Current issue: 53(3)

Under compilation: 53(4)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles by Eino Saari

Category: Article

article id 7409, category Article
Eino Saari. (1954). Wald- und Holzbilanzen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 60 no. 2 article id 7409. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7409
English title: On forest and timber balances.
Original keywords: Bilanz; Holz; Ökonomie
English keywords: balance; calculations; timber; economic

Literature knows a variety of forest and timber related balances and even wider variety of calculations concerning the themes. The article presents forest and timber balances divided into three categories, based on their purpose.

The three categories are: 1) (national) economic balances for calculating the sustainability of forest use and sufficiency of forest resources; 2) balances of yearly harvesting rates for mostly commercial purposes, but also economic uses; and 3) balances of timber demand and those for balance between supply and demand, especially for foreign trade.

Finally the author critically views the use of balances to describe the amounts of wood used in industry.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.
  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7369, category Article
Eino Saari. (1942). Metsäojitusten yksityistaloudellisen edullisuuden määrääminen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 16 article id 7369. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7369
English title: Calculating profitability for draining of peatlands.
Original keywords: suot; ojitus; kannattavuus; menetelmät

The article introduces methods that can be used to calculate economic profitability of draining of peatlands, and discusses their advantages and weaknesses. The time span from draining of a peatland and the future income is usually decades, which makes it difficult to assess profitability for the investment. For instance, income from future fellings depends on chosen rotation time, and price of timber that can fluctuate strongly.

When calculating the profitability, the drained area can be treated as a separate unit of account or as a part of the forest holding. In the first case, several methods can be used. First, yield in terms of value is a suitable method only if the peatland has no existing forest. Second, annual yield of a drained peatland and peatland in natural state can be compared. In this case yield can be defined in several ways. Third method uses value increment of the growing stock. Fourth method estimates value of increment for both the growing stock and land. Fifth method is based on present value of the future felling income, and sixth on actual value of the growing stock and yield in terms of value.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7285, category Article
Eino Saari. (1934). Piirteitä Yhdysvaltain metsätalouspolitiikasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 8 article id 7285. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7285
English title: Observations on the forest policy of the United States.

The article is a review on the forest resources, forestry and forest policy in the United States based on the publication A National Plan for American Forestry, published in 1933. The earlier estimates of forest resources of America have been proved to be exaggerated. The annual drain had been estimated to be twice the annual growth of the forests. The author disagrees with the estimates, and argues that the growth, if calculated with the American method, do not give right figures of the sustainable fellings.

The situation is better than estimated. The national plan of forestry suggests that the public ownership of the forests should be increased to 60% from the present 20%. In addition, there are plans to introduce public control of private forests in the American forestry so that fellings do not risk the sustained yield of the forests. Rapid depletion of the saw timber resources in the North-Eastern and Lake States, and the high lumber prices lead to the assumption that the timber resources of the United States are in decline. The following decrease in lumber consumption lead to surplus of sawmill capacity, and to increasing competition in the sector.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7270, category Article
Eino Saari. (1932). Tutkimuksia Suomen sahateollisuuden raaka-ainekustannuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 38 no. 4 article id 7270. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7270
English title: Studies on cost of raw materials in the Finnish sawmill industry.

The article is a review on the costs of raw materials in the Finnish sawmill industry in 1920s based on statistics collected from the members of the Central Association of the Finnish Woodworking Industries (now Finnish Forest Industries). The article includes statistics about the average size of if the saw timber bought in standing sales from private forests and harvested from the industry’s own forests, stumpage price of the timber, and labour costs of the harvesting of the wood. The average size of the logs was greater in the northern part of Finland, where the sawmills could limit the purchases of smaller timber. In the southern part of the country, the size of the timber decreased in 1922‒1926 due to growing demand of the timber. The long transport distances in the north influenced the costs. The number of logs per tree increased during the period. The level of stumpage price varied considerably in different parts of the country, falling from the south-west to the east and north. Competition of raw material increased the stumpage prices in 1922a and 1926‒27. The international economic downturn influenced the industry in 1929‒1931.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7266, category Article
Eino Saari. (1931). Tutkimuksia Suomen puuvanuketeollisuuden raaka-ainekustannuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 37 no. 4 article id 7266. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7266
English title: Investigations into the costs of raw material in the Finnish pulp industry.

