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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997 vol. 26 no. 2 | 1992

Category: Article

article id 5480, category Article
Erkki Verkasalo. (1992). Metsäteollisuus puupohjaisen energian tuottajana ja kuluttajana Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 2 article id 5480. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15641
English title: Forest industry as a producer and consumer of wood-based energy in Finland.

This article summarises the importance of forest industry in the acquisition and consumption of wood-based energy in Finland. Opportunities to increase the efficiency of energy utilization further are discussed, as well.

The forest industry uses 25% of the total energy and 40% of the total electricity. It also generates considerable amounts of heat and electric power as by-products of wood-processing. Wood in different forms accounts for 64% of the fuels of the forest industry. Consequently, the need for outside, imported energy is minute. Black liquor of pulping is dominant as a source of wood-based energy. In addition, plenty of wood residues (bark, saw dust, planer shavings, grinder dust, screening reject of chips) and minor amounts of for wood processing unsuitable fractions obtained in conjunction with harvesting small-sized whole-trees, tree selections and logging residues are used for energy production.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Verkasalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5479, category Article
Douglas K. Loh, Hannu Saarenmaa. (1992). Integroitujen metsätietojärjestelmien suunnittelu. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 2 article id 5479. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15640
English title: Design of integrated forest resource information systems.

Managing forests and other natural resources requires merging of data and knowledge from many fields. Research efforts in many countries have simultaneously aimed at computer applications to help managing the large amounts of data involved and the complexities of decision making. This has invariably led to large integrated systems. An integrated system is software that consists of modules for various tasks in natural resource management, spatial analysis, simulation and optimization, diagnostic reasoning, levels, and communicating with the user.

The paper presents an overview of the need, levels and historical development of integrated systems. Newly emerged technologies, especially object-oriented programming and the X Window System with its associated environment have given new flexibility and transparency to the designs. The client-server architecture is found out as an ideal model for integrated systems. The paper describes an implementation of these ideas, the INFORMS system that supports the information needs of district level forest management planning.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Loh, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saarenmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5478, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Marja Kolström. (1992). Ilmastonmuutoksen vaikutus männyntaimikoiden hoitotarpeeseen Etelä-Suomessa: simulointiin perustuvia laskelmia. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 2 article id 5478. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15639
English title: Computations on the management of seedling stands of Scots pine under the influence of changing climate in southern Finland.

Model computations on the management of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at the seedling stage showed that a rising temperature due to the suggested climate change could increase the competition capacity of birch species (Betula pendula) more than Scots pine, whose growth could even decline during the course of a rise in temperature. A temperature rise could, thus, bring the time of removal of birches forward when aiming at Scots pine timber stands composed of these tree species. The increasing proportion of birches makes the removal of birches even more urgent and emphasizes the need for careful management of Scots pine stands under rising temperatures. The first thinning of Scots pine is generally brought forward; this is particularly the case when wide spacing is applied in planting. A furthrer rise in temperature magnifies the above patterns by reducing further the competitive capacity of Scots pine in relation to birches.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kolström, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5477, category Article
Martti Saarilahti. (1992). Kirjallisuuteen perustuva työntutkimus juontokaarijuonnosta. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 2 article id 5477. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15638
English title: Skidding by sulky - a literature study.

Speed and load sizes presented in three study reports on sulky skidding were compared with estimates based on ergonomic models. Speed and load size estimates were closely correlated with the observed values, when a 400 W energy expenditure of the subject was used. This corresponds to less than half of his submaximal oxygen intake and matches well with the heart rate given in one of the time studies. It seems possible to develop methods for evaluating the work pace/production rate for sulky skidding in varying terrain conditions.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Saarilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5476, category Article
Jukka Selander, Auli Immonen. (1992). Männyntaimien lannoituksen ja kastelun vaikutus tukkimiehentäin (Hylobius abietis) vioitukseen . Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 2 article id 5476. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15637
English title: Effect of fertilization and watering of Scots pine seedlings on the feeding preference of the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.).

Two-year-old containerized Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, raised under different fertilization and watering regimes, were subjected to feeding preference tests with pine weevils (Hylobius abietis L.) in a bioassay. In the tests carried out with pairs of seedlings, the weevil preferred water-stressed seedlings to well-watered ones. In the case of well-watered seedlings, the weevil caused significantly more damage to NPK-fertilized seedlings than those given pure PK fertilization, or no fertilization at all. It is apparent that PK fertilization reduces, and water stress increases seedling susceptibility to weevil damage. The results support findings from field trials that water stress (planting shock) predisposes seedlings to weevil damage. Weevil resistance is discussed with respect to fertilization and water stress as determinants of seedling quality.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Selander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Immonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5475, category Article
Jyrki Hytönen. (1992). Suokasvien alleopaattiset vaikutukset männyn sekä raudus- ja hieskoivun siementen itämiseen ja taimien esikasvatukseen. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 2 article id 5475. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15636
English title: Allelopathic potential of peatland plant species on germination and early seedling growth of Scots pine, silver birch and downy birch.

The potential alleopathic inhibitive effects of aqueous extracts of 13 peatland plant species on germination, radicle and seedling growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver and downy birch (Betula pendula Roth., B. pubescens Ehrh.) were studied. Freshly cut plant parts were finely ground, mixed with distilled water and agitated. The proportions of fresh plant mass in the mass-based extracts varied within the range of 1, 5, 10 and 20% (w/w). The seeds were germinated in petri dishes moistened with the plant extracts. In a separate experiment growth of birch seedlings irrigated with the extracts was studied.

Ledum palustre, Vaccinium uliginosum and Empetrum nigrum extracts, and in certain experiments extracts of other species, inhibited the germination of Scots pine and birch seeds. Results from the different experiments were not, however, fully consistent. None of the low (1% w/w) extract concentrations had any effect on germination. Strong extract concentrations (20% w/w) inhibited germination of pine seedlings significantly. The extracts affected only slightly the growth of potted birch seedlings.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Hytönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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