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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Silva Fennica 1926-1997 vol. 2 no. 3 | 1968

Category: Article

article id 4772, category Article
Eino Saari. (1968). Vajaatuottoisen metsikön ja metsämaan käsite. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 4772.
English title: The notion of reduced yield stands and forest soils.

The technical term reduced yield stands – sometimes reduced yield soils – is widely used in the Finnish forest literature. However, there is no clear definition of the notion reduced yield and no explanation of how this notion is measured in the classifications. Some committee reports and bill proposals and some laws and statutes use the reduced yield forest soil. No definition can be found. In my opinion the term reduced yield forest soils ought to be completely abolished until forest soil experts can perhaps define what it means, if they consider such a concept useful.

Explanations for the term reduced yield stands can be found in the descriptions of classification systems of stands. According to them, the criterion is partly silvicultural (site, species of tree), partly mensurational (volume, sometimes growth), partly economic. No explanation is found as to how the economic aspect is measured, nor about the limit of a full yield and reduced yield.

In my opinion such a term is confusing. I therefore suggest that the term reduced yield stand ought to be abolished. If something is needed instead, I suggest the term understocked stand, defined as a growing stock under certain percentage of a fully stocked stand. The notion of economic reduced yield cannot be generally tied to certain silvicultural and mensurational characteristics of stands. The economic aspect of certain kinds of stands may differ, depending on the owner of the forest and his economic situation, the location of the forest, the composition of the whole forest ownership unit, etc.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4771, category Article
J. G. Gordon, G. E. Gatherum. (1968). Tutkimuksia valittujen mäntypopulaatioiden fotosynteesistä ja kasvusta. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 4771.
English title: Photosynthesis and growth of selected Scots pine populations.

Eight Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seed sources, ranging from 42° to 66° north latitude, were grown under a constant, 16-hour photoperiod in a greenhouse for approximately 6 months. Rates of photosynthesis, as measured by an IRGA, and growth, as measured by increase in height and fresh and dry weight, differed among seed sources at the end of the six-month growing period. Photosynthetic capacity and growth were strongly related to latitude of seed source, and were greatest in the seed sources coming from a parent environment in which maximum photoperiods are about 16 hours.

Photosynthetic efficiency (rate of photosynthesis per gram needle weight) was also strongly related to latitude of seed source, but was lowest in the seedlings which exhibited the greatest growth and photosynthetic capacity. This may have been due to (1) more mutual shading of needles on the larger seedlings and (2) a lesser proportion of juvenile needles on the larger seedlings or (3) biochemical differences in the use of photosynthate in the needles. Seed source and light intensity had an interacting effect on rates of photosynthesis only in seedlings of the two northernmost seed sources.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Gordon, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Gatherum, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4770, category Article
Kustaa Seppälä. (1968). Ennakkotuloksia suometsiköiden ojituksen jälkeisestä kehityksestä ja siihen vaikuttavista tekijöistä. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 4770.
English title: Preliminary results of post-drainage development of peatland stands in Finland.

The present paper is a preliminary report of a project designed to determine the order of profitability of various forest improvement measures – seeding and planting, drainage, and fertilization – in various types of stands and in different parts of the country on drained peatlands. Sample plot data on the effect of draining on increment was derived from areas drained 28– 36 years ago. The study was carried out in the southern half of Finland.

The observations on increment changes are based on two measurements of the sample stands 12 years apart. Supplementary calculations indicate that the stands on drained peatland, depending on site quality and tree species, have either continued to grow like mineral-soil sites of similar fertility or have somewhat increased their growth rate.

