Current issue: 53(2)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'Vegetation'.

Category: Research article

article id 10150, category Research article
Petri Forsström, Jouni Peltoniemi, Miina Rautiainen. (2019). Seasonal dynamics of lingonberry and blueberry spectra. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 2 article id 10150. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10150
Highlights: Seasonal series of multiangular spectra for lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) and blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.); Decidous blueberry has strong seasonal pattern while temporal variations of evergreen lingonberry were linked to phenological stages of flowering and berrying; Detection of flowers and berries from shrub spectra was possible; Collected spectral data are openly available through SPECCHIO Spectral Information System.

Accurate mapping of the spatial distribution of understory species from spectral images requires ground reference data which represent the prevailing phenological stage at the time of image acquisition. We measured the spectral bidirectional reflectance factors (BRFs, 350–2500 nm) at varying view angles for lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) and blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) throughout the growing season of 2017 using Finnish Geospatial Research Institute’s FIGIFIGO field goniometer. Additionally, we measured spectra of leaves and berries of both species, and flowers of lingonberry. Both lingonberry and blueberry showed seasonality in visible and near-infrared spectral regions which was linked to occurrences of leaf growth, flowering, berrying, and leaf senescence. The seasonality of spectra differed between species due to different phenologies (evergreen vs. deciduous). Vegetation indices, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), moisture stress index (MSI), plant senescence reflectance index (PSRI), and red-edge inflection point (REIP2), showed characteristic seasonal trends. NDVI and PSRI were sensitive to the presence of flowers and berries of lingonberry, while with blueberry the effects were less evident. Off-nadir observations supported differentiating the dwarf shrub species from each other but showed little improvement for detection of flowers and berries. Lingonberry and blueberry can be identified by their spectral signatures if ground reference data are available over the entire growing season. The spectral data measured in this study are reposited in the publicly open SPECCHIO Spectral Information System.

  • Forsström, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2357-2517 E-mail: petri.forsstrom@aalto.fi (email)
  • Peltoniemi, Finnish Geospatial Research Institute (FGI), Department of Geodesy and Geodynamics, Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02430 Masala, Finland ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4701-128X E-mail: jouni.peltoniemi@nls.fi
  • Rautiainen, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Built Environment, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland; Aalto University, Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6568-3258 E-mail: miina.a.rautiainen@aalto.fi
article id 9948, category Research article
Juha Heiskanen, Ville Hallikainen, Jori Uusitalo, Hannu Ilvesniemi. (2018). Co-variation relations of physical soil properties and site characteristics of Finnish upland forests. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 3 article id 9948. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9948
Highlights: Atmospheric temperature sum is related to site index H100 as a covariate;Soil pH and water retention at field capacity (FC) are also closely related to H100;Fine fraction is related to water retention at FC, soil layer and site type;Fine fraction co-varies also with temperature sum, H100 and slope.

Physical soil properties have a marked influence on the quality of forest sites and on the preconditions for forest growth and management. In this study, water retention characteristics (WRC) and related physical soil properties in addition to vegetation coverage and tree stand data were studied at upland forest sites in Finland. Fixed and mixed models between soil and site characteristics were formed to estimate physical and hydrologic soil characteristics and the site quality with indirect co-varying variables. In the present data, the site quality index (H100) shows a high coefficient of determination in respect to the temperature sum. It is also related to soil fine fraction content, topsoil pH and water retention at field capacity. The thickness of the humus layer is predictable from the pH and cover of xeric and mesic plant species. The soil fine fraction content (clay + silt) is closely related to water retention at field capacity, the soil layer and site type, and without WRC to the temperature sum and site index and type, as well as the slope angle. The soil bulk density is related to organic matter, depth (layer) or alternatively to organic matter, slope and field estimated textural class (fine, medium, coarse). Water retention characteristics were found to be best determinable by the fine fraction content, depth and bulk density. Water content and air-filled porosity at field capacity are closely related to the fine fraction. This study provides novel models for further investigations that aim at improved prediction models for forest growth, hydrology and trafficability.

