Current issue: 55(3)
Under compilation: 55(4)
According to the National Forest Inventory of Finland, the age structure of forests in Northern Finland require large-scale fellings. One of the problems is regeneration of low-productive Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forests in the area. The objectives of this investigation were to study the natural development of Hylocomnium-Myrtillus (HMT) type Norway spruce forests in Northern Finland and the ecological causes of the development. A total of 83 sample plots were studied in 1950-52. The stands were chosen to have a total effective temperature during growing season between 600-800 ºC.
According to the results, the HMT type forests represent secondary developmental stages of the northern Myrtillus type, characterized by tree stands of poor quality. By returning the habitats that have reached their secondary stages to their primary stage, e.g. by means of fires, the potential site quality is restored. The climax theory is inapplicable to the Northern Finland’s spruce stands on fresh site types. The natural development of HMT follows not the climax theory, i.e. a return in each succession to the same type stage expressing the same site quality. One reason is accumulation of the thick humus layer, caused by incomplete decomposition of litter. The humus binds nutrients inaccessible to the trees, and the substratum becomes cold, more acid, and moist.
These forests should be managed by clear-cutting, burning-over and artificial regeneration. When thinning the stands, at least a slight mixture of deciduous trees must be left in the stand.
The article is divided into two separate PDFs. The second PDF is in a supplementary file and includes a summary in Finnish.
Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) invading sites is common in Finland. The species tends to establish itself as undergrowth, and takes over when it gets space to grow. To determine whether the undergrowth is suitable as the new generation requires knowledge on the biology of spruce undergrowth. One of the issues is determining the age of the stunted trees. In this investigation, 100 undergrown spruce trees, their crown and their root systems were studied. A method was developed to determine the age of the trees.
The root system of all trees in Vaccinium sites and of stunted trees in Myrtillius sites were superficial. The root systems of older spruces were purely of adventitious origin. The longer the period of stunting growth, the younger is the root system. In addition to acropetal and general adventitious ramification there is often adventitious branching of the roots of pathological causes. Mortality among the long roots is frequent.
A stunted tree has not the same ability as a viable tree to make use of already existing branches for building assimilating surface. When comparing trees with equally large assimilating surface, a stunted tree had greater sum of roots compared to a viable tree. The root system of a stunted undergrown spruce was very superficial compared with the other trees.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
Curly birch (Betula pendula f. carelica Sok.) is characterized by large variations in stem form and the internal structure of the wood, and is generally divided in to four types on the basis of visible external stem characteristics. First plantation experiments in Finland in the 1920’s in experimental areas of the Finnish Forest Institute, had become ripe for cutting and were felled. The study material of this study consists of one 52-year old and three 42–43 -year old stands of curly birch.
The yield suitable for plywood manufacture from the oldest stand was 34,777 kg/ha and that of curly grained branch wood 39,452 kg/ha. The corresponding figures of the other stands were, on average 24,219 and 57,271 kg/ha. The yield from the stands were sold at the present-day price. The result was economically better than from any other forest tree species grown in Finland. The younger stands were obviously cut too early. It was concluded that the genetic quality of the seedlings used in the plantations in the 1920’s and 1930’s was not very high.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
The Economic Council asked Heikinheimo, Holopainen and Kuusela to prepare a report on the development of Finland’s forest resources up to the beginning of the next century. The expansion of forest industry beyond the level foreseen in earlier forecasts, the large-scale removal and neglect of the basic improvements required have weakened the condition of the wood production to such an extent that extensive measures are needed to ensure the continuity of the supply of wood. The results of the calculations are formed in three separately analysed alternatives.
Alternative I: Realisation of the Teho programme and the removal corresponding to it. The development of the growing stock according to the programme would only permit a cut amounting to an annual drain of ca. 51 million m3 up to the year 2000. After that it would be possible gradually to increase the removal. This drain would not itself to utilise fully the already existing production capacity of the industry.
Alternative II: Consequences of the predicted removal if the Teho programme is realised as such. The wood utilization forecast based on the premises given to the team show that the annual drain will grow in 1964–1975 from 52 to 58 million m3, and thereafter by 0.5% annually. This would lead to over-cutting, and exhaust the present growing stock by the turn of the century. If annual total drain of ca. 58 million m3 would after 1975 be sufficient, exhaustion of the growing stock would be postponed for 4–5 years.
Alternative III. Teho programme expanded in conformity with the removal forecast. A new programme is proposed, which includes, among others, large scale fertilization of fully grown firm forest land at about the rate of 100,000 ha/year, intensified artificial regeneration, assurance of the supply of planting stock and seed, increase of forest drainage from the present 155,000 to 250,000 ha/year by 1970, site preparation of the cutting areas for artificial regeneration, increase of tending or seeding stands to 300,000 ha/year, replacement of fuelwood by other fuels, increase of wood import and new forest roads.
The aim of the study was to find out if it is possible to use Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seed from Central-Finnish origin in Northern Finland to supplement supply of local seeds. The principle has been to limit transfer of seeds to 200 km. According to this study, it seems possible to permit 300-400 km transfer of seeds at the same height above the sea level, not including the timber line area.
The author’s observations indicate that the trees originating from seeds of Central Finland at 20-35 years age withstand damage caused by snow and pine blister rust as well as the local provenience. However, the seedlings seem to be more susceptible to snow blight. Spraying of 2-3% sulphurated lime in the autumn before the arrival of snow proved to be most effective way to prevent the damage.
Southern proveniences have been found to grow faster than the local proveniences in Northern Finland. The stands of Tuomarniemi (Central Finland) and Rovaniemi (Northern Finland) provenances had no distinct difference in the summerwood percentage, and the volume weight of the Tuomarniemi provenience was higher than the weight of the provenience of Rovaniemi. The Tuomarniemi stand also gave largest yield, but the difference was probably due to partly at age difference of the sample trees. The naturally regenerated local provenance showed the greatest volume weight.
The article includes a summary in English.
The most common way to artificially regenerate cutting areas in Northern Finland has been sowing, which has, however, often given poor results. The aim of the study was to assess the success rate of sowing and study the causes of poor regeneration.
An inventory was made of 28 areas on Empetrum-Myrtillus and Hylocomnium-Myrtillus type sites sown with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seeds in 1948-1950. In addition, to study the effect of substrata, a sowing experiment was established. According to the inventory, regeneration failed completely in 8 and partially in 6 of the 28 sown areas. Factors that explained the poor regeneration included unfavourable weather conditions in 1948-1952, insufficient clearing of sowing spot especially when the humus layer was thick, and insect damage by Otiorynchus dubius weevil.
The article includes a summary in English.