The effect of draining intensity was studied using strip measurements. It was found that both the total amount of wood produced (current stand + cutting removal + natural removal) and the current annual volume increment for the 5-year period systematically decrease as the ditch interval increases. The decrease is, however, relatively slight. In Eriophorum vaginatum pine swamps, the total amount of wood produced and the increment show a decrease of ca. 20% with an increase in ditch interval from 20 to 60 metres. In other sites, the decrease is ca. 5-10%

It can be concluded that if the increase in ditch interval do not result in considerably poorer timber assortment distributions than indicates by stand production and increment, it is profitable to pan for a relatively large ditch interval and a slightly smaller than maximum wood production. Supplementary data and check calculations may cause some changes in these preliminary results.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4769, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri, Aimo Autio, Juhani Vehkaoja. (1968). Päätehakkuun ja metsänviljelyn välinen aika. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 4769.
English title: Time lag between final cutting and regeneration.

The time interval between final felling and plantation means a waste of time and thus a production loss, and may lead to lush growth of ground cover and hardwood sprouts, which increases expenses in forest management. The objective of this study was to determine the length of time between final felling and artificial regeneration in private forests in the forest districts of Uusimaa-Häme in Southern Finland and Pohjois-Häme in Central Finland. The material consists of a sample of 150 plans of the 952 cutting and regeneration plans in the district of Uusimaa-Häme and a sample of 140 plans of the 1,102 plans in Pohjois-Häme.

The time lag between final cutting and seeding or planting was on average 1.4 years in Pohjois-Häme district and 0.7 years in Uusimaa-Häme. In the latter district, 56% of the logged area was regenerated in the spring immediately following the cutting, and 84% not later than in the second spring. In Pohjois-Häme, 29% of the harvested area was regenerated immediately in the first spring following cutting, and 79% not later than in the third spring following cutting.

In Pohjois-Häme, the interval was shortest in the smallest forest holdings, and longest in the largest holdings with the largest regeneration areas. The length seems to depend mainly on the size of the regeneration area. In Uusimaa-Häme district, the interval was shortest in the smallest holdings, rather short in the largest, and longest in the intermediate-size forest properties. Seeding with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was used in almost all regeneration areas.

The forest owners had mainly carried out the regeneration work themselves. In the Pohjois-Häme area, the interval was shorter when the district forestry board regenerated the area. 35% of the regenerated areas had required supplementary planting in Pohjois-Häme, and 47% in the Uusimaa-Häme area. Supplementary planting was more common in areas regenerated later after the cutting. In Pohjois-Häme, according to the reports of the forest owners, 75% of the regenerated areas required tending during the first three years, in Uusimaa-Häme, 80%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Autio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vehkaoja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4768, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1968). Havaintoja eräiden vikaisuuksien vaikutuksesta mäntytukkien sahauksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 4768.
English title: Influence of some log defects in sawing of pine logs.

The present paper presents studies on the influence of some relatively common defects of Scots pine logs in Northern Finland on both the sawing yield and on the quality of the sawn goods. The study was based on test sawing of 25 logs for each of the defects (upright limb, heart shake and various kinds of wounds and scars) at Karihaara sawmill. The yield was graded into grades used for export timber according to the system of the sawmill. The proportion of the different export grades (U/S), fifths, sixths and culls) were used as characteristics together with the ratio of raw-wood consumption expressed as cu.ft/std.

Upright limbs occurring in a piece of sawn timber was shown to lower its quality to fifth grade in 43.5%, to sixth grade in 46.8% and to the category of culls in 6.5% of all cases. Only 3.2% of the cases the piece remained in U/S-grades. The size of the upright limb was the most important factor lowering the quality and affecting the ratio of raw-wood consumption.

Heart shakes are relatively common defects in pine logs deriving from over-mature trees. The quality-decreasing influence on the sawing yield depends clearly on the length of the shake in the cross-section. The same characteristics also decreases the ratio of raw-wood consumption. In addition, twisting and star shakes are considerably more harmful than straight ones. If rot occurs in connection with shakes, the places marred by the shakes are only capable of yielding sixth-grade sawn goods or culls.

Scar encountered in logs affect the sawn yield and its quality to quite a varying degree, but these defects themselves may also vary considerably both in size and quality. The length of the scar is highly significant as a quality-decreasing factor. If, in addition, rot is encountered, the defect is of a severe nature.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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