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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Silva Fennica 1926-1997 vol. 3 no. 1 | 1969

Category: Article

article id 4788, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1969). Venäläinen metsäekologian käsikirja. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 4788. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14574
English title: Book review: Fundamentals of forest biogeocoenology.
Keywords: book review

This article is a book review of a book ’Fundamentals of forest biogeocoenology’ by V. Sukatšev.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4787, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1969). Vuonna 1968 Suomessa ilmestyneitä metsätieteellisiä tutkimuksia. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 4787. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14573
English title: Publications on forest science research published in Finland in 1968.

The paper lists the articles of forest scientific research published in Finland in 1968 in the following scientific series: Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, Folia Forestales, and Metsäteho Reports, included are also recensions on forest literature.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4786, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1969). Havaintoja männyn paksuuskasvun loppumisesta ja puiden keloutumisesta Inarin Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 4786. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14572
English title: Termination of diameter growth of Scots pine in old age in northernmost Finnish Lapland.

The purpose of the present study is to throw light on the termination of diameter growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in old age in northernmost Finnish Lapland. The material consists of thirty over-mature, dying or already dead standing trees grown in natural state. In 1907 the stand was marked for cutting, but the harvest was never carried through. Now the old labels served as a means for cross-dating the year of the final termination of growth.
It was found that as pine becomes senile its annual ring formation becomes incomplete. At first diameter growth stops in the middle part of the stem, then at the butt end, and at last on the canopy level. No correlation between the mean temperature of July and the dying of the tree was found. The average age for dying for the pine in the stand was 420–450 years. After the tree has died it takes about 35–40 years before it has become a silvery, branchless dead bole.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4785, category Article
Christel Palmberg. (1969). Maannousemasieni yleismaailmallisena ongelmana. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 4785. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14571
English title: Fomes annosus – A universal problem. A review in recent literature.

Fomes annosus (Fr.) Cke. (now Heterobasidion annosum (s.str.)) has proved highly adaptable to varying conditions. Thus, the fungus is able to alter the pH as well as in alkalic as acid direction according to the original pH-grade. The fungus spreads mainly by basidiospores or by the sterile mycelium, but maybe also by the conidiospores. The fungus has spread through the temperate zone; in the tropical and sub-tropical zone it is found sporadically. There is a mention in the literature of at least 136 species in which it has been found. It is found in hardwoods but is most disastrous in conifers. The economic losses are considered biggest in England, Germany and Scandinavia.

The research has not been able to find a safe way to protect the trees growing on an infected site. The only way to limit the damage seems to be the use of mixed stands. Stump-protection has proved to be a relatively effective way to prevent the spread of the fungus to uninfected sites. The formerly used creosote has been mainly substituted by new chemicals, such as sodium nitrite. They act by altering the stump in a way that is favourable for antagonists to Fomes annosus, such as Trichoderma viride and Penicillium sp., or the recently presented Peniophora gigantea.

Although the fungus is found in many tree species, there is a difference in the relative resistance of different species. Among the conifers, the Abies-species (with exception of Abies grandis, A. alba and A. sachalienensis) are considered comparatively resistant. The species of Larix and Pseudotsuga are more resistant than those of Picea and Pinus.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Palmberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4784, category Article
Matti Leikola, Pentti Pylkkö. (1969). Verhopuuston tiheyden vaikutus metsikön minimilämpötiloihin hallaöinä. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 4784. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14570
English title: Influence of stand density on the minimum temperatures during frost nights.

The objective of this investigation was to study the influence of stand density of white birch (Betula pubescens Ehrl.) on the minimum temperatures in the stand during the growing season, and the actual minimum temperatures of the leading shoot of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedlings growing in the open. The 40-year-old uniform white birch stand was situated in 142 m above the sea level in Southern Finland. The stand was treated with thinnings of three different densities in 1961.

Air temperature was recorded in four sample plots at heights of 0.1 m, 0.5 m, 1.0 m, 2 m and 4 m. In the stand of moderate density, temperatures were measured at heights of 6.0 m, and in the stand of full density at 6.0 m, 8.0 m and 10.0 m.

The temperature differences between stands of various densities proved to be rather small. Especially the thinnest stand differed very little from the open area. The soil surface has in all cases been warm compared with the higher air layers indicating meadow-fog-type by Geier (1965). On cloudy or windy weather all the temperature profiles in the various stands resembled each other. The difference between the air temperature and temperature of the spruce shoot was greatest at midnight and decreased steadily thereafter.

The problem in using shelter stands for spruce regeneration areas is that optimum shelter stand density is difficult to define. Already a thin shelter stand causes drawbacks to the young seedlings, but in order to be effective enough against early frosts, the shelter stand should be comparatively dense.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pylkkö, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4783, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1969). Turpeen tilavuuspaino ja sen määrittäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 4783. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14569
English title: The bulk density of peat and its determination.
Original keywords: turve; tilavuuspaino; tiheys; maatumisaste

This study determined the correlation between the bulk density, humification degree and laboratory volume weight of the surface peat of virgin and drained peatlands. The material consists of 316 peat samples 250 cc in volume.

The correlation between bulk density and the laboratory volume weight was found to be close. Eliminating the ash and moisture content of air-dry samples did not improve the correlation. There were distinct level differences among peat types; difference between bulk density and laboratory volume weight was the greatest for Sphagnum and the smallest for woody peats. The Carex peats were intermediate. The water content at sampling may partly determine these differences. When the data were treated as a whole, the difference between bulk density and laboratory volume weight seemed to increase, as the water content increased.

The correlation was also close between bulk density and the degree of humification. For all data, multivariable correlation analysis revealed that bulk density was determined for the largest part by the degree of humification, least by the water content at sampling, laboratory volume weight being intermediate. Thus, already the determination of the degree of humification provides a clear picture of the bulk density for each peat type. It can be also determined by fair accuracy on the basis of the laboratory volume weight. The bulk density is required for e.g. water regime studies, to convert the water content of peat measured in weight units into volume percentages.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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