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Silva Fennica 1926-1997 vol. 22 no. 3 | 1988

Special issue: Frost Hardiness and Over-Wintering of Forest Trees

Category: Article

article id 5358, category Article
Lauri Kärenlampi, Andrew J. Friedland. (1988). Solupatologisia ja ulkoisia havaintoja punakuusen (Picea rubens) neulasten talvituhoista Vermontissa. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5358. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15515
English title: Cytopathological and external observations on red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) needles damaged in winter in Vermont.

The red spruce (Picea rubens sarg.) population in the Green Mountains in Vermont has showed foliar deterioration that has not been fully explained. The most characteristic needle injuries of the sensitive trees appear in late winter when the first-year needles turn brown. The cytopathological and external observations on the symptoms support the interpretation that winter stress triggers the damage. It is possible that some anthropogenic stress factors (components of acid deposition or ozone) and/or natural factors predispose the trees to the damage.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kärenlampi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Friedland, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5357, category Article
Heikki Hänninen, Paavo Pelkonen. (1988). Lämpötilan vaikutus kuusen- ja männyntaimien dormanssin purkautumiseen. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5357. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15514
English title: Effects of temperature on dormancy release in Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings.

Models concerning the effects of temperature on dormancy release in woody plants were tested using two-year old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Chilling experiments suggest that the rest period has a distinct end point. Before the attainment of this end point high temperatures do not promote bud development towards dormancy release, and after it further chilling does not affect the subsequent bud development. A new hypothesis of dormancy release is suggested on the basis of a comparison between present and earlier findings. No difference in the proportion of growth commencing seedlings were detected between the forcing temperatures of 17°C and 22°C. The rest break of 50% of Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings required six and eight weeks of chilling, respectively. Great variation in the chilling requirement was found, especially for Scots pine.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Hänninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pelkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5356, category Article
Pekka Lähdesmäki, Pekka Pietiläinen. (1988). Männyn taimien typpiaineenvaihdunnan vuodenaikaisvaihtelusta. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5356. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15513
English title: Seasonal variation in the nitrogen metabolism of young Scots pine.

Seasonal changed in total nitrogen, protein, amino acid, ammonia, nitrate and nitrite concentrations, and nitrate reductase and γ-glutamyltransferase activities in the needles, buds and shoots of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied. A relationship between the variation in the nitrogen metabolism and both winter dormancy and its breaking was proposed. Pine tissues stored soluble nitrogen over the winter largely in the form of arginine which, in addition to a high nitrogen content, can neutralize acidic cytoplasmic constituents such as nitrates and nitrites. Specific nitrate reductase and γ-glutamyltransferase activities were highest in late summer or autumn, and is apparently connected to the mobilization of nitrogen reserves for the winter.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Lähdesmäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pietiläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5355, category Article
Halvor Rostad. (1988). Edeltävän kasvukauden ympäristötekijöiden vaikutus kuusentaimien pakkaskestävyyteen kasvuvaiheen aikana. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5355. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15512
English title: Frost resistance during shoot elongation in Picea abies seedlings in relation to the growth environment of the previous growing period.

Frost resistance during shoot elongation in seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) was studied in two experiments. The aim of the first study was to evaluate the effect of varying mineral nutrition. Except for potassium, only minor differences in mineral elements concentrations were established, presumably due to low levels of irradiance and thus a low rate of dry matter production. No significant differences in frost injuries were found between the treatments in the experimental series, but the control seedlings were significantly less injured. It is assumed that poor hardiness development at the end of one growth period resulting from low levels of irradiance may decrease the frost resistance during the next shoot elongation phase. Observations from the second experiment with Norway spruce nursery stocks representing different seedling ages and production systems, support this assumption.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Rostad, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5354, category Article
Jan-Erik Nilsson. (1988). Ympäristötekijöiden vaikutus yksivuotiaiden männyn pluspuujälkeläistöjen talveentumisnopeuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5354. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15511
English title: Variation in the rate of winter hardening of one-year-old plus-tree families of Scots pine raised in different enviroments.

