The aim of this study was to analyse differences in the survival and height growth of, as well as damages to Siberian (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) and Dahurian (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) larch provenances over four growing seasons in field trials established in 2006 in southern (Punkaharju) and northern Finland (Kivalo). In this context, the study also investigated if the geographical and climatic conditions of the origin of the provenance could explain the differences between the provenances. The study material consisted of 20 Russian Siberian and Dahurian larch provenances and five seed sources from Finland (4) and Russia (1) as comparison lots. It was found that the Finnish seed sources of Siberian larch survived well in both the Kivalo and Punkaharju trials. Five northern latitude Russian provenances, of which one was Dahurian and the remainder were Siberian larches, had the highest survival in Kivalo. However, the differences observed in survival between provenances were only significant (p < 0.05) in Kivalo. Regardless of the trial, the differences, however, in height growth were significant and large between provenances. The southern Dahurian larches had a superior height growth in Punkaharju. The northern Dahurian larch provenance from Magadan (59°50′N, 150°40′E) had the largest height growth in Kivalo, among some northern Siberian larches. Damages were diverse, though Dahurian larches had less mammal damage than the Siberian larches. In general, the differences between provenances were not significant. Latitude and altitude best explained the differences between provenances, but also mean temperature, temperature sum and continentality index affected them (p < 0.05).