Current issue: 53(1)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Silva Fennica 1926-1997 vol. 27 no. 1 | 1993

Category: Article

article id 5502, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1993). Ohjeita kirjoittajille. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5502.
English title: Instructions to authors.

This paper presents the publishing guidelines of the Finnish Society of Forest Science for the forest scientific series of Silva Fennica. This paper presents the instructions to authors in Finnish, the English instructions are included in a separate PDF.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5501, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1993). Instructions to authors. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5501.

This paper presents the publishing guidelines of the Finnish Society of Forest Science for the forest scientific series of Silva Fennica. This paper includes the instructions to authors in English, the Finnish instructions are in a separate PDF. 

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5500, category Article
Mikko Kantola, Pertti Harstela. (1993). Puunhankinnan englantilaiset ja suomalaiset perustermit. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5500.
English title: The basic terminology of timber harvesting in Finnish and in English .

The paper discussed the definitions of different Finnish and English terms concerning timber harvesting, and suggests definitions and translations of the terms.

  • Kantola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Harstela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5499, category Article
Niels Elers Koch. (1993). Outlines of environmental policy concerning forests in the European Community. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5499.

The paper, presented at the seminar ”Forestry in Europe: Implications of European Integration for National Forestry”, discusses the effects of first Forestry Action Programme in the European Community, UNCED 1992, the European Community’s new Forestry Strategy and the second Forestry Action Programme directives of conservation of habitats on forestry within the EC.

  • Koch, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5498, category Article
Ernst Wermann. (1993). Outlooks of forestry in the European Community with special emphasis on recycling. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5498.

The paper, presented at the seminar ”Forestry in Europe: Implications of European Integration for National Forestry”, discusses the meaning of the European Community for the forestry sector, putting a special emphasis on recycling. Subsidies and the so-called ”Forestry Action Program” are among the topics that have raised controversial discussions within the EC. In addition, wood fibre recycling and the EC draft directive on packaging waste includes ambiguous targets for recycling.

  • Wermann, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5497, category Article
Pertti Pulkkinen. (1993). Etelä- ja pohjoissuomalaista alkuperää olevien kuusentaimien pakkaskestävyyden kehittyminen sekä rungon puutuminen. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5497.
English title: Frost hardiness development and lignification of young Norway spruce seedlings of southern and northern Finnish origin.

Seedlings from four Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands originating from areas with effective temperature sums ranging from 710 d.d. to 1,150 d.d. were raised under artificial light and temperature treatment. After a 10-week growing period the hardening process was started by subjecting the seedlings to +8°C night temperature and +15°C day temperature, and increasing the night length by 1.5 hour/week. Hardiness was measured by means of artificial freezing treatment (-10°C or -15°C), followed by visual estimation of the degree of needle injury. The stem height, lignification and bud development were measured before the freezing treatment. The amount of injury increased the more southern the origin of the tested material was. Furthermore, the proportion of non-lignified part of the seedling stem was negatively correlated with the latitude of the provenances. The proportion of seedlings with clearly visible buds was more than 90% in the northernmost entry and less than 1% in the southernmost one. The overall correlation coefficient between the needle injuries and the proportion of non-lignified part of the stem was rather high, but varied considerably from 0.3 in the northernmost material to over 0.6 in the southern provenances. According to the results, it seems to be possible to use growth characteristics as an indicator of frost hardiness at the provenance level.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Pulkkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5496, category Article
Aatos Lahtinen. (1993). Muodon säilyttävien runkokäyrien muodostaminen. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5496.
English title: On the construction of shape preserving taper curves.