  • Heiskanen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Soil ecosystems, Neulaniementie 5, FI-70100 Kuopio, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha.heiskanen@luke.fi (email)
  • Hallikainen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Applied statistical methods, Eteläranta 55, FI-96300 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ville.hallikainen@luke.fi
  • Uusitalo, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Forest technology and logistics, Korkeakoulunkatu 7, FI-33720 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jori.uusitalo@luke.fi
  • Ilvesniemi, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Biorefinery and bioproducts, Tietotie 2, FI-02150 Espoo, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: hannu.ilvesniemi@luke.fi
article id 6986, category Research article
Mari Tilk, Tea Tullus, Katri Ots. (2017). Effects of environmental factors on the species richness, composition and community horizontal structure of vascular plants in Scots pine forests on fixed sand dunes. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 3 article id 6986. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.6986
Highlights: Factors affecting the species richness, composition and horizontal structure of vascular plants are related to dune topography, resulting in the differentiation of soils and therefore complexes of different microhabitats that are populated by various vascular plant species and causing vegetation zonation.

Different environmental factors were studied to determine which factors influence the species richness, composition and structure of vascular plants in Pinus sylvestris L. forests in a fixed dune landscape in south-western Estonia. In addition to site topographic factors, different environmental parameters were investigated. Thirty-four vascular plant species were recorded in 232 quadrats. The most abundant species was Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., which was in 82.8% of quadrats, followed by Vaccinium myrtillus L. (74.1%), Melampyrum pratense L. (71.1%) and Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin. (69.8%). The multiple response permutation procedure (MRPP) showed considerable differences in species composition at the bottoms of dunes compared with that on the slopes and at the tops of dunes. Indicator species analysis (ISA) determined species exhibited characteristics specific to zone: V. myrtillus had the highest indicator value at the bottoms of dunes; Calluna vulgaris L., at the tops. Soils were Haplic Podzols, and the presence of humus horizon depended on zone. Soil conditions on the dunes were variable and site specific, in general, soils at the bottoms of the dunes were more acidic and moist compared with those of the slopes and tops of the dunes, and the nutrient content decreased toward the dune tops. According to non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) and linear mixed model analyses, species coverage, composition and richness were controlled by site-specific factors such as absolute height, location and aspect of the quadrat on the dune; soil nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus contents; soil pH and moisture; light conditions; and the thickness of the litter horizon.

  • Tilk, Department of Silviculture, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 5, Tartu, Estonia, 51014; Tallinn Botanic Garden, Kloostrimetsa Road 52, Tallinn, Estonia, 11913 ORCID ID:E-mail: Mari.Tilk@botaanikaaed.ee (email)
  • Tullus, Department of Silviculture, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 5, Tartu, Estonia, 51014 ORCID ID:E-mail: Tea.Tullus@emu.ee
  • Ots, Department of Silviculture, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 5, Tartu, Estonia, 51014 ORCID ID:E-mail: Katri.Ots@emu.ee
article id 1734, category Research article
Jyrki Hytönen, Paula Jylhä, Keith Little. (2017). Positive effects of wood ash fertilization and weed control on the growth of Scots pine on former peat-based agricultural land – a 21-year study. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 3 article id 1734. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1734
Highlights: Weed control decreased and fertilization increased vegetation height and shading of seedlings; Weed control decreased mortality, but fertilization had no effect; Despite improved foliar K concentration though ash fertilization, all trees in the trial had severe K deficiency after 21 years; Weed control increased growth by 20 m3 ha–1 and fertilization by 35 m3 ha–1 in 21 years.

The impacts of weed control, ash fertilization and their interaction were tested for the afforestation of former agricultural peat-based soil with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in northern Finland in a factorial arrangement of four treatments. Weed control with herbicides was carried out in July 1 and 2 years from planting, and wood ash (5 Mg ha–1) was applied in the spring of the 2nd year. Various vegetation, tree growth and nutrient assessments were made over the 21-year study period. Weed control decreased the weed cover by 36–56 percentage points, vegetation height by 4–26 cm and thus shading of seedlings by vegetation for at least 4 years after planting. For the same period, ash fertilization increased vegetation height by 6–15 cm and shading of seedlings. Weed control reduced seedling mortality by 27 percentage points in 21 years, but ash fertilization had no significant effect. Ash fertilization increased foliar potassium and boron concentrations, but its effect declined, and severe K-deficiency was recorded 21 years after planting. Up to the 9th year, weed control had a greater influence on growth than fertilization. Later the significance of fertilization increased due to an aggravated K-deficiency. Stand volume at year 21 for the untreated control plots was 8 m3 ha–1. Weed control and fertilization increased stand volume by 20 and 35 m3 ha–1, with a combined effect of 55 m3 ha–1. The effects of weed control and fertilization were additive and no significant interactions were found. Due to severe K-deficiencies, re-fertilization of all treatments would be necessary for the continued survival and growth of Scots pine.

