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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
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Articles containing the keyword 'European'.

Category: Research article

article id 1663, category Research article
Marta Kempf, Monika Konnert. (2016). Distribution of genetic diversity in Fagus sylvatica at the north-eastern edge of the natural range. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 4 article id 1663. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1663
Highlights: European beech at the north-eastern edge of its natural range in Poland have a high level of genetic variation, similar to the populations from Central Europe; The differences between the beech provenances from the two centres in Poland, which were previously identified on the basis of pollen analyses and phenotypic traits, have now been genetically confirmed.

An understanding of the genetic variation of the beech, especially at the edge of its natural distribution, is essential because of the change in natural distribution of the species resulting from changing climatic conditions. The main aim of the study was to determine the level of genetic diversity of European beech at the north-eastern edge of its natural range. The other aim was to check the genetic variation of beech from the two centres, the north and the south of Poland, which were identified in previous findings based on pollen analyses and phenotypic traits. The research material was the progeny of twelve beech provenances. The genetic structure of the populations was determined by ten highly variable microsatellite DNA loci. The results confirmed the high genetic diversity of beech at the north-eastern edge of its natural distribution, which infers the probability of their good adaptation to the changing climate and an extension of the range. Genetic analyses confirmed the existence of two genetic centres for beech in Poland. The populations from south-eastern Poland had a slightly higher diversity than the populations from the north-western area, which may indicate that the colonisation of Poland occurred by two routes. The results are important for creating the borders of the provenance regions and for limiting the transfer of seeds and seedlings. The choice of forest reproductive material, based on the knowledge of genetic diversity, is very important for the stability of future forests.

