Current issue: 53(2)

Under compilation: 53(3)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'Suomi'.

Category: Article

article id 7141, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1963). Suomen sahateollisuuden kausivaihtelu. 1. Aineiston hankinta ja käsittely sekä tulosten luotettavuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 1 article id 7141. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7141
English title: Seasonal variation in the sawmill industry of Finland I. Collection and treatment of the material and reliability of the results.

The purpose of this paper is 1) to establish the possible seasonal variation of the different phases of work in the sawmill industry in Finland, 2) to study the internal and external factors influencing the seasonal character of the sawmill industry, 3) to study ha time lags between the work phases of the sawmill industry, 4) to analyse the seasonal nature of the industry’s money transactions, and 5) to give information concerning the factors influencing employment. The investigation is based on questionnaires of a random sample of sawmills concerning the time period of 1958-1960. This paper concentrates on the methods of the study, the results are reported in a separate paper in the Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 75 vol 1.

It was concluded that if seasonal variation in the sawmill industry is to be analysed on the scale it has been in the present work, sampling is the cheapest and most practicable method of collecting the material. If seasonal fluctuation of the industry is to be calculated by size classes, the sample must be allocated into strata by measuring the heterogeneity of the classes with a parameter illustrating seasonal variation. It might be useful to apply these parameters already when the total size of the sample is determined. For the smallest sawmills, for which practically all data have to be collected from primary documents, the most practical method is perhaps to send collectors to the spots. To the larger sawmills the questionnaire can perhaps be sent by mail. A moving index should be obtained for calculation of a seasonal index, but this demands long time series. The collection of the data is described in detail.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7131, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1961). Valtion metsien hakkuusuunnite ja sen toteutumisen edellytykset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 74 no. 4 article id 7131. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7131
English title: The allowable cut in the State Forests of Finland and the condition for its realization.

Two lines can be defined in the management planning for the State Forests of Finland: 1) general planning for regions and inspectional sub-regions based on forest inventory, and 2) management plans for individual districts based on the revision of each district after 10–15 years. Long-term planning is has recently been alleviated by several new methods, such as stock-development forecast and yield tables.

A stock-development forecast and cutting budget were prepared separately for each State Forest region. The present growing stock was based on the data collected in the inventory in 1951–1955. Desirable stock for each region was calculated. The methods to calculate total cut during near future, allowable cut, allowable cut by timber products, the long-term development of the allowable cut, and conditions for realizing the allowable cut are presented in the paper.

The development of the growing stock towards a desirable condition requires also realization of a silvicultural program. Because the Finnish forest industry is expanding vigorously, the amount of the allowable cut on a sustained basis must be estimated carefully. Otherwise the demand for wood may exceed the supply. Though there are many sources of error in preparing a long-term cutting budget, it was considered necessary for State Forestry. An approximate estimate of the largest cut on a sustained basis and a program of silvicultural measures necessary to increase the yield gradually has been worked out.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7123, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1960). Moitteet ja välimiesmenettelyt Suomen sahatavaran viennissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 73 no. 1 article id 7123. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7123
English title: Claims and arbitration in exports of sawn goods from Finland.

This study concentrates on claims made against Finnish shippers or referred to arbitration by foreign buyers. The material is collected from two inquiries on claims and arbitrations, sent by the Finnish Sawmill Owners’ Association to Finnish sawmills engaged to exportation in 1954 and 1958.

On average the claims concerned about 5% of the sawn goods exported from Finland. They affected about 3% of the deliveries from the large sawmills, 10% of the deliveries of medium-sized sawmills and 15–20% of the small sawmills. In large consignments of raw material, variations in quality are not so marked as in smaller ones. Also, the grading of goods is stricter in the larger sawmills, and as they have well-established business relations, they have better opportunities to select goods with a view to demand of the buyer and the marketing areas.

The ratio of goods claimed was least in exports to remote countries, on the Western European markets in exports to Great Britain and the Netherlands. In Belgium, the ratio was high. In 1954 and 1958 approximately 12% of the claims were referred to arbitration. The bigger the sawmills, then on average the smaller the ratio of cases of arbitration in the number of claims. In Belgium, disputes have had to be settled by arbitration most frequently. Over 90% of the claims were made because of defects in quality or condition. About 5% were in respect of the specification of dimensions, and only 5% were related to other reasons than the good themselves. The sums paid for claims connected to the goods in 1958 represented only 54% of those demanded by the buyers. It would perhaps be advisable to consider the formulation of generally acceptable rules of the grading of export timber according to categories of shippers with definition of the minimum standard for each grade.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7120, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1960). Maan kuvioiden ja puuston vaihtelu sekä sen vaikutus metsän inventoinnin tarkkuuteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 72 no. 3 article id 7120. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7120
English title: Variation of the site patterns and growing stock and its effect on the precision of forest inventory.

The purpose of the investigation was to study the characteristics of the site and the growing stock and the effect of their variation on the precision of forest inventory. The total area of the forest tract is considered to be already known or it can be measured with surveying. The sub-areas or strata and the mean timber volume of each wooded stratum are estimated by sampling. Thus, the total volume of each stratum is the product of the estimates of the area and mean volume. Only line method of sampling the areas will be examined. Field material was measured in the inventory of the Finnish State Forests with the method used in the third National Forest Inventory. The circular plots and the sample trees were measured in the forests of Inari district. In this systematic line-plot method the distance between the lines was 5 km.

The results show that the total area should be broken down into suitable strata, such as the full-stocked productive forest land and regeneration areas with mother trees. The mean volume for each stratum is estimated with the plot method. An advanced estimation of the approximate mean volume and the coefficient of variation in the strata are needed for calculating the optimum allocation of plots.

If the volume calculation is done with the diameter as variable the variation of the plot volumes is decreased. If the local volume table is used and the site and stock characteristics differ from the characteristics of the volume table stock, a significant systematic error is possible. Planning of efficient and economical forest inventories requires data concerning site and stock variation. It should be calculated and published systematically by geographical region.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7501, category Article
Eric Appelroth. (1959). Käytännön metsämiehen ajatuksia metsätieteestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 11 article id 7501. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7501
English title: Practice and science of forestry.
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; Suomi
English keywords: forest research; Finland

This article is a discusses development of forest research to its present stage. The writer points out that of all different branches of industry, forestry is probably the one most based on practical experience, as it is not until recently implied in discriminate exploitation of available natural resources. In addition, until recently job performances in forestry were essentially based on the muscular strength and acquired skills of the individual worker. Until the eighteenth century the tenor of scientific thought was alien to a domain like forestry. Prior to that time, science meant jurisprudence, theology and philosophy. After Linnaeus science experienced a time of expansion. Since then, the contact between science and forestry has developed along two different lines. First, forest has attracted the interest of biologists. Second, where forestry has been unsuccessful in solving its own problems, the need has arisen for theoretical investigations.

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 12.

  • Appelroth, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7499, category Article
L. Heikinheimo, S. Ervasti, L. Ahonen. (1959). Suomen metsätaloustieteellisen tutkimuksen kehitys. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 9 article id 7499. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7499
English title: Development of forest economic research in Finland.

This article is a review of Finnish forest research in the field of forest economics in the previous 50 years. Forest economics in Finland is comparatively young as an independent field of forest research. Not until 1922 was the office of Professor of Forest Economics established in the University of Helsinki. The Department of Forest Economics was established within the Forest Research Institute in 1928. The article presents the main fields of investigation, namely Finland’s forest resources and forest balance, forest ownership policy, forest legislation and forest taxation, forest labour, forest geography, forest industries and wood transport, marketing of forest products, and business economics of forestry.

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 10.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ahonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7497, category Article
Theodor Wegelius. (1959). Metsäteknologinen tutkimustoiminta Suomessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 7 article id 7497. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7497
English title: Survey of forest technology research in Finland.

This article is a review of Finnish forest research in the field of forest technology in the previous 50 years. The field of research is relatively new among the forest sciences. In the beginning and still during the last century forest technology as an individual field of science was directed entirely towards the anatomical properties of wood and their uses, and to the chemical composition of wood. Later the attention was given to the actual forest work, mainly felling, logging and transportation of timber. The invention of production of wood pulp and cellulose opened new fields of work within the processing and use of wood.

The review indicates that the forest technological research is finally going ahead at full speed. It has proved right that logging technics have received attention in research. The technical questions are by nature such that they require a rapid solution in order that the production machinery would not stop.

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 8.

  • Wegelius, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7495, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1959). Metsänarvioimistieteellinen tutkimus Suomessa vuosina 1909-1959. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 5 article id 7495. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7495
English title: Finnish research in the fields of forest mensuration and management in 1909-1959.

This article is a review of Finnish forest research in the fields of forest mensuration and management during the previous 50 years. Of the studies special attention deserves the development, structure and growth of growing stock and forest survey. The development during the past half century has led to the differentiation of forest mensuration into a few independent fields of knowledge. Fields closely connected with forest mensuration are photogrammetry and statistical methods.

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 6.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7493, category Article
Peitsa Mikola, Esko Kangas, Leo Heikurainen. (1959). Metsänhoitotieteellinen tutkimus Suomessa vuosina 1901-1959. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 3 article id 7493. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7493
English title: Silvicultural research in Finland from 1901 to 1959 .
Original keywords: metsäntutkimus; metsänhoito; Suomi

This paper is a review on the silvicultural research in Finland, researchers and the main subject of the research within the previous 50 years. The task of silvicultural research is to serve forest management work and create a foundation for the practical operations, on one hand, and to answer to the constantly arising questions in the practice of forest management, on the other.  

Forestry as an independent branch of science began in 1909. At first the research was primarily biological, dealing with both the foundations and practices of silviculture. The main subjects are divided to forest sites and vegetation, biology of trees and stand, and methods of forest management. 

The article is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 4. 

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7491, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1959). Suomen metsätieteellisen seuran ensimmäinen puolivuosisata. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 70 no. 1 article id 7491. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7491
English title: The first half century of the Society of Forestry in Finland .

The Society of Forestry (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) published a special issue of Acta Forestalia Fennica on the occasion of its 50th anniversary on April 29th 1959. It comprises as series of articles surveying the evolution of different branches of forest research in Finland. It also has a brief history of the Society.  

The Society was founded in April 1909 at a time when the highest education of forestry was moved from the Forestry Institute at Evo to the University of Helsinki. The intention was to get the teaching onto a scientific basis and to enable graduate study leading to an advanced degree. The Society was founded in a meeting called together by professor A.K. Cajader, who stated that domestic forestry must be supported by domestic research. The first publications of the society were published in the same year, the first issues of the series Acta Forestalia Fennica in 1914 and a new series Silva Fennica in 1926. A third series, Communicationes Forestales appeared in 1928–1933. During the 50 years, the Society has given research grants to scientist worth 4,687,900 Finnish marks. 

The history of the the Finnish Society of Forest Science is published in English in separate PDF Acta Forestalia Fennica vol 70 no 2.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7450, category Article
J. Keränen. (1954). Lämmityskausi ja sen lämpötekijät Suomen ilmastossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 62 no. 1 article id 7450. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7450
English title: Heating season and factors affecting temperature in Finnish climate.
Original keywords: lämmitys; ilmasto; Suomi; lämpötilat

The aim of the investigation was to estimate the effect of climate on the temperature observations and heating of buildings. Temperature data of observation stations in Finland and in the neighbouring countries near Finnish borders, in all 190 stations, was collected during heating season. 