  • Hytönen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Teknologiakatu 7, FI-67100 Kokkola, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8475-3568 E-mail: jyrki.hytonen@luke.fi (email)
  • Jylhä, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Green technology, Teknologiakatu 7, FI-67100 Kokkola, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: paula.jylha@luke.fi
  • Little, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, George Campus, Western Cape, South Africa ORCID ID:E-mail: keith.little@nmmu.ac.za
article id 1615, category Research article
Minna Blomqvist, Päivi Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Tuula Kantola, Maiju Kosunen, Mervi Talvitie, Markus Holopainen. (2016). Impacts of natural enemies and stand characteristics on cocoon mortality of the pine sawfly Diprion pini in a Fennoscandian boreal forest. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 5 article id 1615. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1615
Highlights: Annual cocoon mortality caused by natural enemies varied between 66% and 80% during the six-year study period, most of it caused by the family Ichneumonidae; Basal area, and coverage of lichen (Lichenes) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) best explained cocoon parasitism and predation; Combination of suitable stand characteristics, abiotic environmental factors, and incomplete control by natural enemies enabled pest species to extend its gradation phase.

We investigated the impact of natural enemies on the cocoon mortality of the common pine sawfly (Diprion pini L.) during a six-year period in eastern Finland. The enemies were classified into parasitoids (insect families Chalcidoidea, Ichneumonidae, and Tachinidae), and predators (birds, small mammals, and insect families Elateridae and Carabidae). The appearance of D. pini was estimated as the intensity of annual defoliation. The impact of stand characteristics on the performance of parasitoids and predators was also investigated. Influence of the natural enemy complex on cocoon mortality of D. pini was nearly stable, but defoliation intensity slowly declined towards the end of the study period. Annual cocoon mortality by natural enemies varied between 66% and 80%. Our results verified that the most significant mortality factors were ichneumonid parasitoids and small mammals. Random Forest classification indicated that stand characteristics, such as basal area, and coverage of lichen (Lichenes) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) affected the performance of parasites and predators. We suggest that a combination of optimal stand characteristics, abiotic environmental factors and mild to moderate control by natural enemies acted as drivers, which drove the pine sawfly population to extended gradation. For future forest health management, detailed information on abiotic and biotic regulating factors, along with long-term monitoring campaigns for conifer sawflies are needed to adapt Fennoscandian forests to altered climatic and silvicultural conditions.

  • Blomqvist, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27 (Latokartanonkaari 7), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2328-8839 E-mail: minna.blomqvist@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27 (Latokartanonkaari 7), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: paivi.lyytikainen-saarenmaa@helsinki.fi
  • Kantola, Knowledge Engineering Laboratory, Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2475, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: tuula.kantola@helsinki.fi
  • Kosunen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27 (Latokartanonkaari 7), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: maiju.kosunen@helsinki.fi
  • Talvitie, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27 (Latokartanonkaari 7), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mervi.talvitie@dnainternet.net
  • Holopainen, University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27 (Latokartanonkaari 7), FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: markus.holopainen@helsinki.fi
article id 1405, category Research article
Lauri Korhonen, Daniela Ali-Sisto, Timo Tokola. (2015). Tropical forest canopy cover estimation using satellite imagery and airborne lidar reference data. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 5 article id 1405. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1405
Highlights: The fusion of airborne lidar data and satellite images enables accurate canopy cover mapping; The zero-and-one inflated beta regression is demonstrated in large area estimation; Forest/non-forest classification should be done directly, for example by using logistic regression.

The fusion of optical satellite imagery, strips of lidar data and field plots is a promising approach for the inventory of tropical forests. Airborne lidars also enable an accurate direct estimation of the forest canopy cover (CC), and thus a sample of lidar strips can be used as reference data for creating CC maps which are based on satellite images. In this study, our objective was to validate CC maps obtained from an ALOS AVNIR-2 satellite image wall-to-wall, against a lidar-based CC map of a tropical forest area located in Laos. The reference CC values which were needed for model training were obtained from a sample of four lidar strips. Zero-and-one inflated beta regression (ZOINBR) models were applied to link the spectral vegetation indices derived from the ALOS image with the lidar-based CC estimates. In addition, we compared ZOINBR and logistic regression models in the forest area estimation by using >20% CC as a forest definition. Using a total of 409 217 30 × 30 m population units as validation, our model showed a strong correlation between lidar-based CC and spectral satellite features (root mean square error = 12.8%, R2 = 0.82). In the forest area estimation, a direct classification using logistic regression provided better accuracy than the estimation of CC values as an intermediate step (kappa = 0.61 vs. 0.53). It is important to obtain sufficient training data from both ends of the CC range. The forest area estimation should be done before the CC estimation, rather than vice versa.

