Current issue: 53(2)

Under compilation: 53(3)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'Moor'.

Category: Article

article id 7132, category Article
Juhani Sarasto. (1961). Über die Klassifizierung der für Walderziehung entwässerten Moore. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 74 no. 5 article id 7132. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7132
English title: On classification of peatlands drained for forestry purposes.

The aim of the study is to find out 1) whether and how the original moor type can be found out based on vegetation regardless the phase of drainage; 2) whether the different phases of draining can be distinguished based on the vegetation; and 3) is it possible to classify the well drained moors into vegetation types that would reflect the productive capacity of the land.

The data consists of samples collected from ditched areas. There are 11 moor types from two climatic ditching zones. The results show that the original moor type can be determined based on vegetation, the phase of drainage can be determined under some limitations, and the classification for productivity can be done for practical purposes.    

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Sarasto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7132, category Article
Juhani Sarasto. (1961). Über die Klassifizierung der für Walderziehung entwässerten Moore. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 74 no. 5 article id 7132. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7132
English title: On classification of peatlands drained for forestry purposes.

The aim of the study is to find out 1) whether and how the original moor type can be found out based on vegetation regardless the phase of drainage; 2) whether the different phases of draining can be distinguished based on the vegetation; and 3) is it possible to classify the well drained moors into vegetation types that would reflect the productive capacity of the land.

The data consists of samples collected from ditched areas. There are 11 moor types from two climatic ditching zones. The results show that the original moor type can be determined based on vegetation, the phase of drainage can be determined under some limitations, and the classification for productivity can be done for practical purposes.    

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Sarasto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7465, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1955). Ü̈ber Veränderungen in den Wurzelverhältnissen der Kiefernbestände auf Moorböden im Laufe des Jahres. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 65 no. 2 article id 7465. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7465
English title: On the seasonal changes of root system of a pine stands on the peatlands.
Original keywords: Kiefer; Moor; Wurzelverhältnis; Jahreszeit

The seasonal changes of the roots systems of a pine stand on the peatlands have been studied with samples collected during summers 1952-1954 and winter 1955. There are altogether seven sample areas that are located in the district of Korkeakoski.  

The amount of roots is at the smallest in the spring, increasing then rapidly and peaking at the end of July. After that the amount of roots decreases again against the winter to the same size than in the spring. Variations seem to be similar in every year and also similar to other studies on mineral soils.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7350, category Article
Ilmari Paasio. (1941). Zur Pflanzensoziologischen Grundlage der Weissmoortypen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 3 article id 7350. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7350
English title: Plant sociological principles of open bog types.

The plant populations of Finnish open bogs are typically formed of two layers. The layers normally consist of one or rarely two species. The structure of plant populations in open bogs is a consequence of the development where determining factors are different site requirements of the species, and the differences in the biotic vitality and capacity for reproduction.

Phytogenesis should be taken as a basic unit for describing the plant societies or vegetation of treeless bogs. However, acknowledging the sub-populations may be of advantage for describing the ecological, genetic and regional characters of open bogs.

The basic classification of open bogs must be done based on the ground layer. The more detailed classification follows mostly based on field layer, partly also based on the ground layer.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Paasio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7349, category Article
Ilmari Paasio. (1940). Zur Kenntnis der Waldhochmoore Mittelfinnlands. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 2 article id 7349. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7349
English title: Knowledge on high moors in middle Finland.

The southern border of occurrence of high moors is only known for western Finland. In other parts of southern Finland the high moors are bordered with Karelian mixed moor type. The article presents observations on high moor alike moors in middle Finland. The characteristics of these high moors are described and compared with other moor types in the area.

Morphological and hydrographicalas well as vegetation related characters are presented. The most important character of the moors increasingly occurring when moving from south the north is decrease in convexity of the moor. In western part of the country clarity of raises, in eastern part of the country the abundance of large dwarf shrubs are also typical. Climatic differences between west Finland and east Finland seem to cause the differences.   

