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Articles containing the keyword 'Lymantria monacha'.

Category: Research article

article id 469, category Research article
Henri Vanhanen, Timo O. Veteli, Sonja Päivinen, Seppo Kellomäki, Pekka Niemelä. (2007). Climate change and range shifts in two insect defoliators: gypsy moth and nun moth – a model study. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 4 article id 469. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.469
Environmental factors influenced by global climate change determine the distribution ranges of organisms. Especially ectothermic animals are expected to shift their distribution ranges northwards in the next hundred years or so. In this study simulations made with CLIMEX-modelling software were used to predict the future distribution ranges of two Central European serious forest pest species: the nun moth (Lymantria monacha L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)) and the gypsy moth (L. dispar L). The software calculates an ecoclimatic index based on the life cycle requirements of a species and thus represents the probability of a viable population to exist at a certain location. Three different climate warming scenarios were considered: temperature increase of 1.4, 3.6 and 5.8°C. Simulations generated with the current climate conditions corresponded well to the current distributions of the species. The climate warming scenarios shifted the northern boundary of the distribution for both of these species north by c. a. 500–700 km. Also the southern edge of the ranges retracted northwards by 100–900 km. The results of this study are in agreement with the results of empirical studies on other species. Being serious pest species, these species pose a potential threat to silviculture and therefore, have to be considered in the planning of forest management practices.
  • Vanhanen, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O.B. 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Veteli, Faculty of Biosciences, University of Joensuu, P.O.B. 111, FI-80101, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.veteli@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Päivinen, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O.B. 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O.B. 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Niemelä, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O.B. 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 10262, category Research note
Markus Melin, Heli Viiri, Olli-Pekka Tikkanen, Riku Elfving, Seppo Neuvonen. (2020). From a rare inhabitant into a potential pest – status of the nun moth in Finland based on pheromone trapping. Silva Fennica vol. 54 no. 1 article id 10262. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10262
Highlights: The nun moth is a significant defoliator of coniferous forests in Central-Europe; In Finland, the populations have grown and expanded northwards; Pheromone trapping confirmed the species’ presence throughout central- and southern Finland; The risk of the nun moth becoming a pest for Finland is real as the area offers endless habitats, and climatic conditions are becoming more favourable; This note describes the results from the first nun moth surveys conducted in 2018 and 2019.

Forests are affected by climate change in various ways. This includes abiotic factors such as droughts, but also biotic damage by pest insects. There are numerous examples from cases where pest insects have benefitted from longer growing seasons or from warmer summers. Similarly, new pest insects have been able to expand their range due to climatic conditions that have changed from hostile to tolerable. Such seems to be the case with the nun moth (Lymantria monacha), an important defoliator of coniferous trees in Europe. For centuries, the species has had massive outbreaks across Central-Europe, while it has been a rare inhabitant in Northern Europe. Recently, the nun moth population in Finland has not only expanded in range, but also grown more abundant. This research note describes the results from the first years (2018–2019) of a monitoring program that is being conducted with pheromone traps across central and southern Finland. So far, the northernmost individuals were trapped near the 64 N degrees. However, there were more southern locations where no moths were trapped. The species was present in every trapping site below the latitude of 62 N degrees. More importantly, at some sites the abundance of the nun moth suggested that local forest damage may already occur. Given the current climatic scenarios for Fennoscandia, it is likely that the nun moth populations will continue to grow, which is why systematic surveys on their abundance and range expansions will be topical.

  • Melin, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Yliopistokatu 6b, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7290-9203 E-mail: markus.melin@luke.fi (email)
  • Viiri, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Yliopistokatu 6b, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland; UPM-Kymmene Oyj, UPM Forest, Åkerlundinkatu 11 B, FI-33100 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: heli.viiri@upm.com
  • Tikkanen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: olli-pekka.tikkanen@uef.fi
  • Elfving, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Yliopistokatu 6b, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland; University of Oulu, Department of Biology, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: riku.elfving@gmail.com
  • Neuvonen, University of Turku, Biodiversity Unit, Kevo Subarctic Research Institute, FI-20014 Turku, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: seppo.neuvonen@utu.fi

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