Heating season begins in the northern border of Finland in 20th of July,  in Rovaniemi oin the Northern Finland in the middle of August, and 5th of September in the Southern coast of the country. Similarly, the heating season ends in 2.-10.6. in Southern and Central Finland, in June in Northern Finland, and in the middle of June in the Northernmost Finland, where heating season continued almost the whole year. In Southern Finland the length of heating season was 280 days. In the coldest heating season in 1942-1942 the heating decree-days increased most in the province of Varsinais-Suomi in Southern Finland. The increase decreased towards North. In the warmest heating season in 1929-1930 decrease of heating decree-days was similar in almost the whole country. The data can be used to define how different weather conditions affect the need of fuel.  

The PDF includes a summary in German. 

  • Keränen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7414, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1954). Suomen maaseudun tulisijat. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 2 article id 7414. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7414
English title: Rural fireplaces in Finland.
Original keywords: tulisijat; kiukaat; puun käyttö; Suomi
English keywords: fireplaces; firewood; Finland

Wood consumption in Finland in 1938-1939 was studied by investigating the wood consumption of aprroximately 2,000 farms. One of the surveys connected to the investigation studied fireplaces and heating equipment in rural districts, and recorded the types of fireplaces in the farms.

The majority of the rural fireplaces are rather old-fashioned and the technically best equipment are rare. The fireplaces in Eastern and Northern Finland are often more primitive than in Western and Southern Finland.

In Western Finland, where hard bread is common, the baking oven is lit 30-50 times a year. In Eastern Finland, where soft bread is baked, the oven is lit about 200 times a year. The sauna i heated about 40 times a year in the west, and 80 times a year in the east.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7362, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1942). Metsätalouskartaston soveltaminen sotilastarkoituksiin. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 9 article id 7362. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7362
English title: Use of forest maps in military purposes in Finland.

The Second World War revealed some weaknesses that affect also peacetime planning of military defence in Finland. One of the shortages were lack of maps applicable in military purposes in Northern Finland.

The state forests are mainly situated in the north. Consequently, cartographic material of Finnish Forest Service may be modified with little extra work for military purposes. Best suited for the purpose are forestry maps of different forest districts that have scales ranging from 1:20,000 to 1:100,000. In addition, general maps in the scale of 1:100,000 or 1:200,000 are available. The article discusses further the additions that can be made in the maps.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7357, category Article
Erkki Rautvuori. (1941). Suomen kauppalakuntien metsät. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 4 article id 7357. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7357
English title: Forests owned by market towns in Finland.

Finnish municipalities can be classed in towns and cities, market town and rural communes. In 1942 there was 27 market towns in Finland. The aim of this study was to investigate the amount and state of forests in market towns. The data was collected mainly by interviewing the authorities of the market towns in 1936-1938. The statistics about forests were often insufficient.

The total land area owned by market towns was 8,963 ha, 71.7% of which was forest land, 12.0% wasteland and 16.3% arable land. A total of 21 of the 27 market towns own forest. Of all the land owned by the market towns about half is situated within borders of the town, however, 57% of the forest land is situated outside the market town itself. The forest areas are small, only four towns own more than 500 ha of forests, and only six has a forest management plan. The silvicultural state of the forests seems, however to be relatively good.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Rautvuori, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7356, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1942). Koivun vesomisesta ja sen metsänhoidollisesta merkityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 3 article id 7356. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7356
English title: Silvicultural usefulness of sprouting of birch.

Birches’ (Betula sp.) ability to grow sprouts is low. The stump grows root collar and stump shoots, but the stump shoots are not proper stump shoots that will grow from the space between wood and bark. The buds are situated very low in the base, even under the ground. In this study, no actual root shoots could be found. Also the bushy alpine birches seem to be formed from stump and root collar shoots.

In Southern Finland silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) is more common than downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) in dry upland forest sites, while downy birch is common in fresh mineral soil forests and peatlands. In Northern Finland downy birch is the dominant birch species. Of the two species downy birch has markedly better capacity to form stump and root collar shoots both in Northern and Southern Finland. In general, birches grow sprouts much more strongly in Northern Finland.

Growth of the shoots is fastest during the first year after the felling of the parent tree and slows down gradually. The stump shoots may get separated from the stump when the stump decays, and the decay may also spread to the shoots. It is common that the shoots have no own roots, and die along with the stump. The shoots may have own root system or use roots of the parent tree that have stayed alive, in the latter case decay spreads almost always from the stump to the shoot. Whether the tree was felled with axe or saw had no effect on sprouting, probably because the sprouting buds are situated in the base of the tree. The larger stumps had usually fewer sprouts than smaller stumps. The fertility of the site seemed to have little effect on sprouting, but more moist sites formed more sprouts.

Forest regeneration using sprouts may be possible in peatlands for firewood production. on mineral soil sites birch does not suit for coppicing. The proportion of trees originating from sprouts decreases strongly by the time. Consequently, in Southern Finland sprouts have little effect on regeneration of birch. In Northern Finland sprouting is the most important way of regeneration.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7356, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1942). Koivun vesomisesta ja sen metsänhoidollisesta merkityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 3 article id 7356. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7356
English title: Silvicultural usefulness of sprouting of birch.

Birches’ (Betula sp.) ability to grow sprouts is low. The stump grows root collar and stump shoots, but the stump shoots are not proper stump shoots that will grow from the space between wood and bark. The buds are situated very low in the base, even under the ground. In this study, no actual root shoots could be found. Also the bushy alpine birches seem to be formed from stump and root collar shoots.

In Southern Finland silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) is more common than downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) in dry upland forest sites, while downy birch is common in fresh mineral soil forests and peatlands. In Northern Finland downy birch is the dominant birch species. Of the two species downy birch has markedly better capacity to form stump and root collar shoots both in Northern and Southern Finland. In general, birches grow sprouts much more strongly in Northern Finland.

Growth of the shoots is fastest during the first year after the felling of the parent tree and slows down gradually. The stump shoots may get separated from the stump when the stump decays, and the decay may also spread to the shoots. It is common that the shoots have no own roots, and die along with the stump. The shoots may have own root system or use roots of the parent tree that have stayed alive, in the latter case decay spreads almost always from the stump to the shoot. Whether the tree was felled with axe or saw had no effect on sprouting, probably because the sprouting buds are situated in the base of the tree. The larger stumps had usually fewer sprouts than smaller stumps. The fertility of the site seemed to have little effect on sprouting, but more moist sites formed more sprouts.

Forest regeneration using sprouts may be possible in peatlands for firewood production. on mineral soil sites birch does not suit for coppicing. The proportion of trees originating from sprouts decreases strongly by the time. Consequently, in Southern Finland sprouts have little effect on regeneration of birch. In Northern Finland sprouting is the most important way of regeneration.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7354, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1940). Puiden vikanaisuuksien merkitys ja huomioon ottaminen Perä-Pohjolan mäntymetsien hoidossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 1 article id 7354. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7354
English title: The effect of injuries in trees on forest management of Scots pine stands in Northern Finland.

The aim of the study was to find out what are the causes of damage in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands and the frequency of different kinds of injuries, which are then discussed in relation to the silvicultural state and management of the stands in comparison to ideal forests. Sample plots were studied in over 80-year old Scots pine dominated stands in mineral soil sites of different forest types in Northern Finland in the area of Perä-Pohjola. 10–40 trees were chosen as sample trees in each sample plot. The sample trees were felled, and the diameter, height of crown and injuries outside and inside of the stem were recorded.

Length of knot-free part of the stem was higher in the dominant trees and in older age classes of the trees. The form of the stem becomes broader and rounder with the age. The crowns are, however, longer in Northern Finland compared to Southern Finland. In management of Scots pine stands, all trees diseased by Scots pine blister rust (Cronartium flaccidum) should be removed. The disease is common in Northern Finland, and the number of diseased trees increases as the stands get older. Decay was more common in trees that had fire wounds. In general, injuries decreased the length and diameter growth of the trees. From the dominant trees should only injured and diseased trees removed in the thinnigs. Codominant trees can be left to grow when spare trees are needed to replace missing dominant trees. Detailed instruction of selection of the removed trees are given for each age class.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7099, category Article
K. T. Jutila. (1926). Tutkimuksia Perä-Pohjolan ja Lapin talous- ja asutusoloista IV. Karjanhoidosta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 28 no. 4 article id 7099. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7099
English title: Studies on the economic conditions and colonization of Perä-Pohjola and Lapland IV. Animal culture.

The study includes a detailed survey of 154 farms in the area. Part of the results are presented in the second and third part of the article series about agriculture in Perä-Pohjola and Lapland. The typical breed of cattle in the area was the white Northern Finnish landrace (pohjoissuomenkarja). The size of herds in the farms varied from one to 25, but exceeded seldom 10 cows. Summer pastures were mostly forest pastures. For the winter hay and leaf fodder was gathered. The article includes a detailed description of cattle-keeping in the area. In addition, the farms often had horses and sheep. Keeping pigs or poultry was rare.

The PDF includes a summary in English. This is a fourth part of four-article series about the natural resources in the area of Perä-Pohjola and Lappi.

  • Jutila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7093, category Article
Eino Saari. (1923). Kuloista etupäässä Suomen vationmetsiä silmällä pitäen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 26 no. 5 article id 7093. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7093
English title: Forest fires in Finland with special reference to the state forests.

The study is based chiefly on statistics of forest fires in the state forests in 1911-1921, published in the annual reports of Board of Forests (now Metsähallitus, Forest Service). Forest fires burned 37,200 hectares of forests in the state forests in 1911-1921. In Southern Finland the number of fires was 795 and in the Northern Finland 610. The frequency of forest fires is higher in south because of the denser population in the area. The average forest fire ranged 118 hectares in Southern Finland and 39 hectares in the north. Fires broke out most often because of careless use of fire. Weather conditions and the type of the forests influenced the risk of fire. In the north, risk for forest fire is lower because of the high proportion of peatlands. Only 14% of the fires burn the trees of the stand. In Southern Finland 50% of the fires and in Northern Finland 42% of the fires damage only part of the stand. Rest of the fires were surface fires that do not burn the trees. The value of damages by forest fires in the state forests in 1901-1922 was annually in average 139,400 Finnish marks.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7093, category Article
Eino Saari. (1923). Kuloista etupäässä Suomen vationmetsiä silmällä pitäen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 26 no. 5 article id 7093. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7093
English title: Forest fires in Finland with special reference to the state forests.

The study is based chiefly on statistics of forest fires in the state forests in 1911-1921, published in the annual reports of Board of Forests (now Metsähallitus, Forest Service). Forest fires burned 37,200 hectares of forests in the state forests in 1911-1921. In Southern Finland the number of fires was 795 and in the Northern Finland 610. The frequency of forest fires is higher in south because of the denser population in the area. The average forest fire ranged 118 hectares in Southern Finland and 39 hectares in the north. Fires broke out most often because of careless use of fire. Weather conditions and the type of the forests influenced the risk of fire. In the north, risk for forest fire is lower because of the high proportion of peatlands. Only 14% of the fires burn the trees of the stand. In Southern Finland 50% of the fires and in Northern Finland 42% of the fires damage only part of the stand. Rest of the fires were surface fires that do not burn the trees. The value of damages by forest fires in the state forests in 1901-1922 was annually in average 139,400 Finnish marks.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Saari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5485, category Article
Pekka Ripatti. (1992). Yksityistilojen metsäalan muutokset Kaakkois-Suomessa 1986-1991. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 3 article id 5485. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15646
English title: Forest area changes of non-industrial private forest holdings in southeast Finland, 1986–1991.

The aim of the study was to describe the total change of forest area in non-industrial private forest holdings in southeast Finland, 1986–1991. The average gross decrease of forest area was 1.7 hectares, whereas the average gross increase was 1.2 hectares. Consequently, the average size of holdings decreased from 32.5 to 32.0 hectares. The most important factors affecting the changes of forest area were the inheritance system, resulting in a decrease of 0.7 ha, and reclassification of forestry land, producing an increase of 0.4 ha per holding. The increase of small, under 10 ha holdings accounted for much of the structural change.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Ripatti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5422, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1990). Suomen pyöreän puun vienti 1921-1986. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5422. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15576
English title: Finnish exports of roundwood in 1921–1986.