The article is a review on the wood procurement and cost of pulpwood in the Finnish mechanical and chemical pulp industry in 1922‒1926, based on statistics collected from the members of the Central Association of the Finnish Woodworking Industries (now Finnish Forest Industries), and the series Statistics of Industry and Foreign Trade. Wood trade is carried out by three types of sale: standing sales where the buyer of the wood takes care of fellings and transport (55% of the volume), contracts for the delivery of pulpwood (45% of the volume), and fellings in the own forests of the industry. Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) was the most important tree species, and was used almost exclusively especially in the mechanical pulp mills. According to the study, the demand of pulpwood increased markedly during the period. The stumpage prices did, however, not increase accordingly until in 1926. It is assumed that also the supply of wood was high after the World War I.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7244, category Article
Eino Saari. (1929). Etelä-Suomen yksityistilojen metsätalouden tuotto. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 31 article id 7244. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7244
English title: Return of private forests in the Southern Finland.

The economy of the forestry in private farms in Southern Finland was studied based on the statistics compiled by the Board of Agriculture, and published in the series Tutkimuksia Suomen maatalouden kannattavaisuudesta (Investigations into the profitability of agriculture in Finland). The results present income, expenditure, assets, gross return, net return of the forests in the farms in 1924‒1926. The annual net return of the smallest farms (<10 ha forest land) was 884 Finnish marks and in the largest (>100 ha forest land) 48,335 Finnish marks. The location of the farm influences greatly the net return. For instance, the transport costs of timber from the forest is higher in the larger farms. To utilize the advantages of management of a large forest area requires knowledge about forestry. In addition, the fellings were higher in the small farms during the period. The net return is greater in the private forests than in the state forests located in the same region. Agriculture gave the farms larger net return than the forestry.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7095, category Article
Eino Saari. (1923). Sahapuun kantohinta ja menekki Suomen valtionmetsissä vv. 1913-1922. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 27 no. 2 article id 7095. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7095
English title: The stumpage prices and demand of saw timber in state forests of Finland in 1913-1922.

The survey focuses on the stumpage prices of standing sales, where the buyer of the wood takes care of felling and transport of the timber. The study concentrates further on conifer sawn timber. The prices of the sawn timber rose continuously from 1891 to 1910. After 1913 the stumpage price fluctuations reflected the changes in the market. The article includes a detailed description on the changes of the saw timber in 1913-1922 and the factors affecting the prices. The prices are shown for different parts of the Finland. The first world war affects the prices and demand on saw timber in 1917-1918. In Northern Finland the prices of sawn timber increased slower than in Southern Finland. In general, the unfavorable factors have had stronger impact on the stumpage prices than the favorable.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7093, category Article
Eino Saari. (1923). Kuloista etupäässä Suomen vationmetsiä silmällä pitäen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 26 no. 5 article id 7093. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7093
English title: Forest fires in Finland with special reference to the state forests.

The study is based chiefly on statistics of forest fires in the state forests in 1911-1921, published in the annual reports of Board of Forests (now Metsähallitus, Forest Service). Forest fires burned 37,200 hectares of forests in the state forests in 1911-1921. In Southern Finland the number of fires was 795 and in the Northern Finland 610. The frequency of forest fires is higher in south because of the denser population in the area. The average forest fire ranged 118 hectares in Southern Finland and 39 hectares in the north. Fires broke out most often because of careless use of fire. Weather conditions and the type of the forests influenced the risk of fire. In the north, risk for forest fire is lower because of the high proportion of peatlands. Only 14% of the fires burn the trees of the stand. In Southern Finland 50% of the fires and in Northern Finland 42% of the fires damage only part of the stand. Rest of the fires were surface fires that do not burn the trees. The value of damages by forest fires in the state forests in 1901-1922 was annually in average 139,400 Finnish marks.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7059, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo, Eino Saari. (1922). Forestry in Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 7059. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7059