  • Kempf, Department of Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding, Faculty of Forestry, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Al. 29-listopada 46, 31–425 Krakow ORCID ID:E-mail: m.kempf@ur.krakow.pl (email)
  • Konnert, Bavarian Office for Forest Seeding and Planting, Forstamtsplatz 1, 83317 Teisendorf, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: monika.konnert@asp.bayern.de
article id 117, category Research article
Harri Kilpeläinen, Jari Lindblad, Henrik Heräjärvi, Erkki Verkasalo. (2011). Saw log recovery and stem quality of birch from thinnings in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 2 article id 117. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.117
The objective of this study was to examine the timber quality of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and European white birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) trees in the first and second thinnings in southern parts of Finland, from the viewpoint of sawing of small-diameter, short logs, in particular. The average stem volume of birch was 0.140 m3 in the first thinning stands and 0.206 m3 in the second thinning stands. In planted stands, the trees were larger in the first thinnings but slightly smaller in the second thinnings, compared with naturally regenerated pure birch stands or mixed stands of Norway spruce and birch species. Almost 60% of the harvested and 35% of the remaining stems that could provide saw logs were graded as pulpwood for timber quality due to the occurrence of stem defects. The most common stem defects were multiple crooks and middle crooks. Only minor between-stratum differences were detected in the numbers of defects. Depending on the bucking option, the total percentage of saw and plywood logs from the total birch recovery in the thinning of the sample stands varied between 11.7 and 18.2. The recovery of saw logs was clearly higher in the second thinnings, 12–19%, than in the first thinnings, 8–14%. Of the stand types, saw log recovery was the highest in planted birch stands, 12–19%, but lower in naturally regenerated pure birch stands and mixed stands of Norway spruce and birch. The highest share of saw logs was in the second thinning of planted stands, 17–25%. This study shows that the harvesting recoveries of end-use based timber assortments can be estimated in different kinds of thinning birch stands. Based on tree and log dimensions and stem squality, silver birch firstly from plantations and secondly from mixed stands should be the most interesting source of raw material for the saw milling, furniture and interior product sectors.
  • Kilpeläinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Eastern Finland Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lindblad, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Eastern Finland Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heräjärvi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Eastern Finland Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: henrik.herajarvi@metla.fi (email)
  • Verkasalo, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Eastern Finland Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 279, category Research article
Gerben Janse. (2007). Characteristics and challenges of forest sector communication in the EU. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 4 article id 279. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.279
Fragmentation of forest policy at the EU level and image problems of the forest industry have increased forest sector actors’ interest for cooperation on and coordination of communication activities. Although internal communication in the forest sector at the European level is generally well developed both formally and informally, the desired strengthening of communication with other sectors and the public at large is perceived as difficult. In this pre-study 39 interviews were conducted with EU and UNECE/FAO officials, EU level Forest-based Industries and forestry sector federation representatives, and forest scientists working at the European level. The results indicate that EU level forest sector core actors’ ideas on communication differ. Ideas range from strictly image improvement; being more successful at lobbying with other sectors and high-level policy-makers; up to building long-lasting relations and two-way communication processes with other sectors. This makes it difficult to come to coordinated action among forest sector actors. A more active exchange of information on best practices in forest communication between national as well as European level actors, and increased coordination of communication efforts is desired by industry, forest owners as well as policy-makers. However, clear ideas on how to improve, especially inter-sectoral, communication are largely lacking.
  • Janse, European Forest Institute, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: gerben.janse@efi.int (email)
article id 505, category Research article
Jari Kärnä, Eric Hansen, Heikki Juslin. (2003). Environmental activity and forest certification in marketing of forest products – a case study in Europe. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 2 article id 505. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.505
Forest industries and their industrial customers from four European countries were surveyed by interviews to study the environmental emphasis and the role of timber certification in their marketing planning. Most of the Finnish, Swedish, German and British companies have begun to integrate environmental issues in their strategic, structural and functional level marketing decisions. They see forest certification as a necessary tool for marketing forest products. The level of environmental activity (greenness) of the companies was studied by creating a one dimensional factor score rating. The logic of marketing planning was tested by using one functional level marketing tool – forest certification – as an example to examine how well the level of greenness explains the importance of forest certification for the company. The results show that in the surveyed companies the level of greenness has more explanatory power than background factors such as country or industry sector. The integration of environmental issues into marketing planning and the interest in forest certification by these companies can provide meaningful insights for the forest industries worldwide as they confront similar issues.
  • Kärnä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Centre, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jari.karna@metla.fi (email)
  • Hansen, Oregon State University, Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Richardson Hall 108, 97331-5751 Corvallis, OR, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Juslin, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Economics, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 638, category Research article
Gert-Jan Nabuurs, Mart-Jan Schelhaas, Ari Pussinen. (2000). Validation of the European Forest Information Scenario Model (EFISCEN) and a projection of Finnish forests. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 2 article id 638. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.638
Large-scale forest scenario models are intensively used to make projections of forest areas of up to hundreds of millions of hectares. Within Europe, such projections have been done for 11 countries at the individual national scale, most often to foresee the long-term implications of the ongoing forest management. However, the validity of the models has rarely been tested. The aim of this study was 1. to validate the European Forest Information SCENario model (EFISCEN) by running it on historic Finnish forest inventory data, 2. to improve the model based on the validation, and 3. to project the Finnish forest development till 2050 with the improved model under alternative scenarios. The results of the validation showed that EFISCEN is capable of making reliable large-scale projections of forest resources for periods up to 50–60 years. Based on the validation, the model was improved concerning simulation of age development, thinning regimes and regrowth after thinning. The projection of the Finnish forests till 2050 with the improved model presented a maximum sustainable felling level of around 70 million m3 per year. That provides an average growing stock of 106 m3 ha–1 in 2050 and a net annual increment of 3.6 m3 ha–1 y–1. If the current trend towards more nature oriented forest management continues and 1.39 million ha of forests have been set aside additionally for nature reserves by 2050, the felling level could meet a realistic demand of 57 million m3 per year in 2050. Under the latter regime the average growing stock will have grown to 160 m3 ha–1 in 2050.
  • Nabuurs, European Forest Institute (EFI), Torikatu 34, FIN-80100 Joensuu, Finland; Wageningen University and Research Center, ALTERRA, P.O. Box 47, NL 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands ORCID ID:E-mail: g.j.nabuurs@alterra.wag-ur.nl (email)
  • Schelhaas, European Forest Institute (EFI), Torikatu 34, FIN-80100 Joensuu, Finland; Wageningen University and Research Center, ALTERRA, P.O. Box 47, NL 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pussinen, European Forest Institute (EFI), Torikatu 34, FIN-80100 Joensuu, Finland; Wageningen University and Research Center, ALTERRA, P.O. Box 47, NL 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Review article