  • Korhonen, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland; (current) University of Helsinki, Department of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9352-0114 E-mail: lauri.z.korhonen@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Ali-Sisto, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: dheikkil@student.uef.fi
  • Tokola, University of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland. ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.tokola@uef.fi
article id 982, category Research article
Karri Uotila, Timo Saksa, Juho Rantala, Nuutti Kiljunen. (2014). Labour consumption models applied to motor-manual pre-commercial thinning in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 2 article id 982. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.982
Highlights: When a young stand grows and gets older, the work time needed to make pre-commercial thinning increases. The stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and hardwoods (Betula spp.) required an additional 8.2%, 5.2%, and 3.3% work-time per year, respectively.
Labour models were developed to estimate the time required to Pre-Commercially Thin (PCT) with a clearing saw 4- to 20-year-old stands of the main commercial tree species in Finland. Labour (i.e., work-time consumption) was estimated from the density and stem diameter of the removal of 448 stands via an existing work productivity function. The removal based estimator attained was used as the basis for a priori mixed linear regression models. The main finding was that when a young stand grows and gets older, the work time needed to make a PCT increases. The stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and hardwoods (Betula spp.) required an additional 8.2%, 5.2%, and 3.3% work-time per year, respectively. Site fertility also played a role in that the most fertile site (mesic OMT) had an estimated labour requirement 114% higher than that for dryish VT. We also note that, per unit area, small stands require less labour than large ones and soil preparation method had a minor effect on the labour estimate. The stands which had previously gone through PCT were separately analysed. In those stands, the only significant variable concerning the labour estimate was age. The a priori models described here can help foresters to develop economic management programmes and issue quotes for forestry services.
  • Uotila, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: karri.uotila@metla.fi (email)
  • Saksa, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.saksa@metla.fi
  • Rantala, Metsä Group, Lielahdenkatu 10, FI-33400 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juho.rantala@metsagroup.com
  • Kiljunen, Metsähallitus, Asemakatu 7, FI-70107 Kuopio, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: nuutti.kiljunen@metsa.fi
article id 1016, category Research article
Karin Johansson, Eva Ring, Lars Högbom. (2013). Effects of pre-harvest fertilization and subsequent soil scarification on the growth of planted Pinus sylvestris seedlings and ground vegetation after clear-felling. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 4 article id 1016. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1016
Highlights: Pre-harvest N fertilization had no significant effect on seedling growth and ground vegetation biomass; Scarification improved seedling survival and growth and reduced the amount of ground vegetation; Without scarification, pre-harvest fertilization increased the amount of damaged seedlings.
Fertilization and scarification are both performed to increase tree production at different stages of forest rotation periods. In this study, the effects of previous nitrogen fertilizations and scarification after clear felling on planted Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings and ground vegetation were investigated. Two fertilization experiments established around 1980 were harvested in 2006, after which the plots were scarified by disc trenching and re-planted. The plots had been repeatedly fertilized over a 20-year period before harvesting, with total N doses of 0, 450, 900 or 1800 kg N ha-1. After five growing seasons, the growth, survival and nutrient contents of the seedlings were measured, and ground vegetation was collected to estimate its biomass and nutrient content. Pre-harvest fertilization alone had only minor effects on the results, but scarification increased both the survival and growth of the planted seedlings. However, without scarification, seedling mortality increased with increasing fertilization intensity. The ground vegetation biomass was higher in plots without scarification, but the total biomass of seedlings and ground vegetation was similar in all treatments. Scarification thus favored seedling growth at the expense of ground vegetation. Only a few effects on nutrient content were found, but there were no signs of nutrient imbalance in any of the treatments. At higher levels of fertilization, the K:N ratio in the seedlings decreased while the K content in the ground vegetation increased. Overall, scarification had a greater impact than pre-harvest fertilization on the planted seedlings and the ground vegetation.
  • Johansson, Skogforsk, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Ekebo 2250, SE-268 90 Svalöv, Sweden & Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU, Box 49, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: karin.johansson@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Ring,  Skogforsk, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: eva.ring@skogforsk.se
  • Högbom,  Skogforsk, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars.hogbom@skogforsk.se
article id 903, category Research article
Mikko Hyppönen, Ville Hallikainen, Juhani Niemelä, Pasi Rautio. (2013). The contradictory role of understory vegetation on the success of Scots pine regeneration. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 1 article id 903. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.903