About 60%, 20.5 million hectares, of Finland is covered by forests. Of this area 10.5 million hectares are peatlands. The forests are divided in fertile forest land (17 million hectares), forest land of low productivity (3.5 million hectares) and nonproductive lands (about 10 million hectares). Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the dominant species in 60%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in 23%, and Betula sp. 17% of the forests. The younger age classes are poorly represented, but despite the abundance of older age classes, the growing stock and productivity of the forests are not very high. The reason is low density of the forests, unfavorable tree species composition and the condition of the forests. Timber is used as household timber in towns and in rural areas (16.5 million m3), in traffic (1.3 million m3), fuelwood in industry (3 million m3), raw material in wood industry (9.1 million m3) and export (4 million m3). State owns 36.9% of forest lands, companies and associations 8.1% and other private forest owners 53.5%. The article describes the administration of state and private forests, and forest education in Finland. There was about 600 sawmills, 25 mechanical pulpwood mills, 24 pulp mills and 31 paper mills in the country in 1920.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7058, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo, Eino Saari. (1922). Suomen metsät ja metsätalous. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 19 no. 1 article id 7058. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7058
English title: Forestry in Finland.

About 60%, 20.5 million hectares, of Finland is covered by forests. Of this area 10.5 million hectares are peatlands. The forests are divided in fertile forest land (17 million hectares), forest land of low productivity (3.5 million hectares) and nonproductive lands (about 10 million hectares). Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the dominant species in 60%, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in 23%, and Betulasp. 17% of the forests. The younger age classes are poorly represented, but despite the abundance of older age classes, the growing stock and productivity of the forests are not very high. The reason is low density of the forests, unfavorable tree species composition and the condition of the forests. Timber is used as household timber in towns and in rural areas (16.5 million m3), in traffic (1.3 million m3), fuelwood in industry (3 million m3), raw material in wood industry (9.1 million m3) and export (4 million m3). State owns 36.9% of forest lands, companies and associations 8.1% and other private forest owners 53.5%. The article describes the administration of state and private forests, and forest education in Finland. There was about 600 sawmills, 25 mechanical pulpwood mills, 24 pulp mills and 31 paper mills in the country in 1920.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7030, category Article
Eino Saari. (1919). Itä-Suomen lahjoitusmailla noudatetusta metsäpolitiikasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 7030. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7030
English title: Forest policy associated to donated lands in Eastern Finland.

The article is a review on the lands that were donated to the Russian aristocracy in Eastern and Southeastern Finland in 1700s. The farmers in the area used to be tenants of state lands or independent land owners. The insufficient and diverse stipulation of the ownership of the lands in the donation documents caused later disputes between the landlords and the farmers. One of the issues was who had right to use the forests. For the farmers this meant significant reductions in their right to harvest timber and household wood, or practice shifting cultivation. There were attempts to improve the situation of the tenants, but the final solution came in the end of 1800s, when the parliament began to promote farmers’ right to purchase the lands. In the land reform, the state raised a loan to purchase the donated lands, and give them to the farmers, who would then pay back their share of the loan. Part of the forests remained state lands in the reform. Several jointly owned forests were also established using the state forests to give access to household wood for farms that had little own forests. The private forests on donated lands had larger standing crop than the private forests in general. Together with increasing demand of wood for the developing manufacturing industry, this gave possibility for abusive practices in timber trade. The timber prices were low, and farmers exchanged felling rights to loan.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4796, category Article
Eino Saari. (1969). Kansainvälinen yhteistoiminta metsäntutkimuksen alalla. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4796. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14582
English title: International co-operation in forest research work.

This paper gives an overview on international organizations involved with forestry and forest research. International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFFRO) was named in a congress in Stockholm in 1929, but the organization has its roots in a German association of forest experiment stations founded in 1872. IUFRO is a non-governmental organization with research institutes as members. As it has no permanent centre, and no own research institutes, its opportunities for carrying out actual research work are limited. A reorganization is being planned.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN), established in 1945, has a division for forestry and forest industries. FAO is a governmental organization for international policy in agriculture, fisheries, nutrition, and forestry, and not meant for research work. It has nevertheless been compelled to carry out a great deal of research work, particularly in projects that have proved impossible for other organs. The Timber Trend Studies are the best known in the field of forestry.

World Forestry Congresses are occasions where all kinds of forestry problems can be discussed, and they have also stimulated research work. The first International Forestry Congress was held in 1926 in Rome, but several other international forestry congresses have been arranged since 1873.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4779, category Article
Eino Saari. (1968). Sisäisen korkokannan käsite metsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4779. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14564
English title: Internal rate of return in forestry.