article id 549, category Review article
Andrei Gromtsev. (2002). Natural disturbance dynamics in the boreal forests of European Russia: a review. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 1 article id 549. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.549
In the European part of the Russian boreal zone the dynamics of pristine forests (taiga) has been studied by several generations of researchers. Many studies have examined the patterns and role of fire, windthrow, insect outbreaks and other natural disturbances. An attempt is made to provide a brief review of these studies. The reviewed studies show that lightning strikes were the only natural source of fires in taiga. The frequency of fires varied in various types of pristine landscape from 1–2 per century to 1–2 per millennium. Fires maintained a dynamic equilibrium between compositionally different forest communities or their certain ratio and areal occurrence. Fires favored the regeneration and recovery of pine forests and prevented the replacement of shade-intolerant species (e.g. pine) by shade-tolerant ones (e.g. spruce). Taiga forests generally displayed a mosaic pattern that varied from pioneer plant communities, growing in open burns, to climax communities that were extremely seldom affected by fire. The reviewed studies suggest that fires were a powerful ecological factor in pristine taiga, being largely responsible for the structure and spontaneous dynamics of forest communities. Windfalls were also common in pristine taiga landscapes and they regulated spontaneous dynamics in a gap-mosaic regime, which is most characteristic of spruce forests.
  • Gromtsev, Forest Research Institute, Karelian Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 185610, Petrozavodsk, Pushkin st. 11, Russia ORCID ID:E-mail: gromtsev@karelia.ru (email)

Category: Research note

article id 1415, category Research note
Zorica Šarac, Tanja Dodoš, Nemanja Rajčević, Srdjan Bojović, Petar Marin, Jelena Aleksić. (2015). Genetic patterns in Pinus nigra from the central Balkans inferred from plastid and mitochondrial data. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 5 article id 1415. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1415
Highlights: Seven populations of Pinus nigra from the central Balkans, representing four infraspecific taxa, were analyzed with chloroplast microsatellites and a mitochondrial locus; Molecular data failed to support infraspecific circumscriptions; Levels of genetic diversities/differentiation at both genomes were in the range of those reported in western Mediterranean populations of P. nigra; Iberian/African and Balkans’ populations share one mtDNA polymorphism and differ in three mutations.

Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, European black pine, is a typical component of Mediterranean and sub-Mediterranean coniferous forests with highly fragmentary distribution. Western Mediterranean populations of this species have been studied genetically to date, while eastern populations from the central Balkans, which are larger and more abundant, are still genetically understudied. We analyzed seven populations of P. nigra representing all infraspecific taxa recognized within the central Balkans (subspecies nigra with varieties nigra and gocensis Đorđević; and subspecies pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe with varieties pallasiana and banatica (Endl.) Georgescu et Ionescu), with three chloroplast microsatellites (cpDNA SSRs) and one mitochondrial (mtDNA) locus. Although our molecular data failed to support circumscription of studied infraspecific taxa, we found that genetic patterns at both genomes are in accordance with those found previously in westward populations of this species, that is – exceptionally high levels of genetic diversity (HT = 0.949) and low genetic differentiation (GST = 0.024) at the cpDNA level, and moderate levels of genetic diversity (HT = 0.357) and genetic differentiation (GST = 0.358) at the mtDNA level. Based on genealogical relations of mtDNA types currently present in Balkans’ and Iberian/African populations, we inferred that the ancestral gene pool of P. nigra already harbored polymorphism at position 328 prior to the divergence to two lineages currently present in westward and eastward parts of the species range distribution. Subsequent occurrence of three mutations, which distinguish these two lineages, suggests their long-term isolation.

  • Šarac, University of Niš, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Department of Biology and Ecology, Višegradska 33, 18000 Niš, Serbia ORCID ID:E-mail: saraczorica@gmail.com (email)
  • Dodoš, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Biology, Institute of Botany and Botanical Garden “Jevremovac”, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia ORCID ID:E-mail: tanjadodos@bio.bg.ac.rs
  • Rajčević, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Biology, Institute of Botany and Botanical Garden “Jevremovac”, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia ORCID ID:E-mail: nemanja@bio.bg.ac.rs
  • Bojović, University of Belgrade, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”, Boulevard Despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia ORCID ID:E-mail: bojovic@ibiss.bg.ac.rs
  • Marin, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Biology, Institute of Botany and Botanical Garden “Jevremovac”, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia ORCID ID:E-mail: pdmarin@bio.bg.ac.rs
  • Aleksić, University of Belgrade, Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering, Vojvode Stepe 444a, P.O. Box 23, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia ORCID ID:E-mail: aleksic_jelena@yahoo.com.au

Category: Article

article id 7284, category Article
K. Linkola. (1934). Die Flatterulme (Ulmus laevis Pall.) in der Gegend des Vanajavesisees. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 7 article id 7284. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7284
English title: European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall.) in the region of Vanajavesi-lake.

