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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'Prunus'.

Category: Research article

article id 10568, category Research article
Juha Kaitera, Leena Aarnio, Tiina Ylioja, Jouni Karhu. (2021). Naohidemyces vaccinii sporulates on wild species of ground flora in Finnish Norway spruce seed orchards but Thekopsora areolata does not on other species than Prunus. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 5 article id 10568. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10568
Highlights: Cherry-spruce rust, Thekopsora areolata, was not found on any of the common species of ground vegetation in Finnish Norway spruce seed orchards; Blueberry rust, Naohidemyces vaccinii, was common on Vaccinium myrtillus and occasional on V. vitis-idaea in all seed orchards; Thekopsora areolata occurs only on Prunus in Finnish Norway spruce seed orchards.

Thekopsora areolata (Fr.) Magnus is a serious cone pathogen that reduces seed crop of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and other Picea spp. Natural sporulation of T. areolata was investigated in nine Norway spruce seed orchards suffering from severe successive T. areolata epidemics in Finland. Habitats occupied by Vaccinium myrtillus L., V. vitis-idaea L., Empetrum nigrum L. and Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull, and a number of other wild species belonging to ground flora were investigated for Thekopsora areolata uredinia 9–10 times in May–September 2018–2019. Occurrence of Thekopsora uredinia was estimated in current-year leaves of the plants in ca. 25 sample plots of 1 m2 in each seed orchard. A sample of plant leaves with rust uredinia or necrotic pustules were collected from each plot. No rust fruiting stages of T. areolata were found on any of the test species of ground flora. However, rust uredinia were observed regularly on leaves of V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea in all seed orchards between mid-July and the end of September. Rust sporulation started on V. myrtillus in July and on V. vitis-idaea in August. Based on symptoms, uredinia and spore morphology, the rust on both V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea was identified as blueberry rust, Naohidemyces vaccinii (Jørst.) S. Sato, Katsuya & Y. Hirats. ex Vanderwegen & Fraiture. The uredinial stage of the rust on Vaccinium spp. were described. No evidence of natural sporulation of T. areolata on wild plant species other than Prunus was observed in Finnish Norway spruce seed orchards.

  • Kaitera, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural Resources and Bioproduction, FI-90570 Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha.kaitera@luke.fi (email)
  • Aarnio, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural Resources and Bioproduction, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: leena.aarnio@luke.fi
  • Ylioja, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural Resources and Bioproduction, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tiina.ylioja@luke.fi
  • Karhu, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural Resources and Bioproduction, FI-90570 Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jouni.karhu@luke.fi
article id 10446, category Research article
Juha Kaitera, Tuomas Kauppila, Jarkko Hantula. (2021). Assessment of the potential of Norway-spruce-seed-orchard associated plants to serve as alternate hosts of Thekopsora areolata. Silva Fennica vol. 55 no. 2 article id 10446. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10446
Highlights: Prunus is the only alternate host of cherry-spruce rust identified in this study; Cherry-spruce rust does not infect plants that belong to common ground vegetation flora in Finnish Norway spruce seed orchards; Spores from different Finnish cherry-spruce rust populations are similarly pathogenic on Prunus; Disease control should be focused only on Prunus in seed orchards.

The alternate host range of cherry-spruce rust is poorly studied although such information could be important in protecting spruce seed orchards from infections. Pathogenicity of cherry-spruce rust, Thekopsora areolata (Fr.) Magnus, was investigated on potential alternate host species in a greenhouse and in a laboratory in Finland. Five common species of Ericaceae, Vaccinium myrtillus L., V. uliginosum L., V. vitis-idaea L., Empetrum nigrum L. and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng, were inoculated in the greenhouse using aeciospores from seven Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.] seed orchards suffering from T. areolata in 2018. In addition, young detached leaves of Vaccinium spp. and 17 other plant species of ground vegetation from eight Norway spruce seed orchards were inoculated with aeciospores from six seed orchards in the laboratory in 2019. Also, young leaves of Prunus padus L. trees growing within the seed orchards or close to them were inoculated as controls. None of the inoculated leaves of the potential alternate hosts formed uredinia either in the greenhouse or in the laboratory. In contrast, leaves of P. padus from the seed orchards were infected by the six spore sources from six seed orchards and produced uredinia. As T. areolata spores were able to infect only P. padus, but not the other tested species belonging to ground flora, it was concluded that T. areolata disperses only via Prunus spp. in Finnish seed orchards.

  • Kaitera, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural Resources, FI-90570 Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha.kaitera@luke.fi (email)
  • Kauppila, Botanical Gardens, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tuomas.kauppila@oulu.fi
  • Hantula, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural Resources, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jarkko.hantula@luke.fi

Category: Research note

article id 5644, category Research note
Jiří Korecký, Jan Bílý, Petr Sedlák, Milan Lstibůrek. (2017). Innovative multiplex and its evaluation for effective genotyping of wild cherry. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 3 article id 5644. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.5644
Highlights: We present simple and cost-efficient method of SSR genotyping in cherry species; Seven of fifteen previously published primer sequences have been altered in order to produce complementary amplicons in pseudo 15-plex; The effectiveness and discriminatory power of established multiplex were verified by SSRs analysis of 48 wild cherry trees.

