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Articles by Panu Halme

Category: Research article

article id 10010, category Research article
Panu Halme, Jenna Purhonen, Emma-Liina Marjakangas, Atte Komonen, Katja Juutilainen, Nerea Abrego. (2019). Dead wood profile of a semi-natural boreal forest – implications for sampling. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 4 article id 10010. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10010
Highlights: We constructed a full dead wood profile of a semi-natural boreal forest; Abundance-diameter distributions were different among tree species; Extensive sampling is needed if focus on large dead wood and rare tree species.

Dead wood profile of a forest is a useful tool for describing forest characteristics and assessing forest disturbance history. Nevertheless, there are few studies on dead wood profiles, including both coarse and fine dead wood, and on the effect of sampling intensity on the dead wood estimates. In a semi-natural boreal forest, we measured every dead wood item over 2 cm in diameter from 80 study plots. From eight plots, we further recorded dead wood items below 2 cm in diameter. Based on these data we constructed the full dead wood profile, i.e. the overall number of dead wood items and their distribution among different tree species, volumes of different size and decay stage categories. We discovered that while the number of small dead wood items was immense, their number dropped drastically from the diameter below 1 cm to diameters 2–3 cm. Different tree species had notably different abundance-diameter distribution patterns: spruce dead wood comprised most strikingly the smallest diameter fractions, whereas aspen dead wood comprised a larger share of large-diameter items. Most of the dead wood volume constituted of large pieces (>10 cm in diameter), and 62% of volume was birch. The variation in the dead wood estimates was small for the numerically dominant tree species and smallest diameter categories, but high for the sub-dominant tree species and larger size categories. In conclusion, the more the focus is on rare tree species and large dead wood items, the more comprehensive should the sampling be.

  • Halme, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland; School of Resource Wisdom, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: panu.halme@jyu.fi (email)
  • Purhonen, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jenna.e.i.purhonen@jyu.fi
  • Marjakangas, Centre for Biodiversity Dynamics, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: emma-liina.marjakangas@ntnu.no
  • Komonen, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland; School of Resource Wisdom, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: atte.komonen@jyu.fi
  • Juutilainen, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kjuutilainen@yahoo.com
  • Abrego, Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: nerea.abrego@helsinki.fi
article id 980, category Research article
Atte Komonen, Panu Halme, Mari Jäntti, Tuuli Koskela, Janne S. Kotiaho, Tero Toivanen. (2014). Created substrates do not fully mimic natural substrates in restoration: the occurrence of polypores on spruce logs. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 1 article id 980. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.980
Highlights: Polypore communities were more homogeneous among created than among natural logs; The old-growth forest indicator Phellinus ferrugineofuscus occurred frequently on natural logs, but occupied only a few created logs; Results show that created logs do not fully mimic natural logs.
Many protected areas have been under intensive forest management prior to protection and thus lack natural ecosystem structures and dynamics. Dead wood is a key structure in forests harboring hundreds of threatened species. We investigated the ecological success of dead wood creation as a boreal forest restoration measure. We analysed whether the polypore communities of chain-saw felled and girdled (subsequently fallen) Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) logs differ from naturally formed spruce logs of similar decay stage and size. The study was conducted in Leivonmäki National Park in central Finland 8 years after the restoration measures. The average number of polypore species was highest on the chain-saw felled logs and most of the common polypore species were most frequent on this substrate. However, among the natural logs, number of species increased more steeply with increasing number of logs, suggesting greater variation in community composition on this substrate. The old-growth forest indicator Phellinus ferrugineofuscus occurred frequently on natural logs, occupied a few girdled logs but was absent from chain-saw felled logs. Our results show that from the polypore perspective created logs do not fully mimic natural logs, suggesting that creating substrates for species may pose a challenge for restoration.
  • Komonen, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: atte.komonen@jyu.fi (email)
  • Halme, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: panu.halme@jyu.fi
  • Jäntti, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mari.j.jantti@student.jyu.fi
  • Koskela, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tuuli.e.koskela@student.jyu.fi
  • Kotiaho, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: janne.kotiaho@jyu.fi
  • Toivanen, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, University of Jyväskylä, Finland; Current: Birdlife Finland, Annankatu 29 A 16, FI-00100 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tero.toivanen@birdlife.fi
article id 43, category Research article
Anni Markkanen, Panu Halme. (2012). Polypore communities in broadleaved boreal forests. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 3 article id 43. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.43
The cover and extent of boreal broadleaved forests have been decreasing due to modern forest management practices and fire suppression. As decomposers of woody material, polypores are ecologically important ecosystem engineers. The ecology and conservation biology of polypores have been studied intensively in boreal coniferous forests. However, only a few studies have focused on the species living on broadleaved trees. To increase knowledge on this species group we conducted polypore surveys in 27 broadleaved forests and 303 forest compartments (539 ha) on the southern boreal zone in Finland and measured dead wood and forest characteristics. We detected altogether 98 polypore species, of which 13 are red-listed in Finland. 60% of the recorded species are primarily associated with broadleaved trees. The number of species in a local community present in a broadleaved forest covered approximately 50 species, of which 30–40 were primarily associated with broadleaved trees. The size of the inventoried area explained 67% of the variation in the species richness, but unlike in previous studies conducted in coniferous forests, dead wood variables as well as forest structure had very limited power in explaining polypore species richness on forest stand level. The compartments occupied by red listed Protomerulius caryae had an especially high volume of living birch, but otherwise the occurrences of red-listed species could not be predicted based on the forest structure.
  • Markkanen, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anni.e.markkanen@gmail.com (email)
  • Halme, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 150, category Research article
Sini Eräjää, Panu Halme, Janne S. Kotiaho, Anni Markkanen, Tero Toivanen. (2010). The volume and composition of dead wood on traditional and forest fuel harvested clear-cuts. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 2 article id 150. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.150
Logging residue and cut stumps are increasingly used as a renewable energy source known as forest fuel. Forest fuel harvesting obviously reduces the volume of dead wood and is likely to alter the dead wood composition, but the magnitude of the change is not known. Such information is important for the evaluation of the effects of forest fuel harvesting on biodiversity because a large proportion of forest dwelling species are directly dependent on dead wood. We measured the volume and characteristics of all dead wood units with a minimum diameter of 2 cm and a minimum length of 20 cm on 10 forest-fuel harvested and 10 traditional (control) clear-cuts. The total volume of dead wood at forest fuel harvested and control clear-cuts was 26.0 and 42.3 m3/ha, respectively. The volumes were much greater than expected suggesting that the volume of dead wood on clear-cuts has been underestimated in previous studies. Forest fuel harvested clear-cuts had 42% less branches and 81% less cut stumps than control clear-cuts but there were no differences in the volume of logs and pieces of logs, snags or roots. The volume of fine woody debris was negatively affected by forest fuel harvesting. We conclude that fine woody debris and cut stumps form a considerable resource on clear-cuts that is reduced by forest fuel harvesting. These components of dead wood have potential to be of importance in managed forests and thus deserve more attention in future biodiversity studies.
  • Eräjää, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Halme, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: panu.halme@jyu.fi (email)
  • Kotiaho, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Markkanen, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Toivanen, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

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