The article describes the distribution of the European white elm; its sites and vegetation communes; phenotype (size and form); variations in the leaves; inflorescence and fruiting; germinative capacity of the seeds; regeneration, both vegetative propagation and from seeds; commercial use of the timber; and the history of European white elm.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5568, category Article
Tord Johansson. (1996). Site index curves for European aspen (Populus tremula L.) growing on forest land of different soils in Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 4 article id 5568. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8503

Growth data were collected from 40 European aspen (Populus tremula L.) stands growing on eight localities in Sweden. The stands ranged in latitude from 56 to 66°N. The mean age of the stands was 32 years (range, 12–63), the mean stand density 1978 stems ha-1 (range, 300–6,000), and the mean diameter at breast height (on bark) 17 cm (range, 8–34).

Site index curves were constructed for total age. Curves for H40 (dominant height at 40 years total age) were made for total Sweden. Curves fitted for H40 total age have another shape than curves presented by other Nordic studies. The curves from the present study have slower growth for young aspens than curves from Norwegian and Finnish conditions. For 50–70-year-old aspen stands, curves from the present study indicate taller heights than from Nordic studies.

Classified soil types from the stands were grouped into three groups: sandy till (17), light clay (15) and medium clay till (4). As there was only one stand growing in the fine sand group and one stand in the heavy clay till group and two stands in the silty till group, these stands were not presented with growth curves. There were no statistically significant differences in site index between the three soil type groups. Some recommendations for management of aspen stand are given. Damages caused by moose, fungi and other injuries are discussed as a problem for height yield production and a good timber quality.

  • Johansson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5499, category Article
Niels Elers Koch. (1993). Outlines of environmental policy concerning forests in the European Community. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5499. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15660

The paper, presented at the seminar ”Forestry in Europe: Implications of European Integration for National Forestry”, discusses the effects of first Forestry Action Programme in the European Community, UNCED 1992, the European Community’s new Forestry Strategy and the second Forestry Action Programme directives of conservation of habitats on forestry within the EC.

  • Koch, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5498, category Article
Ernst Wermann. (1993). Outlooks of forestry in the European Community with special emphasis on recycling. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5498. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15659

The paper, presented at the seminar ”Forestry in Europe: Implications of European Integration for National Forestry”, discusses the meaning of the European Community for the forestry sector, putting a special emphasis on recycling. Subsidies and the so-called ”Forestry Action Program” are among the topics that have raised controversial discussions within the EC. In addition, wood fibre recycling and the EC draft directive on packaging waste includes ambiguous targets for recycling.

  • Wermann, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5297, category Article
P. A. Harou. (1986). The EC context for private forestry incentive evaluation. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 4 article id 5297. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a27753

A brief overview of forestry in European Community (EC) of the 9 is presented. Forestry incentives seem necessary for increasing timber production on private ownership in order to avoid possible price inflation.

In the economic analysis of the program evaluation method proposed here to assess the efficiency of such incentives, a broad EC perspective is recommended to avoid erroneous conclusion. The evaluation made from the prospect of a member country only is artificial and is influenced by EC policies anyway. The evaluation changes depending on whether these EC policies are considered given and immutable or not.

  • Harou, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4870, category Article
Matti Nuorteva. (1972). Tumamonisärmiöviruksen käytöstä ruskean mäntypistiäisen (Neodiprion sertifer Geoffr.) torjunnassa. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 3 article id 4870. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14676
English title: Use of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus in the control of the European pine sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer Geoff.).

Experimental applications of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus (Borrelinavirus diprionis) to control of the European pine sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer Geoff.) was carried out during the last outbreak of this sawfly in in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Finland in 1963. Quantities of polyhedrosis virus preparation, collected and purified in Finland were available as concentrations packed in capsules. Spraying took place in three localities in southwestern Finland when the larvae were in I–III instars.

When Finnish and Swedish preparations were used 83–96% of larval colonies were completely destroyed within 14 days. In addition, an attempt was made to change the virus in latent stage, present already in the area, to acute stage by application of substrates which are probably harmless to pine, but were expected to stress the larvae. Ground quarts as spray had the best lethal effect upon larvae.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nuorteva, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7529, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1913). Versuche mit ausländischen Holzarten im Staatsforst Vesijako. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 2 no. 2 article id 7529. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7529
English title: Experiments with foreign tree species in state forest Vesijako, Finland.