Trees from the family Rosaceae play an important role in forest and agricultural ecosystems. Therefore, they are often an object of interest for both forest and horticultural tree breeders. Here, we present the utilization of an effective microsatellite (SSRs) genotyping method for wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) and verified the discriminatory power of the presented multiplex by genotyping 48 genetically distinctive individuals (plus-trees). Concerned loci were previously proven to be cross-compatible among various cultivars of cherry, hence, the method could have a broader utilization beyond to the field of forestry.
Our technique is based on post-PCR processing of 15 polymorphic SSRs loci amplified in three multiplex reactions with fluorescently labeled primers (6-FAM, VIC, PET and NED). All PCR products could be pooled and analyzed simultaneously (pseudo 15-plex). In order to make this approach feasible, we redefined sequences of several primers. Thus, utilizing modified primers provides non-overlapping amplicons of each fluorescent dye.

  • Korecký, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 1176, 165 21, Prague, Czech Republic ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7859-1750 E-mail: korecky@fld.czu.cz (email)
  • Bílý, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 1176, 165 21, Prague, Czech Republic ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5794-0907 E-mail: bily@fld.czu.cz
  • Sedlák, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 129, 165 21, Prague, Czech Republic ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8016-8900 E-mail: sedlak@af.czu.cz
  • Lstibůrek, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 1176, 165 21, Prague, Czech Republic ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6304-6669 E-mail: lstiburek@fld.czu.cz

Category: Article

article id 7334, category Article
T. J. Hintikka. (1937). Über die Verbänderungen und Hexenbesen an der Traubenkirsche (Prunus Padus L.). Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 45 no. 2 article id 7334. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7334
English title: On fasciations and witches‘ brooms on (European) bird cherry trees (Prunus padus L.).

The article presents six fasciations found in Finland on bird cherry trees. Based on the literature it seems that fasciations are the precondition for witches’ brooms. The witches’ brooms on bird cherry trees are rare, but they have been mentioned in literature. Some views on their occurrence and development are represented. Also the possible causes behind the developments are discussed based on literature.  

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Hintikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7334, category Article
T. J. Hintikka. (1937). Über die Verbänderungen und Hexenbesen an der Traubenkirsche (Prunus Padus L.). Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 45 no. 2 article id 7334. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7334
English title: On fasciations and witches‘ brooms on (European) bird cherry trees (Prunus padus L.).

The article presents six fasciations found in Finland on bird cherry trees. Based on the literature it seems that fasciations are the precondition for witches’ brooms. The witches’ brooms on bird cherry trees are rare, but they have been mentioned in literature. Some views on their occurrence and development are represented. Also the possible causes behind the developments are discussed based on literature.  

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Hintikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4738, category Article
Sakari Lilja. (1967). Tuomen merkityksestä kuusen tuomiruostesienen, Pucciniastrum padi (Kunze & Schm.) Diet., esiintymiselle kuusessa. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 1 article id 4738. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14448
English title: Significance of the bird-cherry (Prunus padus L.) for the occurrence of the rust, Puccinastrum padi (Kunze & Schm.) in spruce.

The present study deals with the occurrence of the rust, Pucciniastrum padi (Kunze & Schm.) Diet., in the shoots and cones of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in the forest area of the training and experimental farm of Helsinki University at Viikki (60’10’ N; 25’ E). The most important task was to clarify the correlation between the occurrences of the disease in spruce and the abundance of the alternative host of the disease, bird-sherry (Prunus padus L.).

Infected shoots were encountered in a 17-year-old planted seedling stand of spruce. In this stand 8.4% of the seedlings were infected. The density of bird-cherry trees was in the stand higher than in the surrounding areas. The number of infected shoots was the greatest in those places where the density of bird-cherries was highest and already at a distance of some ten metres form the bird-cherry stands the degree of infection decreased considerably. The portion of infected cones in the whole material of this study was 19.5%.

The dependence of the frequency of disease on the abundance of bird-cherries at different distances from the spruce stand was studied by means of regression analysis. For this reason, the percentage infected cones were determined by sample plots and the abundance of bird-cherry trees from six zones (0–50, 50–100, 100–150, 150–200, 200–300, and 300–500 m) around each sample plot. The results showed that the dependence between the degree of infection of cones and the abundance of bird-cherry in the surroundings only reached the closest zone. There were also infected cones at greater distance, for instance, 200–300 m from the bird-cherries about 10% of the cones could be infected. Both the infected cones and shoots were longer than the healthy ones.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lilja, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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