Results indicate that the climatic reasons, meaning the more continental climate in eastern part of the country, is the reason that there are fewer high moors in eastern Finland than in western Finland. The areas with tendency for developing as high moors develop themselves as drier forest high moors. It is reasonable to limit the north border of occurrence of proper high moors further south than what has been done.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Paasio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7349, category Article
Ilmari Paasio. (1940). Zur Kenntnis der Waldhochmoore Mittelfinnlands. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 2 article id 7349. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7349
English title: Knowledge on high moors in middle Finland.

The southern border of occurrence of high moors is only known for western Finland. In other parts of southern Finland the high moors are bordered with Karelian mixed moor type. The article presents observations on high moor alike moors in middle Finland. The characteristics of these high moors are described and compared with other moor types in the area.

Morphological and hydrographicalas well as vegetation related characters are presented. The most important character of the moors increasingly occurring when moving from south the north is decrease in convexity of the moor. In western part of the country clarity of raises, in eastern part of the country the abundance of large dwarf shrubs are also typical. Climatic differences between west Finland and east Finland seem to cause the differences.   

Results indicate that the climatic reasons, meaning the more continental climate in eastern part of the country, is the reason that there are fewer high moors in eastern Finland than in western Finland. The areas with tendency for developing as high moors develop themselves as drier forest high moors. It is reasonable to limit the north border of occurrence of proper high moors further south than what has been done.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Paasio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7347, category Article
Aarno Kalela. (1939). Über Wiesen und wiesenartige Pflanzengesellschaften auf der Fischerhalbinsel in Petsamo Lappland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 48 no. 2 article id 7347. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7347
English title: On meadows and meadow alike vegetation communities on the Rybachy Peninsula in Petsamo, Lapland.

The article presents the characteristics of different vegetation areas (meadows and peatlands) by their distinctive vegetation. The study area is by the Barents Sea and is the northernmost part of continental European Russia. Different sites are classified by plant communities and/or vegetation units.

The article continues on the second PDF-file. 

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7274, category Article
Ilmari Paasio. (1933). Über die Vegetation der Hochmoore Finnlands. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 39 no. 3 article id 7274. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7274
English title: On the vegetation of the raised bogs in Finland.
Original keywords: Hochmoor; Vegetation; Klassifizierung

The study is based on the measurements and observations made during summers 1927-1929 and 1932 on South- and West-Finnish high moors. The article aims to give an overview on the vegetation if the Finnish high moors. The study seeks to answer following questions: to what extent and what kind of characters of other moor types are present in high moors, to what extent occur the characteristics of high moors outside the high moor area, and what are the typical characteristics of high moors?

The article describes the different types of raised bogs and the plant topographic characters. The high moors in different parts of Finland differ from each other with their characteristics and vegetation that they are classified in three groups: high moors in south-west Finland, high moors of northern part of Satakunta-province, and high moors south-east Finland.    

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.

  • Paasio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7274, category Article
Ilmari Paasio. (1933). Über die Vegetation der Hochmoore Finnlands. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 39 no. 3 article id 7274. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7274
English title: On the vegetation of the raised bogs in Finland.
Original keywords: Hochmoor; Vegetation; Klassifizierung

The study is based on the measurements and observations made during summers 1927-1929 and 1932 on South- and West-Finnish high moors. The article aims to give an overview on the vegetation if the Finnish high moors. The study seeks to answer following questions: to what extent and what kind of characters of other moor types are present in high moors, to what extent occur the characteristics of high moors outside the high moor area, and what are the typical characteristics of high moors?

The article describes the different types of raised bogs and the plant topographic characters. The high moors in different parts of Finland differ from each other with their characteristics and vegetation that they are classified in three groups: high moors in south-west Finland, high moors of northern part of Satakunta-province, and high moors south-east Finland.    

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.

  • Paasio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7242, category Article
P. Kokkonen. (1929). Beobachtungen über die Beziehungen zwischen der Grundwassertiefe und dem Waldwachstum auf einem kanalisierten Moore. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 29 article id 7242. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7242
English title: Observations on the relationship between groundwater level and forest growth on a ditched peatland.
Original keywords: Grundwasser; Moor; Entwässerung
English keywords: ground water; peatland; drainage

The article presents the observations made on peatland “Savonneva” in summer 1929 in commune Pulkkila, north-west Finland. The study concentrates on the relationship between groundwater level and growth of trees. The areas was first ditched in 1894, when a main ditch and a side ditch were dug. The ditches were repaired several times, last time a year before the study took place.    