The study area is state owned forest of Vesijako in southern middle Finland that has earlier been intensively managed with slash-and-burn agriculture and then partly reforested with foreign coniferous tree species after controlled burnings. The total area planted with foreign species consists of 66 sample areas, altogether 28 hectares. The data has been collected in summer 1909. 

The most of studied sample areas have been unsuccessful, but there are still many areas that are too young to be assessed. The originally with foreign species reforested areas are now pine stands. The tree species in experiments have been e.g. larch (Larix sibirica and L. europaea), Siberian stone pine (Pinus cembra sibirica), Siberian fir (Abies sibirica o. pichta), balsam fir (Abies balsamea), white fir (Abies pectinate also Abies alba), white spruce (Picea alba also Picea glauca), Weymouth pinen (Pinus strobus) and European / Swiss mountain pine (Pinus montana  also P. mugo, P. mugho).

The most important result of the experiments with controlled burning is that stand of grey alder (Alnus incana) with only low economic value can be effectively altered into coniferous forests (Pinus silvestris).
  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4627, category Article
Paavo Jaakko Ollinmaa. (1952). Jalot lehtipuumme luontaisina ja viljeltyinä. Silva Fennica no. 77 article id 4627. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9099
English title: Native and cultivated southern broadleaved tree species in Finland.

The aim of the study was to update knowledge of natural range of English oak (Quercus robur L.), European ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.), Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Miller), wych elm (Ulmus glabra Mill.) and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall.) in Finland, and estimate how far north they could be grown as forest trees or as park trees. The study is based on literature and questionnaires sent to cities and towns, District Forestry Boards, districts of Forest Service, Forestry Management Associations and railway stations.

The northern borders in the natural range of the species succeed one another from south to north as follows: English oak, European ash, Norway maple, wych elm, and small-leaved lime. Occurrence of European white elm is sporadic. The English oak forms forests in the southernmost Finland, while the other species grow only as small stands, groups or solitary trees. According to experiences of planted stands or trees, the northern limits of the species succeed one another from south to north as follows: European ash, English oak, Norway maple, European white elm, wych elm and small-leaved lime. All the species are grown in parks fairly generally up to the district of Kuopio-Vaasa (63 °). The northern limits where the species can be grown as park trees reach considerably further north in the western part of the country than in the east.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4627, category Article
Paavo Jaakko Ollinmaa. (1952). Jalot lehtipuumme luontaisina ja viljeltyinä. Silva Fennica no. 77 article id 4627. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9099
English title: Native and cultivated southern broadleaved tree species in Finland.

The aim of the study was to update knowledge of natural range of English oak (Quercus robur L.), European ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.), Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Miller), wych elm (Ulmus glabra Mill.) and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall.) in Finland, and estimate how far north they could be grown as forest trees or as park trees. The study is based on literature and questionnaires sent to cities and towns, District Forestry Boards, districts of Forest Service, Forestry Management Associations and railway stations.

The northern borders in the natural range of the species succeed one another from south to north as follows: English oak, European ash, Norway maple, wych elm, and small-leaved lime. Occurrence of European white elm is sporadic. The English oak forms forests in the southernmost Finland, while the other species grow only as small stands, groups or solitary trees. According to experiences of planted stands or trees, the northern limits of the species succeed one another from south to north as follows: European ash, English oak, Norway maple, European white elm, wych elm and small-leaved lime. All the species are grown in parks fairly generally up to the district of Kuopio-Vaasa (63 °). The northern limits where the species can be grown as park trees reach considerably further north in the western part of the country than in the east.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4578, category Article
Sakari Saarnijoki. (1942). Jalavan esiintymisestä Pyhäjärven, Kokemäenjoen vesistön keskusjärven tulvarannoilla. Silva Fennica no. 58 article id 4578. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9082
English title: Distribution of European white elm in flooded shores of the central lake of Pyhäjärvi and Kokemäenjoki water system.

Distribution of European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pallas) is on its northernmost border in Pyhäjärvi and Kokemäenjoki area. This survey describes distribution of European white elm in the flooded shores of the central lake of Pyhäjärvi and Kokemäenjoki river water system.

Both Ulmus laevis and U. montana (now U. Glabra Hudson) can be found in the area, but most of the elms qrowing in thea area are U. laevis. U. laevis occurs around the lake in two separate areas, almost entirely in flooded shores of the lake. Regeneration of elm from seeds was limited on a narrow belt on the higher part of the flooded shore. Consequently, U. laevis can be found as zones around the lake, created by the changes in water level of the lake. The trees are judged to be native for the area.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Saarnijoki, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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