Current issue: 54(3)

Under compilation: 54(4)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles by Jaakko Heinonen

Category: Research article

article id 7710, category Research article
Pekka Hyvönen, Jaakko Heinonen. (2018). Estimating storm damage with the help of low-altitude photographs and different sampling designs and estimators. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 3 article id 7710. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7710
Highlights: Digital photographs taken from low altitudes are usable for monitoring storm damage; Simple random sampling and ratio estimators resulted in similar standard errors; Characteristics of the storm influence the optimal flight plan and which variance estimator should be used; The developed model for simulations can be modified and utilized with future storms.

Climate change has been estimated to increase the risk of storm damage in forests in Finland. There is a growing need for methods to obtain information on the extent and severity of storm damage after a storm occurrence. The first objective of this study was to test whether digital photographs taken from aircrafts flying at low-altitude can be utilized in locating storm-damaged areas and estimating the need for harvesting of wind-thrown trees. The second objective was to test the performance of selected estimators. Depending on distances between flight lines, plots on lines and the used estimator, the relative standard errors of storm area estimates varied between 7.7 and 48.7%. For the area for harvesting and volume of wind-thrown trees, the relative standard errors of estimates varied between 16.8 and 167.3%. Using forest area information from Multisource National Forest Inventory data improved the accuracy of the estimates. However, performance of a simple random sampling estimator and ratio estimator were quite similar. Lindeberg’s method for variance estimation based on adjacent lines was sensitive to line directions in relation to possible trends in storm-damaged area locations. Our results showed that the tested method could be used in estimating storm-damaged area provided that the network of flight lines and photographs on lines are sufficiently dense. The developed model for simulations can be utilized also with forthcoming storms as model’s parameters can be freely adjusted to meet, e.g., the intensity and extent of the storm.