Parts of the area has been taken for agricultural purposes, and other areas have been naturally afforested. The size and abundance of trees varies strongly because the drainage of the area has been uneven. Closer to the main ditch the forest grows better than further away. There is a clear line between the afforested and open areas.

It seems that the tree growth decreases faster with certain groundwater levels than if the groundwater level is deeper.  

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Kokkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7229, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1929). Über die Dicke der Torfschicht und die Neigungsverhältnisse der Mooroberfläche auf verschiedenen Moortypen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 16 article id 7229. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7229
English title: The thickness of peat bed and gradients of peatland surface on different peatland types.

The type of the peatland and its classification as forest site (height-over-age-classification) are important information when the drainage potential of a peatland is defined. The gradient and thickness of peat bed are also significant.

The observations for the study have been collected in state owned forests in middle-Finland. The thickness and gradient variations have no clear differences between different types of peatlands. The results show that from the view of drainage for afforestation, the peatlands that are good or suitable for afforestation are flatter and more even that those less suitable. The more suitable peatlands also have thinner peat bed and bigger gradient.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

 

  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7229, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1929). Über die Dicke der Torfschicht und die Neigungsverhältnisse der Mooroberfläche auf verschiedenen Moortypen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 16 article id 7229. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7229
English title: The thickness of peat bed and gradients of peatland surface on different peatland types.

The type of the peatland and its classification as forest site (height-over-age-classification) are important information when the drainage potential of a peatland is defined. The gradient and thickness of peat bed are also significant.

The observations for the study have been collected in state owned forests in middle-Finland. The thickness and gradient variations have no clear differences between different types of peatlands. The results show that from the view of drainage for afforestation, the peatlands that are good or suitable for afforestation are flatter and more even that those less suitable. The more suitable peatlands also have thinner peat bed and bigger gradient.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

 

  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7086, category Article
P. Kokkonen. (1923). Beobachtungen über das Wurzelsystem der Kiefer im Moorböden. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 11 article id 7086. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7086
English title: Observations on the root system of pine on marshy soils.
English keywords: peatlands; root system; root growth; pine

The data has been collected during 1919 and 1920 in different region of Finland. The studied peatlands varied from fuscum pine swamps to pine swamps and partly to better sedge pine swamps.

The study presents five different forms of root systems. The root growth of pine on peatlands seems to vary strongly from the root form on mineral soils. On the peatlands, where the ground water near to soil cover is, can the roots grow only near the soil surface where the conditions are suitable. For the pine typical tap root is in most cases absent or grows along the soil surface. Also the frost heaving, snow and characteristics of peat affect the root system.   

  • Kokkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7056, category Article
Väinö Auer. (1921). Zur Kenntnis der Stratigraphie der mittelöstenbottnischen Moore. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 18 no. 4 article id 7056. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7056
English title: About stratification of peatlands in middle Ostrobothnia.

The article describes the characteristics and emergence and development of four peatlands in middle Ostrobothnia, Finland. In addition, the age of the Rahkaneva and Kurmunneva peatlands was determined and their relationship. The different layers of the peat and the plant relics they contain are represented.

The age determination was based on different layers of the peat that contain different fossils of pollen and pieces of different plant species. The height of the layers was measured. It seems that Rahkaneva has grown into its current area during a warm and dry period in Subboreal. 

  • Auer, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7056, category Article
Väinö Auer. (1921). Zur Kenntnis der Stratigraphie der mittelöstenbottnischen Moore. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 18 no. 4 article id 7056. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7056
English title: About stratification of peatlands in middle Ostrobothnia.

The article describes the characteristics and emergence and development of four peatlands in middle Ostrobothnia, Finland. In addition, the age of the Rahkaneva and Kurmunneva peatlands was determined and their relationship. The different layers of the peat and the plant relics they contain are represented.

The age determination was based on different layers of the peat that contain different fossils of pollen and pieces of different plant species. The height of the layers was measured. It seems that Rahkaneva has grown into its current area during a warm and dry period in Subboreal. 