When Finland attained independence in 1917–1918, about 65% of her population made their linving from agriculture and only 17% from industry. Despite the fact that most sectors of the modern forest industry, i.e. sawmilling, pulp and paper making as well as plywood industry were then in existence a considerable proportion of timber was exported as roundwood.

It was reasonable to assume, however, that further economic development would reduce the roundwood exports to provide raw material for industry. The present paper investigates the Finnish roundwood exports in 1921–1986 largely from the point of view of this hypothesis. Examination of statistics is focused on the change of volume of exports in the major categories of wood, changes in the trade policies of consumer countries, changes in competition between exporting countries and changes in Finnish export policy.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5238, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1985). Suomalaisen kuusen puuaineen vertailua Keski-Euroopassa kasvaneiden kuusi- ja jalokuusilajien puuaineeseen. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 2 article id 5238. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15417
English title: Norway spruce wood grown in Finland compared with spruce and fir wood grown in Central Europe.

The aim of this literature review was to compare Finnish Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) sawn goods to Central European spruce sawn goods which contain fir in some amount. However, it was found that no statistically valid comparisons have been made. Therefore, conclusions have been based mainly on the relationship between various properties and growth rate. According to this analysis, most properties of Finnish spruce are better, although small in practice.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5224, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1984). Suomen metsäntutkimuksen kehittämisohjelma. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 4 article id 5224. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15403
English title: Development programme for forestry research in Finland.

The Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) has drawn up this development programme primarily for the authorities and decision-makers. Forestry research has been divided into three areas: A) Biological forestry research, B) Research into the management and utilization of forests, and C) Research into forest economics and forest policy. Key research tasks are presented under the above-mentioned headings. The programme also deals with the organization of research, post-graduate education, library and information services, publishing policy and international co-operation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5223, category Article
Eino Mälkönen, Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1984). Metsäntutkimus metsätalouden tietopohjana. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 4 article id 5223. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15402
English title: The role of forestry research in providing a scientific basis for practical forestry.

The Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) arranged on 26th April 1984 a Forestry Science Day centred on the theme ”The role of Forestry Research in Providing a Scientific Basis for Practical Forestry”. Specialists in forestry and forest policy reviewed the role, present situation and future tasks of forest research from different points of view, in their papers. This article includes the talks given in the event in Finnish and an English summary.

  • Mälkönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5217, category Article
Pentti Sepponen. (1984). Pohjoissuomalaisten metsäammattimiesten käsityksiä metsien ja soiden marjantuotoskyvystä. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 5217. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15396
English title: Observations of forest specialists in Northern Finland on the berry yield capacity of forests and swamps.

A survey was carried out among forest foremen and forest technicians to record their observations on the value of various swamp and forest types as producers of berries and on the effect of drainage of peatlands upon the berry yields. Comparative agreement existed on the best blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) forest types and on the best lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) forest types of rather dry upland sites. Fuscum pine swamps or fuscum bogs were considered best for the most part as regards the yield of cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.). The replies showed rather great dispersion.

Agreement existed as well on the relation between drainage of peatlands and the yields of our economically most important swamp berries, cloudberry and cranberry. 90% of those responding were of the opinion that drainage reduces the cloudberry yield in the long term and a full 97% indicated that cranberry crop diminishes as well.

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  • Sepponen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5181, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Olle Dumell. (1983). Kuusipuun taivutuslujuuden riippuvuus tiheydestä ja vuosiluston leveydestä Etelä- ja Pohjois-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5181. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15097
English title: Effect of basic density and growth ring width on the bending strength of Norway spruce wood from southern and northern Finland.

A population consisting of 450 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) samples was gathered from northern and southern Finnish wood. The static bending strength was affected greatly by the density of the wood. However, keeping the density constant, the bending strength was higher in northern than in southern Finnish wood. The reason was the effect of the growth ring width.

The basic density was affected by the growth rate. Keeping the growth ring width constant, the basic density was over 5 kg/m3 lower in northern than in southern Finnish wood. This result supports the earlier findings on the effect of latitude.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Dumell, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5181, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Olle Dumell. (1983). Kuusipuun taivutuslujuuden riippuvuus tiheydestä ja vuosiluston leveydestä Etelä- ja Pohjois-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 2 article id 5181. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15097
English title: Effect of basic density and growth ring width on the bending strength of Norway spruce wood from southern and northern Finland.

A population consisting of 450 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) samples was gathered from northern and southern Finnish wood. The static bending strength was affected greatly by the density of the wood. However, keeping the density constant, the bending strength was higher in northern than in southern Finnish wood. The reason was the effect of the growth ring width.

The basic density was affected by the growth rate. Keeping the growth ring width constant, the basic density was over 5 kg/m3 lower in northern than in southern Finnish wood. This result supports the earlier findings on the effect of latitude.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Dumell, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5172, category Article
Pekka Hynninen, Pentti Sepponen. (1983). Erään suoalueen ojituksen vaikutus purovesien laatuun Kiiminkijoen vesistöalueella, Pohjois-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 1 article id 5172. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15087
English title: The effect of drainage on the quality of brook waters in the Kiiminkijoki River basin, Northern Finland.

The present study deals with the effect of forest drainage on some quality factors of brook waters. Under study were several brooks in the basin of the Kiiminkijoki River as well as its main tributary, the Nuorittajoki River. These are located in Northern Finland and belong to the international water program Project Aqua.

The following values were determined for the water samples: pH, electric conductivity, colour, concentration of suspended solids., NO2, NO3, and NH4 nitrogen concentrations, dissolved and total phosphorus, and Ca, Mg, K and Fe concentrations. Water quality in the brooks was monitored prior to and after ditching. A statistically significant change was noted in colour, in the concentration of suspended solids, in the NH4 concentration and in some brooks also in the pH value and in the total phosphorus, K, and Fe concentrations.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Hynninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sepponen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7042, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1920). Kasvu- ja tuottotaulut Suomen eteläpuoliskon mänty-, kuusi- ja koivumetsille. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 7042. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7042
English title: Growth and yield tables for the Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch in the southern part of Finland.

The first proper growth and yield tables were prepared in Finland already in 1872, but they have been used little as the needs of forestry and forest sciences increased. One of the problems of the old yield tables was how the site quality classes are determined. The new growth and yield tables use the forest site type classification, which enables the use of same site types for all tree species. This makes it possible to compare the growth of different tree species in same kind of sites. The tables also use stem frequency distribution series. In the first stage, the tables were prepared for Southern and Central Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7042, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1920). Kasvu- ja tuottotaulut Suomen eteläpuoliskon mänty-, kuusi- ja koivumetsille. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 7042. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7042
English title: Growth and yield tables for the Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch in the southern part of Finland.

The first proper growth and yield tables were prepared in Finland already in 1872, but they have been used little as the needs of forestry and forest sciences increased. One of the problems of the old yield tables was how the site quality classes are determined. The new growth and yield tables use the forest site type classification, which enables the use of same site types for all tree species. This makes it possible to compare the growth of different tree species in same kind of sites. The tables also use stem frequency distribution series. In the first stage, the tables were prepared for Southern and Central Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7039, category Article
Olli Heikinheimo. (1920). Pohjois-Suomen kuusimetsien esiintyminen, laajuus ja puuvarastot. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 7039. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7039
English title: The distribution and volume of Norway spruce forests in Northern Finland.

Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) forests in Northern Finland are situated mainly in the state lands. The survey is based on silvicultural surveys made in the northernmost districts of the state forests. The quality of private lands of the area was deduced based on the adjacent state lands and specific observations. A map was drawn on the distribution of productive Norway spruce forest in the study area.

The continuous Norway spruce forest areas covered 1,112,000 hectares, of which 866,000 hectares were on the state lands. Especially in the northern parts of the area also more fragmented spruce forest could be found (130,000 hectares in the state lands). The estimated total volume of the wood in the forests in the state and private lands was 57.78 million m3 in the continuous spruce forest area. The spruce forests were often situated on hill and fell areas relatively high above the sea level. In the areas north of the 66th parallel, almost half of the forests were above 300 meters above the sea level. Because spruce forests of the state lands were concentrated near watershed areas, the wood harvesting was more expensive, and reduced the value of the state forests. The spruce forests grow usually on fresh mineral soil sites. However, towards north the species was found on drier sites. The stands were mostly pure spruce stands or mixed birch-spruce stands. The older age groups were the most common, but young stands were rare.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5090, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen, Raili Voipio. (1980). Suomalainen haapa- ja poppelilajeja (Populus) koskeva kirjallisuus 1759...1979. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5090. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15031
English title: Finnish literature on aspen and poplar species (genus Populus), 1759–1979.

The first Finnish paper on aspen (Populus tremula L.) was published in 1759 in Åbo (Turku). After this dissertation, numerous scientific and other articles and reports have been published. In this bibliography about 340 papers are listed. Most of the papers deal only with aspen or other species of the genus Populus. Besides these even those articles have been included which deal with other problems but contain some information on the features of poplars.

The titles are listed without any translation or classification. If an article has a summary, it is shown in the title.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Voipio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5088, category Article
Reijo Solantie, Kari Ahti. (1980). Säätekijöiden vaikutus Etelä-Suomen lumituhoihin v. 1959. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5088. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15029
English title: The influence of weather on the snow damages for forests in Southern Finland in 1959.

Snow and rime, attached to branches of conifers, seriously damaged forests in a region of 11,000 km2 in Southern Finland during a passage of two nearly occluded cyclones in 1959. The roles of different weather elements were studied by considering the variations occurring in them over this region and its surroundings. Damage occurred only inside an accentuated pattern of copious orographic precipitation. Precipitation only became attached to and retained on branches in such parts of the area where temperature varied on both sides of freezing point but did not exceed 0.6°C. Furthermore, damage only occurred in forests where rime formed (above a certain level and on sloping towards the prevailing wind).

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  • Solantie, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5077, category Article
Eero Paavilainen, Kustaa Seppälä. (1980). Toimenpiteet vanhoilla ojitusalueilla. Suomalais-neuvosliittolaisen symposion esitelmät. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 2 article id 5077. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15018
English title: Management of old forest drainage areas – papers presented in Finnish-Soviet symposium.

The forestry working group of the committee for scientific and technical cooperation between Finland and the Soviet Union initiated cooperation work between the two countries in the field of forestry almost ten years ago. The Finnish organizations the Department of Peatland Forestry, the Finnish Forestry Research Institute, and the Institute of Peatland Forestry of the University of Helsinki participated in the activity. From the Soviet Union the participants have been the Ministry of Forestry, the Russian Federation of USSR, and the Forestry Research Institutes of Leningrad and Estonia.

This paper includes the papers presented in the joint symposium arranged at the Forest Field Station of University of Helsinki on 17.9.1979. The 9 Russian lectures and the 8 Finnish ones, are presented either in their entirety or slightly condensed variably in Finnish, English or Russian. The summary of the seminar is presented in English and in Russian.

  • Paavilainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5058, category Article
Max Hagman. (1980). Suomalais-neuvostoliittolainen metsägenetiikan ja siemenhuollon symposiumi Punkaharjulla 17.–18.8.1978. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5058. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14999
English title: Reports of the Finnish-Soviet symposium on forest genetics and forest tree seed production, Punkaharju, Finland, August 17-18. 1978.

As a part of the scientific and technical cooperation between Finland and the USSR a symposium and an excursion on forest genetics and seed production was organized in Finland in August 1978. The symposium paper presented at Punkaharju are published here in order to bring them available for a wider audience.

