Current issue: 54(2)

Under compilation: 54(3)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'Diprionidae'.

Category: Research article

article id 1615, category Research article
Minna Blomqvist, Päivi Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Tuula Kantola, Maiju Kosunen, Mervi Talvitie, Markus Holopainen. (2016). Impacts of natural enemies and stand characteristics on cocoon mortality of the pine sawfly Diprion pini in a Fennoscandian boreal forest. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 5 article id 1615. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1615
Highlights: Annual cocoon mortality caused by natural enemies varied between 66% and 80% during the six-year study period, most of it caused by the family Ichneumonidae; Basal area, and coverage of lichen (Lichenes) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) best explained cocoon parasitism and predation; Combination of suitable stand characteristics, abiotic environmental factors, and incomplete control by natural enemies enabled pest species to extend its gradation phase.

We investigated the impact of natural enemies on the cocoon mortality of the common pine sawfly (Diprion pini L.) during a six-year period in eastern Finland. The enemies were classified into parasitoids (insect families Chalcidoidea, Ichneumonidae, and Tachinidae), and predators (birds, small mammals, and insect families Elateridae and Carabidae). The appearance of D. pini was estimated as the intensity of annual defoliation. The impact of stand characteristics on the performance of parasitoids and predators was also investigated. Influence of the natural enemy complex on cocoon mortality of D. pini was nearly stable, but defoliation intensity slowly declined towards the end of the study period. Annual cocoon mortality by natural enemies varied between 66% and 80%. Our results verified that the most significant mortality factors were ichneumonid parasitoids and small mammals. Random Forest classification indicated that stand characteristics, such as basal area, and coverage of lichen (Lichenes) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) affected the performance of parasites and predators. We suggest that a combination of optimal stand characteristics, abiotic environmental factors and mild to moderate control by natural enemies acted as drivers, which drove the pine sawfly population to extended gradation. For future forest health management, detailed information on abiotic and biotic regulating factors, along with long-term monitoring campaigns for conifer sawflies are needed to adapt Fennoscandian forests to altered climatic and silvicultural conditions.

  • Blomqvist, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27 (Latokartanonkaari 7), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2328-8839 E-mail: minna.blomqvist@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27 (Latokartanonkaari 7), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: paivi.lyytikainen-saarenmaa@helsinki.fi
  • Kantola, Knowledge Engineering Laboratory, Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2475, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: tuula.kantola@helsinki.fi
  • Kosunen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27 (Latokartanonkaari 7), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: maiju.kosunen@helsinki.fi
  • Talvitie, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27 (Latokartanonkaari 7), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mervi.talvitie@dnainternet.net
  • Holopainen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27 (Latokartanonkaari 7), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: markus.holopainen@helsinki.fi
article id 660, category Research article
Erkki Annila, Bo Långström, Martti Varama, Risto Hiukka, Pekka Niemelä. (1999). Susceptibility of defoliated Scots pine to spontaneous and induced attack by Tomicus piniperda and Tomicus minor. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 2 article id 660. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.660
In 1990–1991, Diprion pini extensively defoliated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees in Lauhanvuori National Park in southwestern Finland. Many trees lost all their foliage, while others had ca. 10% foliage left after the second year of defoliation. Outside the national park, many nearby stands were also heavily defoliated in 1990, but were sprayed with diflubenzuron (Dimilin®) in 1991. This protected the current year needles, corresponding to ca 30% of full foliage. In spring 1992, pine trees with 0, 10, 30 and 100% foliage remaining (10 small and 10 large trees in each category) were baited with pine bolts to induce stem attacks by pine shoot beetles. All baited trees were attacked by Tomicus piniperda and some by T. minor. The attacks failed in all these trees except those that were totally defoliated and some of the small trees with 10% foliage left. Many unbaited trees escaped attack entirely, but only totally defoliated trees were successfully colonized (i.e. produced brood). Attack densities and brood production figures peaked in baited, large and totally defoliated trees. None of the measures (cambial electrical resistance, resin flow, induced lesion length by fungal inoculation, amount of hydrocarbons or phenolic compounds) used to describe tree vigour at the time of attack gave better information than the estimated remaining foliage. We conclude that the risk for beetle-induced mortality following defoliation is a function of remaining needle biomass and beetle pressure. Even at high beetle densities (as was simulated by baiting of trees), trees with 10% of the foliage remaining were able to defend themselves against attacking pine shoot beetles.
  • Annila, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: erkki.annila@metla.fi (email)
  • Långström, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Entomology, P. O. Box 7044, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Varama, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hiukka, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Niemelä, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Register
Click this link to register for Silva Fennica submission and tracking system.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content
Your selected articles

Committee on Publication Ethics A Trusted Community-Governed Archive