  • Auer, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7045, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1920). Studien über das Verhältnis zwischen dem Moortypus und dem Oberflächentorf der Moore. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 16 no. 3 article id 7045. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7045
English title: Studies on the relationship between the type of the peatland and the peat of its surface.

The aim of the study is to find out how do the peatlands develop after drainage and how does the type of peat affect the growing conditions of the forest on it. Study is based on measurements made in summer 1919 in about middle Finland (districts of Loppi, Yläne, Kihniö, Nerkoo, Orivesi, Vilppula, Multia and Karstula). The macroscopic identified content of the peat was analyzed: the different peat types were categorized according the species of the most abundant plant remains. The characteristics of the studied peat types are represented.

The conclusion of the study is that when deciding about the suitability of the drained peatland for afforestation, the thickness and content of the peat must be considered in addition to peat type.   

  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7045, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1920). Studien über das Verhältnis zwischen dem Moortypus und dem Oberflächentorf der Moore. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 16 no. 3 article id 7045. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7045
English title: Studies on the relationship between the type of the peatland and the peat of its surface.

The aim of the study is to find out how do the peatlands develop after drainage and how does the type of peat affect the growing conditions of the forest on it. Study is based on measurements made in summer 1919 in about middle Finland (districts of Loppi, Yläne, Kihniö, Nerkoo, Orivesi, Vilppula, Multia and Karstula). The macroscopic identified content of the peat was analyzed: the different peat types were categorized according the species of the most abundant plant remains. The characteristics of the studied peat types are represented.

The conclusion of the study is that when deciding about the suitability of the drained peatland for afforestation, the thickness and content of the peat must be considered in addition to peat type.   

  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7029, category Article
Väinö Auer. (1920). Über die Entstehung der Stränge auf den Torfmooren. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 7029. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7029
English title: The development of the hummock ridges on the peatlands.
Original keywords: Stränge; Torfmoore; Moore; rimpi
English keywords: peatland; hummock ridge; moor; rimpi

The study about the formation of hummock ridges on the peatlands is based on research conducted between years 1915-1919 in Pyhäjoki area in middle Ostrobothnia area in Western Finland, in Kuusamo and Kuolajärvi in north-east Finland, and in different parts of Finnish and partly also in Norwegian Lapland.   

The hummock ridges and the “rimpis” are evolutionary in close connection with each other. Hence the sliding of peat plays an important role in the formation of hammock ridges. The formation of regularly positioned hummock ridges requires sloping surface of the moor, where the water flow or the movement of the peat goes in one direction. Formation of hummock ridges is determined by climatic factors, particularly by the floods and other weather conditions in spring time. 

Conclusion of the study is that the theories up to now about the formation of hummock ridges have not understood the phenomenon completely. The different morphological factors affect by themselves or together by the formation of regular groupings of the hummock ridges.     

The article contains an abstract (Zusammenfassung) in German.
  • Auer, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7029, category Article
Väinö Auer. (1920). Über die Entstehung der Stränge auf den Torfmooren. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 7029. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7029
English title: The development of the hummock ridges on the peatlands.
Original keywords: Stränge; Torfmoore; Moore; rimpi
English keywords: peatland; hummock ridge; moor; rimpi

The study about the formation of hummock ridges on the peatlands is based on research conducted between years 1915-1919 in Pyhäjoki area in middle Ostrobothnia area in Western Finland, in Kuusamo and Kuolajärvi in north-east Finland, and in different parts of Finnish and partly also in Norwegian Lapland.   

The hummock ridges and the “rimpis” are evolutionary in close connection with each other. Hence the sliding of peat plays an important role in the formation of hammock ridges. The formation of regularly positioned hummock ridges requires sloping surface of the moor, where the water flow or the movement of the peat goes in one direction. Formation of hummock ridges is determined by climatic factors, particularly by the floods and other weather conditions in spring time. 

Conclusion of the study is that the theories up to now about the formation of hummock ridges have not understood the phenomenon completely. The different morphological factors affect by themselves or together by the formation of regular groupings of the hummock ridges.     