The concept of the internal rate can be defined as the rate of interest, which if applied to expenditures incurred at different times, gives a compounded sum equal to revenues compounded at the same rate for the same time. This concept has long been used in forestry, particularly concerning the development of a stand, because in this case there is a time difference between many items of expenditure and revenue. Several terms have been used or the notions derived on this basis. The term internal rate of return has begun to appear only recently. This article explains different variations of the concept and its different names, together with some related concepts and terms.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4772, category Article
Eino Saari. (1968). Vajaatuottoisen metsikön ja metsämaan käsite. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 4772. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14557
English title: The notion of reduced yield stands and forest soils.

The technical term reduced yield stands – sometimes reduced yield soils – is widely used in the Finnish forest literature. However, there is no clear definition of the notion reduced yield and no explanation of how this notion is measured in the classifications. Some committee reports and bill proposals and some laws and statutes use the reduced yield forest soil. No definition can be found. In my opinion the term reduced yield forest soils ought to be completely abolished until forest soil experts can perhaps define what it means, if they consider such a concept useful.

Explanations for the term reduced yield stands can be found in the descriptions of classification systems of stands. According to them, the criterion is partly silvicultural (site, species of tree), partly mensurational (volume, sometimes growth), partly economic. No explanation is found as to how the economic aspect is measured, nor about the limit of a full yield and reduced yield.

In my opinion such a term is confusing. I therefore suggest that the term reduced yield stand ought to be abolished. If something is needed instead, I suggest the term understocked stand, defined as a growing stock under certain percentage of a fully stocked stand. The notion of economic reduced yield cannot be generally tied to certain silvicultural and mensurational characteristics of stands. The economic aspect of certain kinds of stands may differ, depending on the owner of the forest and his economic situation, the location of the forest, the composition of the whole forest ownership unit, etc.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4452, category Article
Eino Saari. (1929). Ehdotus puun käyttöä osottavan jatkuvan tilaston järjestämisestä Suomeen. Silva Fennica no. 11 article id 4452. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8985
English title: A proposal to introduce permanent statistics of wood consumption in Finland.

The Forest Research Institute made an investigation on the wood consumption in Finland in 1927. This work brought up a need to organize continuous collection of statistics of wood consumption. Three kinds of existing statistics can be used: statistics of wood consumption, statistic of the fellings, and statistics of transport of wood.

Statistics on wood consumption, such as the fuel used by the industry and State railways are collected annually. The fellings in state forests are published annually, and also the wood manufacturing companies publish statistics of their forests. Furthermore, all fellings on sale, and use of own wood in wood manufacturing industry have to be reported to the forestry committees. These statistics are published annually. Railroads and floating are the main means of long distance transport of wood. These statistics give additional information of wood consumption. Further studies are needed to combine and standardize the statistics collected from different sources.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4575, category Article
Eino Saari. (1940). Suurten metsäalojen arvon määrääminen. Silva Fennica no. 55 article id 4575. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9079
English title: Evaluation of large forest areas.

The Moscow Peace Treaty created a need to calculate values of large forest areas in Finland, such as the value of the private and state forests lost in the Second World War, or value of the remaining forests and the value of forests to be assigned to the evacuees. The article describes principles of evaluation of large forest areas. It concludes that use of felling value of the trees is the right method only if felling of the whole tree stand and sale of the wood is actually possible. If these prequisites cannot be fulfilled, the right method to evaluate the forest area is yield in terms of value. When calculating the yield in terms of value, also other incomes and costs related to fellings should be included.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4528, category Article
Eino Saari. (1938). Hoitoalueiden ja piirikuntien vuotuisen taloustuloksen laskeminen. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4528. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13937
English title: Calculating the annual financial performance of a forest district and a county.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes calculation of the annual financial performance of a forest district and a county. 

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4494, category Article
Eino Saari. (1937). Metsätaloudelliset tilastot. Silva Fennica no. 39 article id 4494. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13904
English title: Forestry statistics.

Silva Fennica Issue 39 includes presentations held in professional development courses in 1935 that were arranged for foresters working in public administration. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level.

This presentation lists statistics available on forestry.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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