The effect of different environmental conditions (four outdoor localities and one greenhouse locality in Northern Sweden) on cold hardening of 29 one-year-old full-sib families from plus-trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied by artificial freeze testing. Plants exposed to low night temperatures during August achieved faster cold hardening than plants raised in milder localities. The family ranking for rate of winter hardening was consistent among outdoor localities if freeze testing was performed at times when plants from different localities had attained similar levels of cold hardiness. However, significant family x locality interactions were obtained when plants from the outdoor localities were freeze tested on the same occasion. Freeze damage was positively correlated with plant height but not correlated with dry matter content in the autumn. Freezing damage of greenhouse raised plus-tree families was uncorrelated with damage of plants raised outdoors. Possible implications for hardiness breeding are suggested.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Nilsson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5353, category Article
Øystein Johnsen, Inger Apeland. (1988). Kuusen siemenviljelysjälkeläistöjen pakkaskestävyys talveentumisvaiheen alussa. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5353. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15510
English title: Screening early autumn frost hardiness among progenies from Norway spruce seed orchards.

Nursery grown Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedlings from 12 different seed orchards were tested for early autumn frost hardiness using artificial freezing tests. Seed orchards containing grafted parent clones originating from high altitudes produced seedlings showing higher damage than commercial control seed lots of the commercial controls. A seed orchard containing both German and Norwegian clones produced seedlings showing high damage. The correlation between bud-set and frost damage was high at the provenance level, but lower at the half- and full-sib-levels. Families with good growth capacity in progeny field tests showed large between-family variation in frost damage in the artificial freezing tests. This indicates the possibility to combine high growth rate with acceptable autumn frost hardiness in the selection of parent trees.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Johnsen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Apeland, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5352, category Article
Lars Christersson, Heinrich A. von Fircks. (1988). Kesähallojen ja talvisen kylmäkuivumisen aiheuttamat vauriot havupuiden taimilla. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5352. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15509
English title: Injuries to conifer seedlings caused by simulated summer frost and winter desiccation.

Visible frost damage to forest trees in Sweden seldom occurs in winter but is frequent in late spring, summer and early autumn. Frosts are frequent in all seasons in various parts of Sweden, even in the southernmost part (lat. 56°, N) and temperatures may be as low as -10°C even around mid-summer. Ice crystal formation within the tissues, which in most seedlings takes place at around -2°C, causes injury, not the sub-zero temperatures themselves.

The apical meristem, the elongated zone, and the needles of seedlings of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. in a growing phase were damaged at about -3°C and those of Pinus sylvestris L. at about -6°C. Other species of the genus Pinus were tested and most were found to be damaged at about -6°C, with some variations. Picea species tested were damaged at about -3°C to -4°C.

A method has been designed to compare the response of different species to winter desiccation, which occurs under conditions of (1) low night temperature, (2) very high irradiation and increase in needle temperature during the photoperiod, (3) frozen soil, and (4) low wind speed. There were differences in response to winter desiccation between pine and spruce species. Seedlings of Pinus contorta tolerated these winter desiccation conditions much better than those of P. sylvestris or Picea abies. Picea mariana was the least tolerant of the species tested.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Christersson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Fircks, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5351, category Article
Tapani Repo. (1988). Kasvien impedanssimittauksiin liittyviä fysikaalisia ja fysiologisia näkökohtia. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5351. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15508
English title: Physical and physiological aspects of impedance measurements in plants.

Electrical impedance characteristics of plant cells are dependent on such physiological factors as physiological condition, developmental stage, cell structure, nutrient status, water balance and temperature acclimation. In the measurements also such technical and physical factors as type of electrodes, frequency, geometry of the object, inter-electrode distance and temperature have an effect. These factors are discussed especially with respect to the impedance method in frost resistance studies of plants.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Repo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5350, category Article
Heikki Hänninen, Paavo Pelkonen. (1988). Metsäpuiden pakkaskestävyys ja talvehtiminen. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5350. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15507
English title: Frost hardiness and over-wintering of forest trees.

This issue of Silva Fennica consists of eight articles, which are based on a co-nordic conference ”Frost hardiness and over-wintering in forest tree seedlings”, held in Joensuu, Finland, during December 1–3, 1986. The whole annual cycle of the trees is considered. Emphasis is given on methods for the study of frost hardiness, genetic variation in frost hardiness, nitrogen metabolism, bud dormancy release, and joint effect of natural and anthropogenic stress factors in the winter damage of forest trees. Practical implications for tree breeding and nursery management are discussed.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Hänninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pelkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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