests still maintain the spatial structure deriving from postfire stand initiation. Trees and saplings were monitored during 2000-2007 and the horizontal and vertical structure of the stands were investigated on four permanent plots in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada. Plots showed 1300-2150 trees ha-1, and were composed of trees with homogeneous sizes and a very small proportion of saplings. These characteristics identify single cohorts generated by complete, or almost-complete, stand replacement by fire. Ripley’s L(r) functions showed that the spatial pattern of trees and saplings ranged from random to aggregated, thus demonstrating that the clustering distribution of the individuals in black spruce forests can be maintained even after 80-120 years from stand initiation. These findings could results from incomplete self-thinning or from an environment with heterogeneous distribution of resources. The practices of ecosystem management recently developed in Eastern Canada should take into account both the horizontal and vertical structure to better modulate the competition among individuals during partial harvesting.