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Articles by Seppo Ruotsalainen

Category: Research article

article id 1562, category Research article
Mats Erik Berlin, Torgny Persson, Gunnar Jansson, Matti Haapanen, Seppo Ruotsalainen, Lars Bärring, Bengt Andersson Gull. (2016). Scots pine transfer effect models for growth and survival in Sweden and Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 3 article id 1562. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1562
Highlights: Scots pine transfer effect models for growth and survival, valid in both Sweden and Finland have been developed; The models use high-resolution gridded climate data and can predict performance in future climatic conditions; The models perform well both for unimproved and genetically improved material and can be used to develop deployment recommendations of contemporary forest regeneration material in Sweden and Finland.

In this study, we developed models of transfer effects for growth and survival of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Sweden and Finland using a general linear mixed-model approach. For model development, we used 378 provenance and progeny trials with a total of 276 unimproved genetic entries (provenances and stand seed check-lots) distributed over a wide variety of climatic conditions in both countries. In addition, we used 119 progeny trials with 3921 selected genetic entries (open- and control pollinated plus-tree families) for testing model performance. As explanatory variables, both climatic indices derived from high-resolution gridded climate datasets and geographical variables were used. For transfer, latitude (photoperiod) and, for describing the site, temperature sum were found to be main drivers for both survival and growth. In addition, interaction terms (between transfer in latitude and site altitude for survival, and transfer in latitude and temperature sum for growth) entail changed reaction patterns of the models depending on climatic conditions of the growing site. The new models behave in a way that corresponds well to previous studies and recommendations for both countries. The model performance was tested using selected plus-trees from open and control pollinated progeny tests. Results imply that the models are valid for both countries and perform well also for genetically improved material. These models are the first step in developing common deployment recommendations for genetically improved forest regeneration material in both Sweden and Finland.