The article contains an abstract (Zusammenfassung) in German.
  • Auer, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7029, category Article
Väinö Auer. (1920). Über die Entstehung der Stränge auf den Torfmooren. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 12 no. 2 article id 7029. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7029
English title: The development of the hummock ridges on the peatlands.
Original keywords: Stränge; Torfmoore; Moore; rimpi
English keywords: peatland; hummock ridge; moor; rimpi

The study about the formation of hummock ridges on the peatlands is based on research conducted between years 1915-1919 in Pyhäjoki area in middle Ostrobothnia area in Western Finland, in Kuusamo and Kuolajärvi in north-east Finland, and in different parts of Finnish and partly also in Norwegian Lapland.   

The hummock ridges and the “rimpis” are evolutionary in close connection with each other. Hence the sliding of peat plays an important role in the formation of hammock ridges. The formation of regularly positioned hummock ridges requires sloping surface of the moor, where the water flow or the movement of the peat goes in one direction. Formation of hummock ridges is determined by climatic factors, particularly by the floods and other weather conditions in spring time. 

Conclusion of the study is that the theories up to now about the formation of hummock ridges have not understood the phenomenon completely. The different morphological factors affect by themselves or together by the formation of regular groupings of the hummock ridges.     

The article contains an abstract (Zusammenfassung) in German.
  • Auer, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7533, category Article
Antti Tanttu. (1915). Ueber die Entstehung der Bülten und Stränge der Moore. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 7533. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7533
English title: Development of the hummocks and hummock ridges on the peatland.

The hummocky peatlands are fairly common in Finland. Peatlands with hummock ridges are rare in southern Finland but become more common in northern parts of the country.

In the incompletely drained flark fens the development of the hummocks can be studied particularly well because they can be found in different development phases there. The phenomenon is more common in drained peatlands than in the peatland on their natural state.

The development of the hummock ridges is close related to development of the hummocks. The hummock ridges are formed only under certain circumstances.  

Height increment of the hummock ridges is restricted by the same factors that prevent the unrestricted height increment of the hummocks. The hummock ridge may sink due to its own weight in unfrozen swamp, it may be eroded by frost, wind, flowing water or ice.  Dead trees, shading or other detriments may prevent the growth of secondary peat.  

  • Tanttu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7533, category Article
Antti Tanttu. (1915). Ueber die Entstehung der Bülten und Stränge der Moore. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 7533. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7533
English title: Development of the hummocks and hummock ridges on the peatland.

The hummocky peatlands are fairly common in Finland. Peatlands with hummock ridges are rare in southern Finland but become more common in northern parts of the country.

In the incompletely drained flark fens the development of the hummocks can be studied particularly well because they can be found in different development phases there. The phenomenon is more common in drained peatlands than in the peatland on their natural state.

The development of the hummock ridges is close related to development of the hummocks. The hummock ridges are formed only under certain circumstances.  

Height increment of the hummock ridges is restricted by the same factors that prevent the unrestricted height increment of the hummocks. The hummock ridge may sink due to its own weight in unfrozen swamp, it may be eroded by frost, wind, flowing water or ice.  Dead trees, shading or other detriments may prevent the growth of secondary peat.  

  • Tanttu, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7530, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1913). Studien über die Moore Finnlands. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 7530. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7530
English title: Studies about Finnish peatlands.

The first part of the article presents an overview of peatlands and their classification on the basis of e.g. their nutrient content in Finland. The second part (a separate pdf file) represents the different types of peatland with their indicator plants in Finland. 

Peatlands can be classified in several ways, depending on the purpose of the classification. There are also differences whether an area is considered biologically or geographically as a peatland. For agricultural or forestry purposes the peatlands can be classified on the basis of their nutrient content.

Article also discusses the three ways of emergence of peatlands and the variations of water relations of peatlands.    

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7530, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1913). Studien über die Moore Finnlands. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 2 no. 3 article id 7530. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7530
English title: Studies about Finnish peatlands.

The first part of the article presents an overview of peatlands and their classification on the basis of e.g. their nutrient content in Finland. The second part (a separate pdf file) represents the different types of peatland with their indicator plants in Finland. 

Peatlands can be classified in several ways, depending on the purpose of the classification. There are also differences whether an area is considered biologically or geographically as a peatland. For agricultural or forestry purposes the peatlands can be classified on the basis of their nutrient content.

Article also discusses the three ways of emergence of peatlands and the variations of water relations of peatlands.    

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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