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Articles by K. M. Bhat

Category: Article

article id 5155, category Article
K. M. Bhat, Matti Kärkkäinen. (1982). Wood anatomy and physical properties of the wood and bark in Betula nana growing in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 1 article id 5155. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15070

Eighty Betula nana samples were collected from three swamp sites. In the butt portion of the dwarf shrub the average number of growth rings was 12 and the average diameter of the sprouts 6 mm. The basic density of wood was 457 kg/m3 and that of bark 544 kg/m3. The proportion of bark was 32–38% of weight or volume. The vessel elements and fibres were short and their diameter small. The proportion of vessels was 15%, that of fibres 70% and that of rays 15%.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Bhat, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5115, category Article
K. M. Bhat, Matti Kärkkäinen. (1981). Variation in structure and selected properties of Finnish birch wood. II. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5115. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15056

The anatomical variation of a lateral root was compared with that of the stem of the same tree at breast height by concentrating on the intrelationships of certain anatomical features in Betula pendula and B. pubescens. The results showed that root wood has several essential features of stem wood, such as gelatinous fibres, growth eccentricity, scalariform perforation plates in the vessels and pith flecks. However, some of the anatomical differences are significant. The differences between the species were more pronounced in the root than in the stem anatomy.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Bhat, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5113, category Article
K. M. Bhat, Matti Kärkkäinen. (1981). Wood anatomy and physical properties of wood and bark in Betula tortuosa Ledeb. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 2 article id 5113. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15054

Ten trees of mountain birch (Betula tortuosa Ledeb, now Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii) with an average age of 39 years were sampled in northern Lapland in Finland. The average green density of wood was 589 kg/m3 and that of bark 941 kg/m3. The basic densities were 520 kg/m3 and 559 kg/m3, respectively. The basic density increased only little from the pith to the surface. In contrast, the number of bars in the perforation plates of the vessels increased considerably in the same direction. The average number of bars was 17.3.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Bhat, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5097, category Article
K. M. Bhat, Ari Ferm, Matti Kärkkäinen. (1981). On the properties of one-year shoots of Betula pubescens Ehrh. and Salix spp. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5097. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15038

Downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) trees growing on a drained peatland were cut during dormancy. The properties of the one-year old shoots produced by the stumps were measured in the autumn after one growing season. The one-year old willow shoots (a mixture of Salix phylicifolia L., S. pentandra L. and S. caprea L.) were collected from an abandoned field.

The basic density of unbarked shoots was 443 kg/m3 for birch and 346 kg/m3 for willow. The basic density of the bark was much higher than that of the wood. The effect of shoot length on the properties was small with the exception of cellular proportions. The fibre percentage increased and vessel percentage decreased with increasing shoot length.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Bhat, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ferm, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5096, category Article
K. M. Bhat, Matti Kärkkäinen. (1981). Variation in structure and selected properties of Finnish birch wood. IV. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5096. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15037

Length variation of fibres and vessels was studied in the branches, stems and roots of Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescense Ehrh. The cells were significantly shorter in the branches and roots than in the stems. There was no significant difference in the cell length between the upper and lower radii of the branches and roots. The length increased from the pith to the surface and decreased in the branches and stems from the base onwards. In the roots the length increased in that direction. The differences between the tree species were small although the cells of B. pubescens were a little longer.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Bhat, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5095, category Article
K. M. Bhat, Matti Kärkkäinen. (1981).  . Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5095. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15036
English title: Variation in structure and selected properties of Finnish birch wood. III.

Variation of cellular proportion within the same growth rings counted from the pith of the stems and branches in four trees of Betula pendula Roth was studied. The fibre percentage decreased from breast height to the crown and then increased in the branches. The reverse trend was found in the percentage of vessels and parenchyma, although the latter varied relatively little. No statistically significant differences were found in the percentages of fibres, vessels and rays within the same growth rings counted from the pith between the stems and branches. In both the stem and the branches, the proportion of fibres increased and that of vessels and rays decreased from the pith to the surface. Even crown formed wood differed from that of stem formed. 

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish. 

  • Bhat, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5091, category Article
K. M. Bhat. (1980). Variation in structure and selected properties of Finnish birch wood. I. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5091. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15032

Variation of wood characteristics was studied in two mature trees of Betula pendula Roth and two of B. pubescens Ehrh. by stressing the interrelationships of some of the structural features, basic density and shrinkage. Correlation analysis revealed that basic density was related to some of the variables studied, viz: number of rings (age) and distance from pith, height from the ground, ring width, fibre length and double wall thickness. Multiple regression equation showed that age from pith and height from the ground explained 80% of variation of basic density in B. pendula. Two structural variables, viz: fibre wall thickness and ring width accounted for only 28% of variation of basic density in B. pubescens. No significant relations could be found between shrinkage and any of the wood parameters measured in B. pendula while some of the relationships were significant in B. pubescens. However, only 55% of variation of volumetric shrinkage was explained by two related factors, viz: basic density and moisture content while only 35% of variation of tangential shrinkage was explained by ring width and fibre width. Increase in fibre length was highly associated with the increase in fibre width, double wall thickness and vessel length in either species.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Bhat, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5084, category Article
K. M. Bhat, Matti Kärkkäinen. (1980). Distinguishing between Betula pendula Roth. and Betula pubescens Ehrh. on the basis of wood anatomy. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5084. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15025

It was concluded on the basis of the anatomical investigations of four mature trees that Betula pendula Roth can be distinguished from B. pubescens Ehrh. using the number of bars per scalariform perforation plate as an identification factor. If the average number of bars is more than 17.6, the sample is probably from B. pubescens, and if less, from B. pendula. The accuracy can be slightly improved by using the vessel frequency as another factor.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Bhat, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5082, category Article
K. M. Bhat. (1980). Pith flecks and ray abnormalities in birch wood. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5082. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15023

Samples that had extensive pith flecks, caused by the larvae of Dendromyza betulae (now Phytobia betulae E.Kang), were collected from two trees of Betula pendula Roth and two B. pubescens Erhr. The age of the trees varied from 45 to 56 years. The effect of larvae injury on the rays was studied. The width of affected rays in both species was more than twice that of normal rays. The height and frequency also increased considerably. When describing the anatomy of Betula species the pith flecks should be treated with caution in order to avoid confusion and misinterpretation. 

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish. 

  • Bhat, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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