  • Berlin, Uppsala Science Park, SE-75183 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: mats.berlin@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Persson, Skogforsk, Box 3, SE-91821 Sävar, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: torgny.persson@skogforsk.se
  • Jansson, Uppsala Science Park, SE-75183 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: gunnar.jansson@skogforsk.se
  • Haapanen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green Technology, Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: matti.haapanen@luke.fi
  • Ruotsalainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green Technology, Finlandiantie 18, FI-58450 Punkaharju, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: seppo.ruotsalainen@luke.fi
  • Bärring, Rossby Centre, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Folkborgsvägen 17, SE-60176 Norrköping, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars.barring@smhi.se
  • Andersson Gull, Skogforsk, Box 3, SE-91821 Sävar, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: bengt.andersson@skogforsk.se
article id 120, category Research article
Antti J. Lukkarinen, Seppo Ruotsalainen, Teijo Nikkanen, Heli Peltola. (2010). Survival, height growth and damages of Siberian (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) and Dahurian (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) larch provenances in field trials located in southern and northern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 5 article id 120. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.120
The aim of this study was to analyse differences in the survival and height growth of, as well as damages to Siberian (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) and Dahurian (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) larch provenances over four growing seasons in field trials established in 2006 in southern (Punkaharju) and northern Finland (Kivalo). In this context, the study also investigated if the geographical and climatic conditions of the origin of the provenance could explain the differences between the provenances. The study material consisted of 20 Russian Siberian and Dahurian larch provenances and five seed sources from Finland (4) and Russia (1) as comparison lots. It was found that the Finnish seed sources of Siberian larch survived well in both the Kivalo and Punkaharju trials. Five northern latitude Russian provenances, of which one was Dahurian and the remainder were Siberian larches, had the highest survival in Kivalo. However, the differences observed in survival between provenances were only significant (p < 0.05) in Kivalo. Regardless of the trial, the differences, however, in height growth were significant and large between provenances. The southern Dahurian larches had a superior height growth in Punkaharju. The northern Dahurian larch provenance from Magadan (59°50′N, 150°40′E) had the largest height growth in Kivalo, among some northern Siberian larches. Damages were diverse, though Dahurian larches had less mammal damage than the Siberian larches. In general, the differences between provenances were not significant. Latitude and altitude best explained the differences between provenances, but also mean temperature, temperature sum and continentality index affected them (p < 0.05).
  • Lukkarinen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: antti.lukkarinen@pp.inet.fi (email)
  • Ruotsalainen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, FI-58450 Punkaharju, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nikkanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, FI-58450 Punkaharju, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peltola, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 215, category Research article
Antti J. Lukkarinen, Seppo Ruotsalainen, Teijo Nikkanen, Heli Peltola. (2009). The growth rhythm and height growth of seedlings of Siberian (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) and Dahurian (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) larch provenances in greenhouse conditions. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 1 article id 215. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.215
The aim of this study was to determine whether the growth rhythm and height growth differ between various larch provenances grown in greenhouse conditions. We also investigated whether the geographic and climatic conditions at the origin of the provenance could explain the possible differences between the provenances. The study material consisted of 16 Russian Siberian (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) and Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) provenances and four seed sources from Finland as comparison lots. The growth rhythm differences were clearest between the southern and northern provenances; the southern provenances grew for a longer period and the proportion of late summer height growth was larger. Autumn colouration also developed later in these provenances. In the Russian larch material the provenances with a longer growing period had greater height growth. In the whole material the relationship was not so linear due to the deviating behaviour of the comparison material. Several of the Russian larch provenances were taller than the Finnish comparison seed lots, although the difference was not statistically significant. However, the growth of these provenances must be followed for a much longer period in field trials before any conclusions can be drawn about their usability in practical forestry.
  • Lukkarinen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: antti.lukkarinen@pp.inet.fi (email)
  • Ruotsalainen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Punkaharju Research Unit, Finlandiantie 18, FI-58450 Punkaharju, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nikkanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Punkaharju Research Unit, Finlandiantie 18, FI-58450 Punkaharju, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peltola, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 539, category Research article
Martti Venäläinen, Seppo Ruotsalainen. (2002). Procedure for managing large-scale progeny test data: a case study of Scots pine in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 2 article id 539. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.539
Large progeny test networks are typical for conventional forest tree breeding programmes. The individual progeny tests differ with respect to age, composition and ability to screen the breeding values of the parent trees. Several approaches have been introduced to manage the unbalanced and diverse nature of the data generated by progeny tests. This report presents a procedure for ranking breeding material on the basis of ‘messy’ data. Plot means were used as input values and missing plots were estimated from least squares. The differences between test means and variances were standardised by the performance level method. The different precision of the tests was quantified through the reliability coefficient. In order to facilitate the selection of plus trees for different purposes, all the available test results were combined into a single variable that was used for ranking. Three different kinds of ranking variable were calculated and each of them proved to be more useful for the selection of plus trees than an arithmetic or weighted mean. One of them, WMEAN, relied on the reliability and number of the progeny tests, while the others, WCONF0.50 and WCONF0.10, relied on the standard error of the plus tree mean, thus emphasising the precision of the values obtained. The analyses were carried out with SAS® procedures, which require only moderate skills in statistics, programming and data processing technology. The procedure has functioned well throughout an eight-year development phase. Nearly three thousand Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plus trees have been ranked for various characters, and the results have been used for roguing the seed orchards, to establish new ones, and to select plus trees for breeding populations.
  • Venäläinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Punkaharju Research Station, FIN-58450 Punkaharju, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: martti.venalainen@metla.fi (email)
  • Ruotsalainen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Punkaharju Research Station, FIN-58450 Punkaharju, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 626, category Research article
Teijo Nikkanen, Seppo Ruotsalainen. (2000). Variation in flowering abundance and its impact on the genetic diversity of the seed crop in a Norway spruce seed orchard. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 3 article id 626. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.626
The variation in flowering abundance was studied in a Norway spruce seed orchard, located in southern Finland (62°13'N, 25°24'E), consisting of 67 clones from northern Finland (64°–67°N). The flowering variation in 1984–1996 was studied at the annual, clonal and graft level. In addition, the genetic diversity of an imaginary seed crop was estimated using a concept of status number. The between-year variation was large in both female and male flowering. Differences in flowering abundance among the clones were large and statistically significant in all the years studied. The average broad-sense heritability values for female and male flowering were 0.37 and 0.38, respectively, but varied considerably from year to year. The correlations between the flowering abundance of the clones in different years were usually positive and significant. However, the correlations for two pairs of successive good flowering years showed that the same clones usually flowered well in the first year in both pairs of years, and the other clones in the second year. The clonal differences in flowering could not be explained by geographic origin, but were more dependent on the graft size. Our results demonstrate that the variation in the ramet number, flowering abundance and pollen contamination must be included when estimating the genetic diversity of the seed crop in a seed orchard. The relative status number of the seed orchard was 84% of the number of clones when the variation in the ramet number was included. The relative status numbers after adjusting for the variation in female and male flowering were on the average 46 and 55%, respectively, and 59% when adjusting for both genders together. Pollen contamination increased the status number considerably.
  • Nikkanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Punkaharju Research Station, FIN-58450 Punkaharju, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: teijo.nikkanen@metla.fi (email)
  • Ruotsalainen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Punkaharju Research Station, FIN-58450 Punkaharju, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

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