There exists an algorithm for construction interpolating quadratic splines which preserves the monotony of the data. The taper curves formed with this algorithm, QO-splines, have many good qualities when a sufficient number of measured diameters of a tree is available. In fact, they may even be superior to certain shape preserving taper curves, MR-splines. This algorithm can be modified to preserve also the shape of the data. In the present paper, the quality of taper curves constructed by a new shape preserving from of the algorithm is examined. For this purpose, taper curves are formed for different sets of measurements and their properties are compared with the ones of QO-splines and MR-splines. The results indicate that these new shape-preserving taper curves are in general better than QO-splines and MR-splines even if the differences may be small in many cases. The superiority is the clearer the less measurements are available.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Lahtinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5495, category Article
Hannu Salminen, Martti Varmola. (1993). Istutustiheyden ja -kuvioinnin vaikutus männyntaimikoiden kehitykseen. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5495.
English title: Influence of initial spacing and planting design on the development of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands.

Three Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantations carrying 35 plots with initial spacings from 800 to 5,000 plants/ha were studied. Planting designs varied from a square to a rectangle with 5-metre row distance, the plant-to-plant distance being 0.8 metres. At current dominant height of 6 m, rectangularity had no effect on height, diameter, or volume growth of trees. Slight ovality of stems was observed in rectangular plots but the differences in the cross-wise mean diameters were very small, not over 1.1 mm in terms of plot-wise means. The diameter of the thickest living branch of a tree was linearly dependent of the dbh. The branches were clearly thicker between the planting rows at under 1,600 stems/ha stand density. A non-square planting pattern is a conceivable alternative when the line corridors suitable for mechanized silvicultural operations are preferred.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Salminen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Varmola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5494, category Article
Jari Nieppola. (1993). Kasvupaikkaluokittelu Etelä-Suomen männiköissä. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5494.
English title: Site classification in Pinus sylvestris L. forests in southern Finland.

It was examined whether the present site classification method, and especially its applicability to site productivity estimation, could be improved in upland Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Southern Finland by developing a classification key based on Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN), and/or by inclusion of soil texture, stoniness and the humus layer depth more closely in the classification method. TWINSPAN clusters (TW) explained 71%, and forest site types (FST) 64% of the variation in site index (SI) (H100). When soil texture (TEXT) was added to the regression model, the explanatory power increased to 82% (SI = TW + TW * TEXT) and to 80% (SI = FST + FST * TEXT), respectively. Soil texture alone explained 69% of the variation in site index. The influence of stoniness on site index was significant (P <0.05) on sorted medium sand soils and on medium and fine sand moraine soils. The thickness of the humus layer (2–6 cm) was not significantly (P=0.1) related to site index.

It is suggested that the proposed TWINSPAN classification cannot replace the present forest site type system in Scots pine stands in Southern Finland. However, the TWINSPAN key may be used to aid the identification of forest types. The observation of dominant soil texture within each forest type is recommended.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Nieppola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5493, category Article
Juha Heiskanen. (1993). Kasvuturpeiden vesipotentiaali ja vedenjohtavuus paakuissa kuivumisen aikana. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5493.
English title: Water potential and hydraulic conductivity of peat growth media in containers during drying.

The matric potential and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of peat-based growth media in containers was measured continuously as a function of drying. The particle size distribution and the water retention characteristics of the media were determined from parallel samples. The growth media used were a light, coarse graded Sphagnum peat, a medium graded Sphagnum peat and a mixture of a perlite and the medium graded Sphagnum peat. Containers of two types were packed with the media and allowed to evaporate from saturation. Matric potential was measured automatically using tensiometers during drying.

In both container types, the matric potential of the media was similar down to 10 kPa at each of the three levels measured during drying. Further drying resulted in a large matric potential gradient between the upper and the middle levels. During drying, there was also clear shrinkage of the media. When the matric potential at the upper level reached ca. -80 kPa, the decrease in height of the media was 5–23 %. The estimated hydraulic conductivity of the media during drying was rather similar. The hydraulic conductivity of the peat-perlite mixture was, however, slightly lower than that of the pure peat media. The hydraulic conductivity decreased linearly on a log-log-scale from ca. 10-5 to less than 10-10 m/s as the matric potential decreased from -3 to -60 kPa. The hydraulic conductivity of the media was comparable to coarse sand at matric potentials below -10 kPa. The decrease in hydraulic conductivity during drying and the possible weakening of soil-root contact due to shrinkage may considerably affect the availability of water to plants.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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