  • Hyvönen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pekka.hyvonen@luke.fi (email)
  • Heinonen, ORCID ID:E-mail: jaakkoheinonen@gmail.com
article id 1022, category Research article
Eero Muinonen, Perttu Anttila, Jaakko Heinonen, Jukka Mustonen. (2013). Estimating the bioenergy potential of forest chips from final fellings in Central Finland based on biomass maps and spatially explicit constraints. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 4 article id 1022. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1022
The technical potential of forest chips from final fellings in Central Finland was estimated using a method based on biomass maps derived from a multi-source forest inventory technique. Image segmentation techniques were applied to a satellite image mosaic to detect stand boundaries. The technical potential of forest chips was computed based on primary forestry residues, i.e. logging residues and stumps from final fellings. Harvesting level definitions for final fellings were established using realized statistics for roundwood at the municipality level as well as larger area statistics. The sensitivity of the potential to ecological and technical constraints in the model was also examined. The technical recovery rate of stump harvesting according to biomass harvesting guidelines was evaluated separately. The critical prerequisites for using the advanced, spatially explicit approach to analysing forest energy potentials may lie in the existence of spatially explicit forest inventory data and the biometric models for tree biomass assortments. The method applied was capable of taking into account the constraints that rely upon map data, such the actual forwarding distance or steepness of the slope in the terrain. The calculation results can be used for strategic decision making in the field of forest bioenergy production.
  • Muinonen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: eero.muinonen@metla.fi (email)
  • Anttila, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: perttu.anttila@metla.fi
  • Heinonen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaakko.heinonen@metla.fi
  • Mustonen, Stora Enso, Talvikkitie 40 C, FI-01300 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jukka.mustonen@storaenso.com
article id 165, category Research article
Yrjö Nuutinen, Kari Väätäinen, Antti Asikainen, Robert Prinz, Jaakko Heinonen. (2010). Operational efficiency and damage to sawlogs by feed rollers of the harvester head. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 1 article id 165. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.165
In mechanical cutting, deep damage caused by feed rollers can reduce the yield of good quality timber for the sawmill and plywood industries. Additionally the feeding and energy efficiency of feed rollers are important for the profitability of harvester cutting. The objectives of this study were to compare the damages to sawlogs, as well as the time and fuel consumption of stem feeding with six different steel feed rollers during the processing of stems using a single grip harvester. This study tested two rollers with big spikes, two rollers with small spikes, one roller with studs in v-angle and one roller with adaptable steel plates in the ring of the roller. A highly detailed, and accurate processing and fuel consumption projection was recorded using the harvester’s automated data collector on a log and stem level. The roller adaptable plate averaged, for unbarked sawlogs, the lowest damages of 3.7 mm. While the damages of the roller with big spikes were the deepest with an average of 7.8 mm. For medium stems, volume of 0.35 m3, the range of differences between the maximum and minimum effective feeding time per roller was 6–19%, which would increase the effective time consumption of cutting by 1–3%. Corresponding differences in fuel consumption during total stem processing were in the range of 7–15%. According to this study it can be concluded that the traditional rollers with spikes were most effective in processing and fuel consumption, but at the same time they caused the deepest damages to the sawlogs. The roller type with adaptable steel plates was the most effective for small stems, additionally it also caused the least damage to the sawlogs.
  • Nuutinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: yrjo.nuutinen@metla.fi (email)
  • Väätäinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Asikainen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Prinz, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heinonen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 264, category Research article
Yrjö Nuutinen, Kari Väätäinen, Jaakko Heinonen, Antti Asikainen, Dominik Röser. (2008). The accuracy of manually recorded time study data for harvester operation shown via simulator screen. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 1 article id 264. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.264
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of work experience on the accuracy and variation of observers recording the operation time of a harvester. A simulated thinning operation using a harvester, shown as video via a television screen in laboratory conditions, was observed by 20 inexperienced students and 10 experienced work study researchers. All the observers timed the different work elements of the harvester work with special fieldwork timers. The duration of different work elements measured by the human observers were compared to the corresponding recordings by the harvester’s automated data collector. Although the inexperienced students made more measurement mistakes than the experienced researchers, the differences in measurement error averages were not statistically significant between the groups. However, the variances of tree specific errors were significantly higher in the measurements done by the students. As inexperienced recorders, the students were not able to properly record short work elements, which lasted a maximum of 4 seconds. Due to systematic measurement errors, there was a large variation in the timing structures of the work elements among all observers. Observers’ skills and experience seems to affect measurement accuracy and thus the derived results, especially in intensive time studies. Therefore, the recorder should receive detailed training and practical experience in timing of different work elements of forest operations. In the future, with the use of automated data collectors time studies with large, detailed and accurate data will be implemented. However, due to the varying timing conditions in the forest, manual data collection is still required because of its greater flexibility.
  • Nuutinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: yrjo.nuutinen@metla.fi (email)
  • Väätäinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heinonen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Asikainen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Röser, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 284, category Research article
Tuomo Nurminen, Jaakko Heinonen. (2007). Characteristics and time consumption of timber trucking in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 3 article id 284. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.284
Cost efficiency and flexibility have become increasingly important in the logistics of cut-to-length harvesting operations. At the same time, the operating conditions for long-distance transportation have become more demanding and variable. Since the number of log products has increased and the size of harvesting sites has decreased, loads of timber must increasingly be collected from several log decks, increasing the time consumption and costs of the trucking operation. The objectives of this study were to formulate time-consumption models for typical timber transportation activities in Finland and introduce a statistical procedure for examining the variation in time consumption during the trucking phases. The study used a combination of time studies and follow-up studies based on empirical data for 368 loads (a total volume of nearly 18 000 m3) collected from one wood procurement district in central Finland. The model included the following explanatory factors: driving distance, number of log decks, log product and load volume. Since transportation includes several phases and since many factors affect the work performance, significant variation in the total transportation time was observed. This makes planning and cost accounting more difficult. The models developed in this study are a promising initial tool to support route planning and optimization, and cost and profitability calculations for trucking entrepreneurs and the forest industry.
  • Nurminen, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forest Sciences; Forest Agency Tuomo Nurminen, Joensuuntie 5 B 8, FI-41800 Korpilahti, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heinonen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Register
Click this link to register for Silva Fennica submission and tracking system.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content
Your selected articles

Committee on Publication Ethics A Trusted Community-Governed Archive