The 12 symposium reports deal with the following subjects: Practical application of forest genetic research (A.I. Novoselceva), geographical variability and provenance transfer (E.P. Prokazin, M. Hagman, I. Etverk), variation in wood density (P. Velling), variation of flowering and seed crops in seed orchards (Y.P. Efimov), and natural stands (V. Koski), vegetative propagation (J. Niiranen), seed size effects and early test problems (J. Mikola), quantitative analysis of genotypic and environmental effects (S.A. Petrov), hormonal induction of flowering (O. Luukkanen) and x-ray photography analysis of the ageing of seeds during storage (M. Ryynänen).

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hagman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7031, category Article
O. J. Lakari. (1919). Ehdotus kasvutalujen laatimiseksi Pohjois-Suomen metsiä varten. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 12 no. 4 article id 7031. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7031
English title: Proposal to prepare growth and yield tables for the forests in Northern Finland.
English keywords: forest mensuration

The article describes a method to prepare growth and yield tables for forests in Northern Finland, which differ markedly from forests in the southern part of the land. They are mostly uneven-aged, and there are little forests that belong to separate age-classes. The forests are predominantly old. The most common age-class in the old forest’s group is 150-160 years. Also, the lands are poorer than in Southern Finland. Because the variation of the poorer sites is larger than in better sites, the number of sample plots needed to prepare the growth and yield tables has to be larger than in Southern Finland, where the lands are better. The yield tables cannot be prepared for all the numerous forest site types of Northern Finland. The number of age-classes has to be relatively low. In consequence, the growth and yield tables will not be as accurate as those made for the better forest site types in Southern Finland.

  • Lakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4974, category Article
Markku Mäkelä. (1977). Teknisesti korjattavissa oleva hakkuutähde sekä kanto- ja juuripuu Kaakkois-Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4974. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14825
English title: The amounts of logging residues and stump and root wood technically harvestable in southeast Finland.

The amounts of harvestable logging residues and stump and root wood were examined in the area where 100,000 solid m3 of stemwood was cut in 1975. The cutting amounts of stemwood from work sites suitable for harvesting of logging residues was 35,000 m3, and suitable for harvesting of stump and root wood 38,000 m3. The increase in the yield of wood (without bark) from logging residues compared with the unbarked stemwood was 2.4%. The same percentage of wood from stump and root wood was 5.0–5.8% depending on the harvesting loss.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4969, category Article
Robert J. Rainio. (1977). Tammen levinneisyydestä läntisellä Uudellamaalla ja Turunmaan itäisimmissä osissa. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 2 article id 4969. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14820
English title: On the distribution of oak (Quercus robur) in the southwest parts of Finland.

The maps concerning the natural distribution of oak (Quercus robur L.) have proved most unreliable in detailed examination. In this paper, the author has collected his observations on natural oak in the westernmost parts of the province of Uusimaa and the easternmost parts of province of Turunmaa, the islands included. Furthermore, the paper includes some viewpoints which must be considered as criteria when determining the naturality of the stand in question. Future borders of oak’s distribution range must be moved farther up north to replace the earlier views of the northern limit of natural oak in Finland.

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  • Rainio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4925, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1975). Pohjoissuomalaisten mäntytukkien soikeus. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 4 article id 4925. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14767
English title: Ovalness of Scots pine logs in Northern Finland.

The material of this study consists of 1,080 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saw logs measures in two saw mills in Northern Finland. The largest and the smallest top-diameter of each log was measured under bark. According to the results, the ovalness was rather small, 1 mm or 4.9% on average. On the other hand, only 14.3% of all logs showed a diameter difference smaller than 2%. The ovalness was larger than 10% in 5.8% of all logs.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4919, category Article
Olavi Luukkanen. (1975). Thaimaalaisten metsänhoitajien yliopistokoulutus Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 2 article id 4919. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14775

Since the year 1966, fourteen specialists, most of them forestry graduates from Kasetsari University in Bangkok, have studied or will start studying in Finland. The visiting graduate students have completed their program successfully, and are interested, as well as the Thai authorities, in continuing the educational cooperation. However, the Finnish Government now seems to have changed the list of countries which are included in this kind of program. The Thai authorities will possibly grant a limited number of scholarships for studies carried out in Finland. The possible need to develop the study program further is discussed if the educational cooperation with Thailand will continue.

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  • Luukkanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4868, category Article
Mikko Tormilainen. (1972). Havaintoja Oitin siemenviljelyksen mäntykloonien kukinnasta ja käpysadosta. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 4868. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14671
English title: Studies of flowering and cone crop in a seed orchard of Scots pine.

Male and female flowering, cone crop, and some vegetative characteristics were studied in grafts 10 to 16 years of age in a clonal seed orchard of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Genetic variation was found between clones in flowering as well as in cone production. Clone evaluation resulted in similar classifications of clones in different years. A regression analysis showed that crown size clearly increased but previous height growth slightly decreased flowering and cone production. The percentage of pollinated female strobili did not differ between clones.

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  • Tormilainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4857, category Article
Antti Lappalainen. (1971). Metsät ja verot. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4857. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14659
English title: Forests and taxation in Finland.

There is no clear picture in Finland of how big the revenues are that the State and the local authorities receive from taxation for the part of primary forestry. Conception of taxation varies from 100% to 50%. The paper presents a comparison between the gross income from timber sales as determined according to the method used at the Central Statistics Bureau and the net revenues as calculated on the basis of forest fee.

At 1920s area taxation was introduced in forest taxation. The system is based on forest types and their timber production capacity. According to the principles of area taxation, no tax is paid for overcuts, whereas timber capital savings should be paid for.

According to the calculations of this study, in 1958–62 the gross income from timber sales was about 506 million Fmk annually in Southern Finland, the costs involved in timber production about 437 million Fmk, and the annual taxable income 231 million Fmk. In the period more valuable timber assortments were harvested than those for which taxes were paid according to the old regulations.

Half a century ago, area taxation was a system suited to its purpose. Now, however, forestry is in the hands of another generation, and accounting has been introduced in practical agriculture and forestry. Therefore, a taxation system based on the real income from timber growing should be introduced. The transition period could even be relatively short. It seems probable that a forest owner does not sell timber at a time when this would be required by silvicultural aspects in order to avoid income taxation, he should have to be present an acceptable working plan.

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  • Lappalainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4856, category Article
Pekka Rautiainen. (1971). Ympäristö- ja perintötekijöiden vaikutus männyn ilmiasuun Pohjois-Karjalan piirimetsälautakunnan siemenviljelyksessä Tohmajärvellä. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4856. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14658
English title: The effect of environmental and genetical factors on the phenotype of Scots pine in a seed orchard in North Karelia.

The study material included 600 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grafts from the Tohmajärvi seed orchard in Eastern Finland. Their broad sense heritability for the height growth was 0.92, for the number of branches 0.87 and for the angle of branching 0.84. Grafts from Central Finland had cones more often than the southern ones, the frequencies being 26.3% and 11.2%. It seems that dominance plays a significant role in the genetical variation of this seed orchard and that height growth is probably more rewarding breeding characteristic than quality, the difference being small, however.

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  • Rautiainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4846, category Article
Olavi Linnamies. (1971). Metsäteollisuutemme laajennukset ja puuraaka-aineen riittävyys. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 3 article id 4846. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14648
English title: Expansion capacity of Finnish forest industries and the sufficiency of wood raw material.

The Finnish forest industries have doubled their use of wood raw material during the past two decades. The average annual overcut of 4.0 million m3 in 1960–64 has been turned into an average annual surplus of 2.7 million m3 in 1965–69. By 1974 industry’s requirements for domestic roundwood would increase by about 6.3 million m3, if all new capacity can be taken into full production. The MERA allowable cut, if realized, would leave a 1.5 million m3 annual surplus in the forest balance in 1974. Less intensive forestry programs would mean a 1.5 to 4.4 million m3 overcut in 1974.

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  • Linnamies, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4844, category Article
Kaarina Rutanen. (1971). Sinivuoren luonnonpuiston kasvisto ja kasvillisuus. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4844. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14646
English title: Flora and vegetation of the Sinivuori Nature Park in Southern Finland.

The Sinivuori Nature Park, located in the northeast part of the county of Häme in Southern Finland represents the rare fertile forest lands in the country, and belong partly to the so-called centre of herb‐rich forests of Häme. Sinivuori is one of the smallest nature reserves in Finland (64 ha). The detailed vegetation analysis was performed in 1969, supplemented by earlier and later observations. The area was divided into 69 one-hectare squares for the study of the flora and vegetation.

The most common rock in the park is mica schist. The pH of the soil is relatively high, in average 6.6. Thermal-time sum is 1,100–1,200. The vegetation differs to a large extent from the surrounding areas. 169 vascular plants were found in the area, some of which very rare in the area. The paper lists the plants and their abundance in the area, and the vegetation is described by the forest types. Distribution maps are presented for the species.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Rutanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4842, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1971). Metsikkösadannan määrä eräässä hoidetussa männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4842. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14644
English title: Throughfall in a managed Scots pine stand in Southern Finland.

The purpose of the study was to measure the throughfall in a managed Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Southern Finland (61°47’, 24°18’). Totally 20 summer rain gauges (collecting area 100 cm2) were placed randomly in form of a lattice of 100 squares, each 2x2 m. Six rain throughs, 15 cm x 150 cm, were placed in the experimental stand. Auxiliary precipitation measurement was done in an opening, by using four summer rain gauges, two rain throughs and one recording rain gauge. The throughfall was followed in May–September 1967.

In comparison with summer rain gauges, the rain throughs gave too low values when the precipitation was below 3 mm/rain shower. Accordingly, only the results of rain gauges were used. The rate of throughfall was determined by the amount of precipitation and the rate of heaviness of the rain shower. When trying to describe the relative amount of throughfall by using various characteristics of the stand, the equitation proposed by Seppänen (1964) proved the best. When the rate of throughfall was depicted with the distance between the summer gauge and the nearest tree, there was negative correlation between these. The correlation was negative under heavy rains, but positive in small rains.

Various factors of uncertainty are discussed. During long periods the areas under Scots pine canopies reach more rain water than those between the canopies, which may be important when analysing the spatial distribution of ground vegetation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4833, category Article
Eero Malmivaara, Jouni Mikola, Christel Palmberg. (1971). Pajujen mahdollisuudet metsäpuiden jalostuksessa. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 1 article id 4833. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14622
English title: Potential of willows in forest tree breeding.
Original keywords: metsänjalostus; pajut; Suomi

A review is made into the experiences and possibilities of willow breeding, with a particular consideration of their application under Finnish conditions.

In comparison with other tree genera, Salix has many advantages in breeding. The great number of species, large genetic variation between and within species and frequent crossability offer good possibilities for improvement by hybridization. The dioecious flowering, plentiful seed production and short generation cycle are valuable properties for breeding by controlled pollination. Individuals with desirable characteristics can be easily propagated vegetatively from cuttings. The propertied stated above are also characteristic of poplars, the breeding of which has resulted in great success. Corresponding results can be therefore expected from willow breeding, which has recently been initiated in several countries.

Today willows have no practical significance for forestry in Finland. There are, however, some suitable Salix species, both indigenous and exotic, for starting material for breeding, and plenty of favourable sites for willows. Therefore, the beginning of breeding research with willows should be well justified also in Finland.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Malmivaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Palmberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4811, category Article
Raimo Lehto. (1970). Opetustoiminnan taustaa ja työnopetus Hirvaan metsäkonekoulussa. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 1 article id 4811. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14600
English title: Background of education and occupational instruction at the Hirvas Forest Machine School.

The share of occupational instruction at the Forest Machine School varies between 70 and 80%. The paper describes organization of the education, curriculum, teaching methods, practical training, machinery, and learning experience of the students. It discusses the influence of teaching programme, and school environment on attitudes and motivation of the students.

