Two studies were carried out to examine the effects of clear-felling operations on stump roots of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). In study I, the number of cases and the degree of damage to stump roots of Norway spruce were investigated on three clear-felled sites in northern and southern Sweden respectively. The cutting was done in winter or spring. A mean of 37% of the stumps had signs of root damage caused by clear-felling operations. Study II was carried out on two sites in southern and two sites in northern Sweden. The trees were clear-felled in June or July. The frequency of natural infection by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. through damaged roots was compared to infection through stump surfaces. The total area of damage on roots was 88% of the stump surface area. On average, 54% of the stumps were infected through the stump surface and 19% through locations of root damage. The root infections, however, were generally small in size as compared to stump surface infections. The study shows that damage to roots at clear-felling may be extensive, but this probably is not of great importance for the efficacy of stump treatment against H. annosum.