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Impact factor 1.683
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Silva Fennica 1926-1997 no. 112 | 1961

Category: Article

article id 4707, category Article
Oiva Suominen. (1961). Metsiköiden alttius lumituhoon. Tutkimus Etelä-Suomessa talvella 1958-59 sattuneesta lumituhosta. Silva Fennica no. 112 article id 4707. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14234
English title: Susceptibility of stands to devastation by snow. Investigation into snow devastation in Southern Finland in winter 1958-59.
Original keywords: lumituhot; mesätuhot; etelärannikko

Exceptionally widespread snow damages occurred in January 1959 in the southern coastal region of Finland. An inquiry showed that significant devastation had occurred over an area of 42,620 ha. The purpose of the present investigation was to study the susceptibility to snow damages of different stands in different locations. Only the stem breakage was recorded. 924 stands along 92 one-kilometre lines were studied in the western continuation of Salpausselkä ridge in the summer 1960. A supplementary study was carried out in 1961 in separate stands.

Most heavily damaged stands were found in a damage zone closest (31–40 km) to the coast of Gulf of Finland. The damages were 39% fewer in the zone 61–70 km from the coast. No stands over 140 m above sea level escaped damage. Stands on the edge of an open area such as a field, lake etc. fared better than areas within the forest. Eastern slopes were more susceptible for snow damages in these weather conditions. Also, conifers were more frequently damaged than deciduous trees. Dense stands, and stands aged 61–100 years had most damages.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Suominen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4706, category Article
Pentti Nisula. (1961). Aikakello- ja pistokoemenetelmän vertailu. Silva Fennica no. 112 article id 4706. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14233
English title: A comparison between the stop-watch method and the random-sample method.

The aim of this study was to find out to what extent it is possible to time phases of work by making instant observations at regular intervals according to the principles of the method of random samples, and arrive at similar results as obtained by timing continuously with a decimal-minute stop watch. In the first mentioned method the observer of the time study is given a sound signal at even intervals, in this case each 1/10-minute period, during the signal he records the phase of work (element) the object is performing.

The material of the study consists of studies in skidding and loading in connection with transportation by tractor during a period of 8 days. The duration of each element in using tractor hand in skidding and hauling was measured with an ordinary stop watch using repetitive timing. This material was then converted into random sample material.

The analysis of the material showed that the method of random samples yielded observations from all phases of work present in the material obtained by measuring with the stop watch. The duration of elements as determined by the random-sample method were of the same order as determined with stop watch. The results did not cause any observable systematic deviation or rhythmic repetition of elements.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nisula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4705, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen, Simo Poso. (1961). Koe metsikköluokitusten suorittamiseksi ilmakuvien avulla. Silva Fennica no. 112 article id 4705. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14232
English title: Tree stand classifications from aerial photographs: an experiment.

In connection to the Third National Forest Inventory of Finland, two survey strips in the northernmost Finland were photographed on scale 1:15,000. Infrared films and a yellow filter were used. For the present experiment a total length of 66 km of the strips was photographed. The strips were surveyed visually from the ground by stands. Sample plots were measured at kilometre intervals. The aerial photographs were surveyed the distances covered in the ground. The work was aided by stereograms which showed 16 large-size sample plots localised on aerial photographs.

The main groups of land identified along the survey line were productive and poorly productive forest land, wasteland and another land, in addition, peatland and firm land were distinguished. Although some differences were noted, the two survey methods provided fairly similar results. For an estimation of the tree species composition the material is one-sided since the district is mainly Scots pine. The principal tree species was successfully distinguished on aerial photographs in 78 out of 82 comparable pairs.

The mean of ground observations of dominant height of the stands was 10.9 m, that of observations on aerial photographs 11.2 m. The result of stand volume estimates reveals a distinct correlation between the various methods of estimation.

In an earlier study it was shown that it is possible, using a stand volume table based on characteristics revealed in aerial photography, to create a general idea of stand volume on the southern half of the country. A few additional factors, of interest for the stratification necessary in forest inventories, were also studied. A distinct correlation was observed between the results of aerial and ground survey for all the characteristics discussed. The present experiment showed that the prerequisites for stratification through aerial photographs do exist. Further investigation is needed into the most appropriate methods for stratification in each situation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Poso, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4700, category Article
F. Loetsch. (1961). Die Waldinventur und ihre Bedeutung für Forstpolitik, Betriebswirtschaft und Waldbau. Silva Fennica no. 112 article id 4700. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14231
  • Loetsch, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4699, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1961). A century of Finnish state forestry 1859-1959. Silva Fennica no. 112 article id 4699. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14230

This paper is a short presentation in English of the activities of the Finnish Forest Service, organization responsible for the management of the State Forests of Finland, during its first century. The article gives a short history of the Forest Service and description of the forest property, development of the Forest Service, forest conservation work and business activity of the organization.

A complete presentation of the history and activities of the organization since its establishment in 1859 up to the present time is published in Finnish in Silva Fennica No. 107.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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