The school employs an adaptation of the TW I method in its actual methods of occupational instruction. The method of demonstration is also employed. The size of a training group has been restricted to 10 pupils, and the school has attempted to acquire plenty of instruction components, material for repair, and practice worksites. In this way the repetition of essentials can be guaranteed. The minimum factor in driver training is the competence to use a grab loader. In the training of mechanics the core competence is the diagnostics of defects and the making of adjustments.

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  • Lehto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4809, category Article
N. A. Osara. (1969). Polttoaineiden ja puutalouden säännöstely Suomessa toisen maailmansodan aikana ja sen jälkeen. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 4 article id 4809. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14597
English title: Government control of fuels and forestry in Finland during World War II.

As Finland has neither coal nor oil resources, it has had to resort to large-scale imports dependant on foreign relations and especially maritime connections. When the outbreak of World War II broke these connections, the state had to institute comprehensive controls and measures to ensure the supply of fuels. The present article deals with the measures taken by the authorities at that time.

Although the danger to Finland of interruption in fuel imports had been pointed out, the Finns had made hardly any preparations to manage on their own. In autumn 1939 there was no reserve stocks and particularly vulnerable was the question of motor fuels and lubricants.

When the Winter War ended in spring 1940, it was realised that special measures were needed. A law was enacted that concerned both the revival of production and regulation of consumption. For instance, every forest owner was notified of his share of the fuelwood logging. The wood processing industry had been accustomed to maintain stocks of wood covering two years’ requirements, but these inventories, too, were depleted by 1944. The law for safeguarding the supply of timber, enacted in early 1945, invested far-reaching powers in the authorities, and the logging plans were exceptionally large in 1945-47. Controls governing forestry and the forest industry were discontinued in 1947.

In Finland it is necessary to maintain a state of preparedness. This applies above all to fossil fuels and particularly oils.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Osara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4800, category Article
Veli-Pekka Järveläinen. (1969). Metsänhoidolliset mielipiteet ja metsänhoidollinen toiminta maatilametsätaloudessa. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 3 article id 4800. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14588
English title: Opinions about silviculture in farm forestry in Finland, and practical steps taken.

The purpose of this study was to find out about the forest owner’s views on silviculture and any forest management work he had carried out. The data is based on interviews of 289 forest owners in municipalities of Jämsä and Karstula in Central Finland in 1966. The forest owners were a random sample of all males in the municipalities, who alone or together with their wives were in the possession of at least 2 ha of cultivated land and 10 ha of forests.

The forest owners’ attitudes towards silviculture were generally favourable. A common opinion was that money spent on silviculture is a paying proposition (88%), that forest management is better today than it used to be (87%), that cultivation of forests is an economic proposition (81%), and that few owners manage their forests properly unless forced by the law (79%). The need for planning silvicultural measures was also generally accepted (78%).

However, few agreed that the legally imposed silvicultural fee is necessary, that the new silvicultural methods were practicable, or that money he invested in silviculture is profitable to the forest owner. Only 45% agreed that forestry experts have sufficient understanding of the owner’s needs. One third of the forest owners had carried out the following silvicultural tasks: forest cultivation, forest drainage or forest fertilization, on a minimum area of five hectares. Forest cultivation had been carried out by 63%, forest drainage by 44% and forest fertilization by 16% of the respondents. Vast majority (90%) had employed forest experts and a many nearly every year, mainly for marking the trees to be felled.

In the more rural municipality of Karstula, the forest owners’ views towards forestry was more favourable than in the semi-industrialized Jämsä.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Järveläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4795, category Article
Martti Takala. (1969). Suomen tiedepolitiikan lähiajan tavoitteita. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4795. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14581
English title: Objectives for short-range science policy of Finland.

The paper describes the aims of the policy of science from three different viewpoints: 1) financing research activity, 2) organizing research activity, and 3) listing and prioritizing research program.

In 1968 about 0.6–0.8% of the gross national product was used for research. In the basis of investigations, aims are set up for the increase of the research activity; this gives more emphasis to the research serving economy and industry. The influence of different systems of financing research is examined with special attention to the anticipated productivity of industrial research and development and the economic risks included therein.

The tasks of independent research institutes and universities should not be kept clearly apart. Research work in a small country can be productive only when concentrated to a sufficient degree. Cooperation between various institutes might be the most important means from the viewpoint of productivity of research. The State Commissions representing the main branches of science and the expert committees appointed by them can best carry out listing of large research programs and fields of special research and put them in order of priority.

  • Takala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4791, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1969). Metsäntutkimuslaitos tehostuvan metsätalouden aikana. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 2 article id 4791. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14577
English title: The Finnish Forest Research Institute in the present period of increasing intensity of forestry.

Foundation of the Finnish Forest Research Institute in 1917 was one step in the plans of A.K. Cajander to organize Finnish forestry research. Already earlier the highest forestry education had been incorporated into the University of Helsinki (1908) and the Finnish Society of Forestry founded (1909). In conformity with statute of 1962, the task of the Forest Research Institute is “to perform studies and experiments in order to develop Finnish forestry in a manner adapted to the purpose”. Consequently, the task of the institute is to carry out studies explicitly serving practical forestry.

The article describes the actual and required development of the Forest Research Institute. Concerning the most recent steps of development, for instance, four new professorships has been created: Forest Zoology, Tree Breeding, Forest Yield Science and Mathematics. In addition, a few regional research and experimental stations were established.

Strengthening the Forest Research Institute, i.e. increasing its staff of research workers and its funds, must still be continued to make it possible for the Institute to satisfy the great demand for research work of present-day practical forestry. The article also gives attention to the internal scientific development of the institute. Particularly, there is reason to stimulate the extended studies of young research workers as well as international exchange.
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  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4757, category Article
Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1967). Suomen metsäntutkimus ja sen kehittäminen. Silva Fennica vol. 1 no. 4 article id 4757. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14541
English title: Forestry research in Finland and its further development.

In 1965, the Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) appointed five working groups representing various fields of forestry to get a general view of the present stage and future need of development of forestry research. The present paper gives a summary of the reports prepared by the working groups and presents some suggestions concerning improvement of the general condition for forestry research.

First, an account is given of the present stage of forestry research; this is done in the form of a list including the institutes where forestry research is practiced. The most important of these institutes are the University of Helsinki, which in 1966 employed 42 research workers, and the Finnish Forest Research Institute which employed 52 investigators. The total number of research workers was 114. The funds available and the financial sources are also dealt with, as well a as the aftergrowth of research workers and the publishing activity.

In addition, a review is presented of the most important tasks of research according to the reports of the working groups. Finally, an account is given of the program of development. According to the program, the number of new researcher’s positions required has been estimated as being rather large. Development of the research activity organization presupposes establishment of some new departments at the Finnish Forest Research Institute and at the University of Helsinki; moreover, a common laboratory as well as a forest-machine station are required. The funds needed at the most important state institutions will be about 90% higher in 1970 and 190% higher in 1980 than at present. The aftergrowth of research workers should be essentially increased and its distribution of the fields of forestry should be more even. No new series of publication have been considered necessary.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7666, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela, Sakari Salminen. (1991). Suomen metsävarat 1977-1984 ja niiden kehittyminen 1952­-1980. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 220 article id 7666. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7666
English title: Forest resources of Finland in 1977–1984 and their development in 1952–1980.

The field of work of the 7th National Forest Inventory was carried out during 1977–84. This report consists of the analysis of the forest resources, long-term development of forests and the results by ownership categories in Finland.

The area of forestry land, 26.4 million ha, has decreased slightly because of the increase of build-up areas and communication routes. Forest land, which is suitable to growing wood profitably, amounted 20.1 million ha. It has increased, although not as fast as earlier, due to drainage and fertilization of scrub and waste land swamps and the afforestation of agricultural land.

The growing stock volume was 1,660 million m3 and the estimated gross annual increment 68.4 million m3. A large quantity of young, rapidly growing stands, and fellings markedly below the increment, are the principal factors increasing the growing stock. The volume of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) has increased most but the greatest proportional increase has been in the volume of broadleaved trees.

The silvicultural quality of stands has improved and the increase in saw log tree volume has resulted in an increase in the total growing stock volume. The proportional volume of saw logs, however, has decreased. Both aging mature stands and postponed thinnings increase the risk of losses due to mortality and decay. Too dense stands retard the diameter growth of trees. The proportion of unsuccessful artificial regeneration has increased.

The area of private forests has slightly decreased, while companies and collective bodies have increased their ownership. Non-farmer private ownership already accounts for one half of the area of private forests. The silvicultural quality of company forests is best and the increase of the growing stock and its increment is proportionally greatest in these forests.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Salminen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7645, category Article
Viljo Holopainen, Aarne Nyyssönen, N. A. Osara, Jouko Hämäläinen, K. O. Donner. (1984). Suomen Metsätieteellinen seura 75 vuotta. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 190 article id 7645. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7645
English title: The 75th Anniversary volume of the Society of Forestry in Finland.

The 75th Anniversary volume of the Society of Forestry in Finland (now the Finnish Society of Forest Science) consists of three invited papers.

Professor Viljo Holopainen contributed the article ”The Society of Forestry in Finland during the period of active science and forest policy”. The article gives an account of the founding of the Society and its early activities, and views the main trends in the development of forest science in Finland. The emphasis is on a review of the science policy practiced in Finland during the past few decades, the changes that have taken place in forestry and forest policy and the challenges facing forest research in the changed circumstances. The development in the organization and material resources of forest research is examined in relation to the general trends in science policy. The author also gives an extensive account of the Society’s activities.

Professor Aarne Nyyssönen’s article ”International connections of Finnish forestry research” is an account of the international connections that forestry research in Finland has had in recent years. The author begins with international cooperation in university level education, especially in research training. He then proceeds to examine the international organizations in the field of forestry research, their tasks, activities and the role of Finnish researchers in them. A special form of cooperation, based on bilateral agreements between Finland and other countries is brought up. The greatest importance is attached to Nordic cooperation.

Professor N.A. Osara studies the comprehensive question ”World forestry: some trends and prospects”. The article begins with a review of forest resources, which points out several alarming problems in the tropical and subtropical zones as well as in industrialized countries. Prospects for expansion in the consumption of wood and wood-based products, industry and trade are studied in relation to wood availability and renewable forest resources. The author concludes that forestry can contribute to the improvement of rural conditions all over the world. He also stresses the importance of forest management not only for wood production but also for soil and water management.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Osara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hämäläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Donner, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7622, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1981). Suomen metsätieteellisen julkaisutoiminnan rakenne ja määrällinen kehitys vv. 1909-1978. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 175 article id 7622. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7622
English title: Structure and development of publishing activity in Finnish Forest Sciences in 1909–1978.

This study examines the extent, structure and development of the publishing activity of Finnish forest sciences between 1909–1978. The subject comprises the four main forestry series; Acta Forestalia Fennica, Silva Fennica, Communicationes Forestales Fenniae and Folia Forestalia. Collectively, 532 authors produced 1,715 publications containing 90,134 pages.
The total number of pages of forest science publications doubled every 25 years. Only a small number of short research reports (few pages) and long monographs (over 200 pages) were published. The median age class of the authors was 36–40 years. The so called Lotka’s law, which describes the productivity of the researchers, proved to be valid in forest sciences. According to this law, among other things, one tenth of the researchers produced approximately half of all publications. Despite changes, the structure of the publisher community remained roughly constant. Every year approximately 30% of the author community was composed of new members, whilst 19–26% of authors stopped publishing.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7599, category Article
Veikko Juhana Palosuo. (1979). MERA-ohjelmat Suomen metsätaloudessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 165 article id 7599. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7599
English title: MERA programmes in the Finnish forestry.

The Forest Financing Committee played an important role in Finnish Forestry in the 1960's. This voluntary working group prepared three plans for financing basic forest improvement work from 1965 to 1975.

The report describes the origin of the MERA I (1965–70) and the volunteer work of the Forestry Financing (MERA) Committee in preparing the second and third programmes (1966–75). It deals the initiative of the Committee aiming to finance forest improvement works also from international sources, resulted later on to the Forest Improvement Project (1973–76). Its costs were covered for 16% by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development in form of a State Loan. The report includes comments about the forest policy in Finland during the 60s and 70s as well as the results of the programmes.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish and Swedish.

  • Palosuo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4711, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1963). Suomen sisävesien aluskanta. Puutavaraliikenteen aluksia koskeva selvittely. Silva Fennica no. 113 article id 4711. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14269
  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4710, category Article
Paavo Ennevaara. (1963). Suhdanteiden vaikutus puutavaran myynteihin Keski-Pohjanmaalla hakkuuvuosina 1927/28-1931/32. Silva Fennica no. 113 article id 4710. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14268
  • Ennevaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4704, category Article
V. A. Kolehmainen. (1960). Lehtikuusenviljelys Tuomarniemellä. Silva Fennica no. 108 article id 4704. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9139
English title: Cultivation of larch in Tuomarniemi, Finland.

Foreign tree species have been planted in Finland since 1900s, the most famous being Larix sibirica plantations in Raivola in Karelia, which now belongs to Soviet Union. One of the largest larch plantations of Finland today is situated in Tuomarniemi, in Central Finland. Ten larch stands were established in Tuomarniemi between 1912 and 1937 mainly by planting. The stand established in 1937 was sown. The trees represent five larch species: Larix sibirica Ledeb. (5 stands), Larix gmelinii var. kurilensis (2 stands, current name probably Larix gmelinii var. gmelinii), Larix americana Michx. (1 stand, now Larix laricina), Larix decidua Mill. (1 stand) and Larix occidentalis Nutt. (1 stand). The total area of the larch stands is 82.5 ha. This paper reports the studies made in the plantations in 1958.

In Tuomarniemi larch grows well in many types of soil from Vaccinium type sites to fresh mineral soil sites. The age of the stands varies from 19 to 48, height from 12 to 24 metres and annual growth from 5 to 12 m3/ha. Larix sibirca has the best stem form of the species, followed by L. gmelinii var. kuriliensis. Easiest to split is the straight-grained L. gmelinii var. kuriliensis. L. sibirica is almost as easy to process. The wood of L. decidua, on the other hand, is often spiral-grained and tough. The trees are seldom infected with decay fungi.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Kolehmainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4689, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1960). Metsähallinnon vuosisataistaival 1859-1959. Silva Fennica no. 107 article id 4689. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14130
English title: A century of Finnish State forestry 1859-1959.

This book deals with the Finnish Forest Service, organization responsible for the management of the State forests of Finland, since its establishment in 1859 up to the present time. Attention is paid especially to the following topics: the area of State Forests and its changes; the organisation of Forest Administration; the promotion of transportation conditions for State forestry; silvicultural treatment of State Forests, their management and commercial activity; the Forest Service as an employer; the State Schools for training forest foremen; the activity of the Forest Service as regards private forests.

The PDF includes a short summary in English, a more comprehensive history of the Forest Service is published in Silva Fennica no. 112.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4694, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1960). Metsäntuotteet Ison-Britannian rakennusaineiden mainonnassa. Silva Fennica no. 104 article id 4694. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9133
English title: The position of forest products in advertising of building materials in Great Britain.

This paper concentrates on analysing advertising of building materials used in residential, agricultural and factory building, power station construction, warehouse building and the joinery industry in Great Britain, concentrating on advertising to consumers, including architects, engineers, building entrepreneurs, farmers and do-it-yourself practitioners. The material is based on questionnaires answered by 8 professionals of the field, and assessment of two leading English paper in the field of construction in January 1 – June 30, 1959.

It was concluded that forest products were clearly less advertised than other building materials. The unweight average degree of advertising of all forest products was. 1.7, while the score was 2.6 for other materials. Of the different forest products stand out advertising of plywood and sawn good. The most extensively advertised materials were metals, concrete and cement, and some covering materials. Forest products accounted only ¼ of the advertising space in the publications.

The most important media used in advertising building materials were trade journals, calendars and yearbooks, courses and lectures, exhibitions and fares and direct advertising. The most important audience of advertising were architects, followed by the entrepreneurs. It is suggested that the advertising of Finnish products in Great Britain might be best organized by placing it in the hands of two organizations: the sales organisation and a separate body for advertising. The producers would manage the advertising of individual brands to sales level, while the other levels (agents, importers, merchants) would manage the joint advertising of the forest products to the lower sales levels and consumers. A Finnish market research and information offices might be established in Great Britain.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4692, category Article
Mauno Forsström. (1960). Maanhankintalain ja siihen liittyvien lakien toimeenpanon vaikutuksista valtion metsätalouteen. Silva Fennica no. 104 article id 4692. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9131
English title: Influence of the Settlement Act and the related regulations on the State forestry in Finland.

The Settlement Act (332/36) of Finland that regulated land-acquisitions was repealed by the Land Use Act (353/58), effective from the beginning of 1959. This paper deals with the effects land settlement and implementation of the acts has had on State forestry. The investigation concentrates on the magnitude of the losses caused by the land reform, initiated by The World War II, in time period of 5.5.1945–31.12.1957, during which time the evacuees from the areas transmitted to Soviet Union were settled. The first part of the paper summarises the history of landholding and the State Forests in Finland.

According to the study, the total area of cessions of the state forest land, based on land-acquisition legislation, rises to over 1 million hectares, about 10% of the land area. It seems that these lands have been better than the average forest lands of the state. In addition, about 100,000 ha of jointly owned forests were established on former state lands on the basis of the Settlement Act. Timber has also been collected for construction of the settlement from the State forests. The value of the land and the construction timber is estimated to be about 3,759 million Fmk.

It has been stated that settlement has increased supply of forest labour in rural areas, where there has been labour shortage in forestry. On the other hand, the State Forests have given seasonal work opportunities for the rural population.

The state forest holdings in Southern Finland are at present so small that it limits rational forest management in the area. It is concluded that it is possible that the state forests in Southern Finland will be used to provide supplemental land for the small farms. In the State Forests of Northern Finland are plans for establishment of new jointly owned forest and settlement. This poses a threat for the state forestry.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Forsström, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4680, category Article
Pohjois-Suomen uitto-olojen järjestelykomitea. (1959). Pohjois-Suomen uitto-olojen järjestelykomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 102 article id 4680. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14123
English title: Report of the organizing committee for timber floating in Northern Finland.

Hydroelectric plants are being planned or already built in Northern Finland. The complete terracing and regulation of watercourses necessary for the power plants will mean great changes in floating conditions and hence for forestry, for which floating is the principal means of transport. Consequently, the Cabinet appointed a committee in 1958 to ascertain the economic, technical and legislative questions connected with timber transport in the area.

The committee has found that about half of the country’s forest area and two thirds of its water power resources are situated in Northern Finland. A prerequisite for the wise utilization of the forest in Northern Finland is an increase in fellings. This can only be put into effect by improving the means of transport, especially the floating channels. The financing required by the organization of floating connected with the building of the hydroelectric power plants amounts to about 10,000 million marks over a period of 20 years.

The committee has suggested that an advisory committee on floating should be established. Its most important task would be to try to produce a general programme for the organization of floating under the changed conditions, and that the State should participate in the expenditure caused by the organization as regards the capital investment needed for changing over to bundle floating.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pohjois-Suomen uitto-olojen järjestelykomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4451, category Article
Pekka Urho Sakari Tikka. (1928). Havaintoja kuusen esiintymisestä ja kehityksestä Pohjois-Suomen kuivissa kangasmetsissä. Silva Fennica no. 10 article id 4451. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8399
English title: Observations on Norway spruce growth and development in dry mineral soil sites in Northern Finland.

Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) is rarely the dominant species on dry mineral soil sites in Northern Finland. These sites are, in general, too poor and dry for spruce, and suit better for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). According to the study, the natural regeneration of spruce is in Northern Finland poor. In the sample plots, cones could be found in 35% of spruce trees in the stands in natural state and 46% in the harvested stands. Compared to the spruce areas in Northern Finland, or fresh mineral soil sites in Southern Finland, cone and seed production of Norway spruce was in dry mineral soil sites very low due to scarcity of seed trees and their low cone number. There were few spruce seedlings in the sample plots, but according to the observations, spruce is able to regenerate on lichen and heath covered sites. The seedling growth was, however, poor on dry sites. Spruce seedlings were often found near fallen trees and stumps. The growing trees prevent growth of seedlings of all species. Norway spruce seems, however, to be able to spread also to the poor sites. The success depends on the vegetation and dryness of the site. For instance, spruce can spread to dry mineral soil sites from seed trees of nearby peatlands.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4434, category Article
Kaarlo Linkola. (1926). Suunnitelma luonnonsuojelualueiden erottamiseksi Pohjois-Suomen valtionmailla. Silva Fennica no. 1 article id 4434. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8382
English title: Plan for establishment of protected areas in state-owned lands of Northern Finland.

The article gives a proposal for areas that would be suitable for protected areas, situated in state-owned lands in Northern Finland. Eight areas are described in the article, namely Oulankajoki area in Northern Kuusamo, Kutsajoki area in Kuolajärvi, Pyhätunturi in Kemijärvi, Pisavaara in Rovaniemi, Pallastunturi and Ounastunturi area, Malla fells in Kilpisjärvi, Pääskyspahta area in Petsamo and Heinäsaari in Petsamo.

Each of the areas possess special features in Finnish nature, samples of which should be reserved in pristine state. Furthermore, costs of the protection are small. The resident population is, however, in general against protection. The protection should therefore be organized in a way that minimizes the disadvantages caused by limitations to land use, for example grazing, reindeer husbandry, fishing and hunting.

According to Finnish Nature Conservation Act, all wildlife in the conservation areas should be protected. Protection of wolverine and wolf is, however, difficult because of the damages they cause for domestic animals. Protection of bear is regarded to be possible in most of the proposed protected areas.

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4733, category Article
Mikko Ilvessalo, Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1966). Suomen pienmetsätalouden tutkimuksessa v. 1930 inventoitujen pienmetsälöiden kehityksestä vuodesta 1930 vuosiin 1963-64. Silva Fennica no. 119 article id 4733. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14291
English title: Development of small forest holdings between 1930 and 1963–64 in Finland.

In the 1930s studies showed that state of the standing crop and forests of small private forest holdings in Finland was weak. In 1960s it was regarded necessary to study the possible change in the silvicultural state of these forests. Therefore, sample stands of the small holdings surveyed in 1930 by Osara were surveyed anew in the areas of Karelia and Savo, and in Central Finland in 1963–1964. A line plot survey was combined with ocular estimation as in 1930, but in 1963–1964 the lines and sample plots were placed denser than in 1930 to reach similar number of sample plots.

In 1930 the state of the forests of the small holdings was in average very weak, but according to Osara, the age classes younger than 50 years had similar stand volume than in the all the forests of the southern half of the country. The results of this survey show that the volume, structure, growth and development class structure of the forests in average have improved since 1930. In many respects the forests have reached the average state of forests in the southern half of Finland. The most serious problem is the large proportion of broadleaved trees. Thus, the silvicultural state of the forests should be further improved.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4724, category Article
Seppo Ervasti, Lauri Heikinheimo, Viljo Holopainen, Kullervo Kuusela, Gustaf Sirén. (1965). The development of Finland's forests in 1964-2000. Silva Fennica no. 117 article id 4724. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14282

The Economic Council asked Heikinheimo, Holopainen and Kuusela to prepare a report on the development of Finland’s forest resources up to the beginning of the next century. The expansion of forest industry beyond the level foreseen in earlier forecasts, the large-scale removal and neglect of the basic improvements required have weakened the condition of the wood production to such an extent that extensive measures are needed to ensure the continuity of the supply of wood. The results of the calculations are formed in three separately analysed alternatives.

Alternative I: Realisation of the Teho programme and the removal corresponding to it. The development of the growing stock according to the programme would only permit a cut amounting to an annual drain of ca. 51 million m3 up to the year 2000. After that it would be possible gradually to increase the removal. This drain would not itself to utilise fully the already existing production capacity of the industry.

Alternative II: Consequences of the predicted removal if the Teho programme is realised as such. The wood utilization forecast based on the premises given to the team show that the annual drain will grow in 1964–1975 from 52 to 58 million m3, and thereafter by 0.5% annually. This would lead to over-cutting, and exhaust the present growing stock by the turn of the century. If annual total drain of ca. 58 million m3 would after 1975 be sufficient, exhaustion of the growing stock would be postponed for 4–5 years.

Alternative III. Teho programme expanded in conformity with the removal forecast. A new programme is proposed, which includes, among others, large scale fertilization of fully grown firm forest land at about the rate of 100,000 ha/year, intensified artificial regeneration, assurance of the supply of planting stock and seed, increase of forest drainage from the present 155,000 to 250,000 ha/year by 1970, site preparation of the cutting areas for artificial regeneration, increase of tending or seeding stands to 300,000 ha/year, replacement of fuelwood by other fuels, increase of wood import and new forest roads.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sirén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4723, category Article
Toivo Matilainen. (1965). Kasvutappiosta ja sen määrittämisestä Etelä-Suomen talousmetsissä. Silva Fennica no. 117 article id 4723. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14281
English title: The increment loss and its determination in economically exploited forests in Southern Finland.

The present study is an attempt to clarify the decrease in growth, or the increment loss, caused by sudden reduction of growth of the growing stock below a certain level, and to find a method for its determination. Increment loss is defined as a decrease in growth during the rotation due to a deficient stock volume. The material consists of Koivisto’s yield tables for repeatedly thinned stands in Southern Finland, and the results of the Third National Forest Inventory concerning the mean volume and increment in the productive sites.

For the calculation of increment loss three formulae were constructed where the increment loss is calculated 1) as the difference between the removal by thinnings in normally developed stands during a time equal with the period of deficient stock and the suddenly removed stock, 2) according to the compound interest calculation principle as the sum of the differences which are obtained by subtracting from the removal in each thinning during the period of deficient stock its initial value, and 3) as the straight interest of the stock deficiency during the period of deficient stock.

According to the calculations, the increment loss is greatest in stands to be grown, viz. 50 m3 solid measure excluding bark per hectare tended Norway spruce stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus type sites at 40% deficiency below minimum stock. In stands to be regenerated the losses are, too, greatest in the similar stands. It exceeds 200 m3/ha when stands younger than 50 years have to been regenerated and the removal amounts to 50% of the stock. In stands to be regenerated the increment loss for spruce, due to the slow initial development by the species, is greater than for Scots pine and birch. The loss is the same at different period of age if the relative deficiency of the stock is of equal size.

According to the study, each stand has a characteristic variation in the increment loss which depends mainly on the relative degree of deficiency from the minimum stock. The formulae and methods can be used to determine the increment loss in average and better stands in Southern Finland when the stock suddenly decreases.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Matilainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4717, category Article
Aarne Laitakari. (1963). Suomen metsien tila 1730-luvulla ruotsalaisen geologin ja vuorimiehen, Daniel Tilas’in kuvaamana. Silva Fennica no. 115 article id 4717. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14275
English title: The condition in Finland’s forests in the 1730s as described by Daniel Tilas, a Swedish geologist and mineralogist.

The present article reviews a geological report given by Daniel Tilas, a Swedish mining manufacturer, towards the end of the 1730s as the report regards information on the Finnish forests. His report gives at hand that forests in several localities southwest of the region demarcated by the towns of Loviisa, Äänekoskei and Kristiina were seriously diminished or burdened by tar burning and shifting cultivation. Larger saw log stands were found mainly in the scaterly populated parishes of Central Finland. Thus, in the chain of ridges between Orivesi and Ruovesi, covering an area of about 4,000 km2, there was a heavily stocked Scots pine forest, as reported by Tilas.

The report given by Tilas is kept in the files of the Geological Research Institute in Helsinki.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4683, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1959). Suomen metsien luovutusmäärä hakkuuvuosina 1955/56-1956/57. Hakkuutilaston metodia käsittelevä koetutkimus. Silva Fennica no. 97 article id 4683. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14128
  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4682, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1959). Suomen metsäteollisuuden laajentamismahdollisuudet tuotteiden käytön kehityksen kannalta. Silva Fennica no. 97 article id 4682. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14127
  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4676, category Article
Gustaf Sirén. (1958). Eräitä havaintoja keskisuomalaisen ja paikallisen mäntyrodun biologisista ja teknillisistä ominaisuuksista Perä-Pohjolassa. Silva Fennica no. 96 article id 4676. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9122
English title: Biological and technical properties of the local Scots pine and proveniences of Central Finland in Northern Finland.

The aim of the study was to find out if it is possible to use Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seed from Central-Finnish origin in Northern Finland to supplement supply of local seeds. The principle has been to limit transfer of seeds to 200 km. According to this study, it seems possible to permit 300-400 km transfer of seeds at the same height above the sea level, not including the timber line area.

The author’s observations indicate that the trees originating from seeds of Central Finland at 20-35 years age withstand damage caused by snow and pine blister rust as well as the local provenience. However, the seedlings seem to be more susceptible to snow blight. Spraying of 2-3% sulphurated lime in the autumn before the arrival of snow proved to be most effective way to prevent the damage.

Southern proveniences have been found to grow faster than the local proveniences in Northern Finland. The stands of Tuomarniemi (Central Finland) and Rovaniemi (Northern Finland) provenances had no distinct difference in the summerwood percentage, and the volume weight of the Tuomarniemi provenience was higher than the weight of the provenience of Rovaniemi. The Tuomarniemi stand also gave largest yield, but the difference was probably due to partly at age difference of the sample trees. The naturally regenerated local provenance showed the greatest volume weight.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Sirén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4676, category Article
Gustaf Sirén. (1958). Eräitä havaintoja keskisuomalaisen ja paikallisen mäntyrodun biologisista ja teknillisistä ominaisuuksista Perä-Pohjolassa. Silva Fennica no. 96 article id 4676. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9122
English title: Biological and technical properties of the local Scots pine and proveniences of Central Finland in Northern Finland.

The aim of the study was to find out if it is possible to use Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seed from Central-Finnish origin in Northern Finland to supplement supply of local seeds. The principle has been to limit transfer of seeds to 200 km. According to this study, it seems possible to permit 300-400 km transfer of seeds at the same height above the sea level, not including the timber line area.

The author’s observations indicate that the trees originating from seeds of Central Finland at 20-35 years age withstand damage caused by snow and pine blister rust as well as the local provenience. However, the seedlings seem to be more susceptible to snow blight. Spraying of 2-3% sulphurated lime in the autumn before the arrival of snow proved to be most effective way to prevent the damage.

Southern proveniences have been found to grow faster than the local proveniences in Northern Finland. The stands of Tuomarniemi (Central Finland) and Rovaniemi (Northern Finland) provenances had no distinct difference in the summerwood percentage, and the volume weight of the Tuomarniemi provenience was higher than the weight of the provenience of Rovaniemi. The Tuomarniemi stand also gave largest yield, but the difference was probably due to partly at age difference of the sample trees. The naturally regenerated local provenance showed the greatest volume weight.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Sirén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4671, category Article
O. Leskinen, O. Vuorelainen. (1957). Tutkimus keskuslämmityslaitosten eri polttoaineiden taloudellisen käytön alueellisesta jakautumisesta Suomessa. Silva Fennica no. 93 article id 4671. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9118
English title: A study on regional differences in economical use of different fuels in central heating boilers in Finland.

The purpose of the study was to find out the most economical fuel for central heating boilers in different parts of Finland. The most common central heating fuels and boilers used in Finland were compared in the study.

The present consumption of different fuels and the regional distribution of the boilers of a few main types was investigated. The costs were calculated according to the costs level of February 1957. To be able to compare the costs, both variable costs and fixed costs were calculated. The heat output produced annually in the different boilers was studied to divide the fixed costs into costs per heat unit.

Comparison of the total costs per heat unit showed that cost of wood or imported fuels (oil, coke, coal etc.) was about on the same level in the coastal areas close to import harbours, but wood was the cheapest fuel for central heating in inland.

The article includes an abstract in English.

  • Leskinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vuorelainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4656, category Article
P. O. Väisänen. (1957). Maatilojen perustaminen ja niiden elinkelpoisuus erityisesti Pohjois-Suomessa maatalouden harjoittamisen kannalta. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4656. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14057
English title: Establishment of farms and their profitability with particular reference to agriculture in Northern Finland.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

The main part of arable land that could be cleared out into fields lies in Northern Finland, where climate conditions restricts agriculture. This presentation discusses conditions for profitable agriculture and settlement activities in the north.

  • Väisänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4655, category Article
A. Lifländer. (1957). Keskitetty hakkuutoiminta Perä-Pohjolassa ja asutuskysymys. Silva Fennica no. 92 article id 4655. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14056
English title: Centralized fellings in Northern Finland and the settlement question.

Silva Fennica Issue 92 includes presentations held in 1956 in the 8th professional development courses, arranged for forest officers working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

In 1950s in the administrative region of Northern Finland 2,951 million ha of state forests awere under economic management while 3,285 million ha were not managed. Settlement activities mostly took place in the area that was managed, and where fellings were arranged in a centralized way. In these areas logging costs were minimized by, for instance, constructing roads, improving floating channels and constructing camps. This presentation describes ways to coordinate and rationalize both the settlement activities and fellings in these areas.

  • Lifländer, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4650, category Article
Metsätilastokomitea. (1956). Metsätilastokomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 89 article id 4650. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9112
English title: Report on Committee on Forest Statistics.

The ministry of agriculture appointed a committee to prepare a proposal for the reorganization of Finnish forest statistics. The committee suggests that the forest statistics will be prepared by forest district board areas. National forest surveys and national wood consumption surveys should be carried out at intervals of 10-15 years by Forest Research Institute.

Felling and price statistics for private forests should be prepared by using a sampling method described in the report. The statistics of total commercial roundwood felling will be obtained by adding to the result the annual felling from state and company forests. Also, wage and employment statistics in forestry will be prepared by a sampling method.

Statistics concerning timber transportation should be improved, and finally, a central organ for forest statistics should be established within the Forest Research Institute to collect and develop forest statistics. The statistics should be published as an annual yearbook. To ensure co-operation between the authorities, a special sub-committee should be appointed to collaborate with the permanent committee of statistics in Finland.

  • Metsätilastokomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4642, category Article
Einar Maliniemi. (1954). Tilastollinen tutkimus sahapuiden hakkuusta ja ajosta Perä-Pohjolassa. Silva Fennica no. 82 article id 4642. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9103
English title: Statistical analysis on felling and haulage of sawlogs in Perä-Pohjola in Northern Finland.

The wages of logging and haulage has been dependent on the decisions of foremen. The aim of this study was to provide better insight on how working conditions in a logging site affect productivity of the work. Six working sites operated by Forest Service, Veitsiluoto Oy and Kemi Oy in the communes of Salla, Muonio and Kolari in Lapland were studied. The forests in the area were mostly Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

The effect of average volume of the stems, the average daily haulage over distances of various lengths, density of the stand and shape of the stem on effectivity was calculated. The size of the team was of considerable importance to the felling and haulage result in the Northern Finland where the feller assists in loading of the logs. One of the aims of the study was to find out what size of team is most advantageous for each haulage distance. The results show the optimum distance of haulage for teams of different sizes.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Maliniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4640, category Article
Jaakko Jalas. (1953). Rokua : suunnitellun kansallispuiston kasvillisuus ja kasvisto. Silva Fennica no. 81 article id 4640. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9102
English title: Vegetation and flora in the planned national park of Rokua in Northern Finland.

The 4.4 km2 sized area of Rokua is a sandy ridge situated in the transitional zone between Central and Northern Finland. It has been suggested to become a new national park due to its, in the area unique landscape and geological characteristics.

The vegetation of the area has been little studied. A vegetation analysis was performed in 1945, 1947 and 1949. Due to low nutrients in the sandy soil, the number of species is relatively low, including 236 vascular plants. The climate is continental. Lichen covering of soil in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated forests is mostly intact compared to the more northern areas, because grazing of reindeer has been little. Fellings have increased in the surrounding areas of the planned national park. The article includes a detailed description of vegetation and flora in the area.

The article includes a summary in German.

  • Jalas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4628, category Article
Gustaf Sirén. (1952). Havaintoja Peräpohjolan valtion mailla vuosina 1948-50 suoritetuista männyn kylvöistä. Silva Fennica no. 78 article id 4628. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9100
English title: Observations on stands of Scots pine sown in state forests in Peräpohjola in northern Finland in 1948-50.

The most common way to artificially regenerate cutting areas in Northern Finland has been sowing, which has, however, often given poor results. The aim of the study was to assess the success rate of sowing and study the causes of poor regeneration.

An inventory was made of 28 areas on Empetrum-Myrtillus and Hylocomnium-Myrtillus type sites sown with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seeds in 1948-1950. In addition, to study the effect of substrata, a sowing experiment was established. According to the inventory, regeneration failed completely in 8 and partially in 6 of the 28 sown areas. Factors that explained the poor regeneration included unfavourable weather conditions in 1948-1952, insufficient clearing of sowing spot especially when the humus layer was thick, and insect damage by Otiorynchus dubius weevil.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Sirén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4607, category Article
U. Metsänheimo. (1951). Metsäojitustoiminnasta Perä-Pohjolan valtionmetsissä. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4607. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14003
English title: Forest drainage in state forests in Northern Finland.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the history and present stage of forest drainage in Northern Finland. The first peatlands were drained in the area in 1909. About 6% of the 600,000 hectares of peatlands suitable for drainage was drained at the time in Perä-Pohjola. The areas to be drained are characteristically very large.

  • Metsänheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4606, category Article
Antti A. Aho. (1951). Metsähallituksen osuus Pohjois-Suomen jälleenrakennuksessa. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4606. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14002
English title: Contribution of Forest Service to the reconstruction of Northern Finland.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

Lapland war in the end of the World War II left Northern Finland in destruction. This presentation describes in detail the work and expenditure of Forest Service in the reconstruction of the settelement in the area.

  • Aho, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4605, category Article
Arvo Kivelä. (1951). Pohjois-Suomen uitot ja niiden tehoa haittaavat tekijät. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4605. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14001
English title: Floating in Northern Finland and factors reducing its efficiency.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

Floating channels of Northern Finland have been unable to fulfill all the needs of wood transportation of the area. This presentation presents diferent ways to improve the efficiency of floating by improving working methods and the channels, and thus decreasing costs of wood transportation.

  • Kivelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4603, category Article
V. Lihtonen. (1951). Suurten mittasuhteiden työmaita. Silva Fennica no. 69 article id 4603. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13999
English title: Large scale worksites.

Silva Fennica Issue 69 includes presentations held in 1948-1950 in the fourth professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation discusses forest resources and felling potential of the state forests in different parts of the country, and how centralized fellings could be arranged. Most potential for increasing fellings is in Northern Finland.

  • Lihtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4597, category Article
Lauri Teivainen. (1949). Pisavaaran luonnonpuiston metsäkasvillisuudesta ja kasvistosta. Silva Fennica no. 65 article id 4597. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13978
English title: Forest vegetation and flora of Pisavaara national park.

A vegetation survey was conducted in the Pisavaara national park in Northern Finland in 1946 and 1947. The national park (49,9 km2) includes southern half of the Pisavaara hills. The rock is quartzite. The most common vegetation type is dry upland forest type, but also fresh mineral soil sites are typical for the area.

The most common forest type, Empetrum-Myrtillus type coveres almost as much of the area as all the other forest types combined. The article describes in detail the vegetation of all forest types and gives a complete list of all plant species found in the survey. Total of 291 vascular plants was found, 242 of which were native to the area. In addition, 49 anthropochores had spread to the area when the forest ranger’s cottage was built. Number of species growing in the northern edge of their natural range is. Southern species can be found in the southern slopes of the hill.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Teivainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4560, category Article
L. A. Mäkelä. (1939). Piirteitä Länsi-Suomen piirikunnan metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4560. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13967
English title: Forestry in conservancy of Western Finland.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes the reform of localized forest administration executed in 1923 and describes in detail forest management in the conservancy of Western Finland.

  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4538, category Article
V. Huuhtanen. (1938). Piirteitä Itä-Suomen piirikunnan metsätaloudesta. Silva Fennica no. 46 article id 4538. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13947
English title: Forestry in the county of eastern Finland.

Silva Fennica issue 46 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1937. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service. 

This presentation describes forest management in the state forests in the county of Eastern Finland.

  • Huuhtanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4524, category Article
Risto Sarvas. (1937). Havaintoja kasvillisuuden kehityksestä Pohjois-Suomen kuloalueilla. Silva Fennica no. 44 article id 4524. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9069
English title: Observations on development of vegetation in burned areas in Northern Finland.

The aim of the study was to follow development of vegetation in dry upland forest sites after forest fire. The sample sites were situated in the counties of Muonio, Kolari, Sodankylä, Pelkosenniemi, Savukoski, Kemijärvi and Salla, in the northernmost Finland.
The growth of plant communities can arise either from the vegetation and seeds that survived the fire, or from seeds that spread from the surrounding areas. The development of vegetation in the burned areas was unexpectedly independent of the surrounding areas, which indicates that role of the seeds from the outside of the burned ares is small. The occurence of different species of lichens, moss, scale moss and vascular plants in the burned areas are described in detail. The development of vegetation was strongly dependent on the forest site type. The thin humus layer of Cladina site type burns usually evenly, and also the vegetation develops more evenly than in the more fresh site types. Vegetation typical for burned areas was fully developed within 10-15 years, and after 25 years it began to resemble the vegetation of Cladina site type forests. The ground vegetation of Calluna type burned area was more patchy. It developed quicker than in Cladina type. Absense of lichens made it seem more fertile than is usual for Calluna type. The humus layer of Empetrum-Myrtillus site type burned unevenly, and if the area was lightly burned, the vegetation recovered quickly. The vegetation was often patchy.
The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Sarvas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4468, category Article
Martti Hertz. (1933). Metsän puutteesta sekä sen syistä ja torjumistoimenpiteistä Ruotsi-Suomessa. Silva Fennica no. 27 article id 4468. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9040
English title: Forest devastation, its causes and prevention in Sweden-Finland.

The earliest local records of lack of timber in Finland are from the 1600th century when Finland belonged to Sweden. The causes vary from burning of tar and shifting cultivation to local factories using fuel wood. Best preserved were forests in Lapland and Kainuu in Northern Finland and those parts of Karelia where shifting cultivation was not practiced. Especially harmful was shifting cultivation, because it made it impossible to grow valuable timber. The state did not intervene in the use of forests until it itself began to need more wood. Shipbuilding was the first cause to limit the use of wood, especially need of mast trees of pine and oak. Also the use of timber by private sawmills began to raise general concern in the 16th century. They influenced the decrease of forests in the 1800th century, due to the limited wood procurement areas and selection felling of timber trees. The establishment of sawmills became regulated in 1700th century. Collective forest ownership by the farms was seen at the time one of the reasons to forest devastation. In 1654 the state of Sweden forbade the burning of mast or in timber forests. Mining industry needed much fuel wood, and shifting cultivation was forbidden near the mines in 1734. Regulations and instructions were also on given on use of wood, for instance, in building, in fences, leaf fodder, fuel wood and tar burning.

Despite of many efforts, the government of Sweden could not prevent devastation of forests in Finland. The many wars of the state hindered economic growth, the regulations were sporadic and often difficult to apply, there was little supervision, the understanding of forestry was poor, and the remote Finland was often neglected in Sweden.

The PDF includes a summary in German.
  • Hertz, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4468, category Article
Martti Hertz. (1933). Metsän puutteesta sekä sen syistä ja torjumistoimenpiteistä Ruotsi-Suomessa. Silva Fennica no. 27 article id 4468. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9040
English title: Forest devastation, its causes and prevention in Sweden-Finland.

The earliest local records of lack of timber in Finland are from the 1600th century when Finland belonged to Sweden. The causes vary from burning of tar and shifting cultivation to local factories using fuel wood. Best preserved were forests in Lapland and Kainuu in Northern Finland and those parts of Karelia where shifting cultivation was not practiced. Especially harmful was shifting cultivation, because it made it impossible to grow valuable timber. The state did not intervene in the use of forests until it itself began to need more wood. Shipbuilding was the first cause to limit the use of wood, especially need of mast trees of pine and oak. Also the use of timber by private sawmills began to raise general concern in the 16th century. They influenced the decrease of forests in the 1800th century, due to the limited wood procurement areas and selection felling of timber trees. The establishment of sawmills became regulated in 1700th century. Collective forest ownership by the farms was seen at the time one of the reasons to forest devastation. In 1654 the state of Sweden forbade the burning of mast or in timber forests. Mining industry needed much fuel wood, and shifting cultivation was forbidden near the mines in 1734. Regulations and instructions were also on given on use of wood, for instance, in building, in fences, leaf fodder, fuel wood and tar burning.

Despite of many efforts, the government of Sweden could not prevent devastation of forests in Finland. The many wars of the state hindered economic growth, the regulations were sporadic and often difficult to apply, there was little supervision, the understanding of forestry was poor, and the remote Finland was often neglected in Sweden.

The PDF includes a summary in German.
  • Hertz, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4435, category Article
Lauri Ilvessalo. (1926). Metsien säilymisen turvaaminen Karjalan kannaksen Suomenlahden rannikolla. Silva Fennica no. 2 article id 4435. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8383
English title: Ensuring preservation of forests on the coast of Gulf of Finland in the Karelian Isthmus.

Metsähallitus (Forest Service) commissioned a study about condition of forests on the coast of Gulf of Finland in the Karelian Isthmus. The study was made because of a growing concern on overcutting of the private forests in the area. Dominant tree species in the area is Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). In fresh mineral soil sites Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) grows in mixed forest with pine or as pure stands. The forests are in average 50 to 70 years old. Younger or older stands are less frequent.

At the beginning of 18th century the local peasants sold plots for Russians, and a villa area was created along the coast. When Finland became independent, many of the properties changed owners. Timber harvesting of the forests increased and many small sawmills increased the demand of wood. Because of the cuttings, productivity of the forests decreases and danger for wind damage in the forests increases.

The author suggests that legislation created to prevent deforestation as well as counselling should be applied to improve forest management. In addition, a protective area should be formed in the Karelian Isthmus where forest preserving directives should be followed.

A summary in German is included in the PDF.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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