In North-East Finland, severe problems have been encountered in the natural regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) on sites where regeneration through site preparation usually is quite successful. We hypothesized that in that area understory vegetation, especially heather (Calluna vulgaris), crowberry (Empetrum hermaphroditum), mosses and lichens, could play a key role in this pattern. We found that in general, ground- and field-layer vegetation tends to be in a negative relationship with the establishment, growth and survival of pine seedlings. Some positive relationships were also observed. Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idea) tended to improve seedling height growth. Heather, instead, seemed to have a contradictory role. It was positively related to seedling establishment but negatively to seedling growth. This dual role raises further questions about the primary reasons for the regeneration problems in North-East Finland. All in all, our results suggest that conventional methods of forest regeneration in these kinds of areas are not always effective enough and additional measures are needed. These might include severe prescribed burning along with site preparation in order to decrease the impact of the dominant ground- and field-layer vegetation on the success of Scots pine regeneration.
  • Hyppönen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.hypponen@metla.fi (email)
  • Hallikainen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ville.hallikainen@metla.fi
  • Niemelä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rautio, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pasi.rautio@metla.fi
article id 919, category Research article
Karri Uotila, Juho Rantala, Timo Saksa. (2012). Estimating the need for early cleaning in Norway spruce plantations in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 5 article id 919. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.919
Effective management of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) plantations requires detailed information on stand development, which is costly to measure. However, estimating the need for early stand management from site attributes that persists stabile after ones measured, may provide an inexpensive alternative. This study compared hardwood competition in spruce plantations of varying ages and tested the usability of this information in estimating the need for early cleaning. The data included 197 spruce plantations (4–7 years old) inventoried in southern Finland in 2007. The level (Low, Substantial, High) of need for early cleaning was subjectively determined by contrasting location and size of competing hardwoods to a conifer crop tree. Then the stage of the need for early cleaning was modelled according to site and stand attributes. Nearly 60% of the conifer crop trees in the plantations were subjectively judged to require early cleaning (Substantial 37.2%, High 21.2%), but only 10 per cent of the evaluated area was cleaned. Need for cleaning was intense on peatlands or damp soils, whereas it was mild on unprepared soils or cleaned sites. Traditional site characteristics used in forest management planning can be useful for recognising the peripheral cases, where need for cleaning is probably high or low. However, on a typical mineral soil plantation (uncleaned, soil prepared) the model indicates the differences in the need for early cleaning weakly. The need for early cleaning was already high in 4-year-old plantations, why stand age did not have significant effect on development of the need. Thus, the timing of an operation can not be predicted with the model. Nonetheless, early cleaning very likely opens growth space of crop trees in a 4–7-year-old spruce plantation. Therefore, from an aspect of crop growth, an uncleaned Norway spruce plantation in this age group is quite consistently worth cleaning.
  • Uotila, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: karri.uotila@metla.fi (email)
  • Rantala, Metsä Group, Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juho.rantala@metsagroup.com
  • Saksa, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.saksa@metla.fi
article id 64, category Research article
Karin Johansson, Ola Langvall, Johan Bergh. (2012). Optimization of environmental factors affecting initial growth of Norway spruce seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 64. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.64
The purpose of the study was to create a near optimal environment for seedling establishment and growth, without the restrain of water and nutrients but under climate conditions typical for the region. This to give us valuable knowledge about the growth potential of different seedling types in the field. The experimental site was situated in southern Sweden. Six treatment combinations were applied including two site treatments; 1) soil inversion, i.e. the control treatment, and 2) soil inversion, drip irrigation and fertilization combined with plastic cover mulch, i.e. the optimization treatment, and three seedling types of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.), (a) a 2-year-old Plug+1 seedling, (b) a 1.5-year-old containerized seedling and (c) a 10-week-old mini seedling. Effects on seedling nutrient status and growth were studied during the first three years after planting. Height, diameter and biomass of the seedlings grown in the optimized environment were significantly greater than for seedlings grown in the control. The Plug+1 seedlings grown in the optimization treatment had, after three years, reached a height of 124 cm, while the containerized seedlings were 104 cm and the mini seedlings 45 cm. In practical plantations, this height is usually gained after 5–10 years depending on planting conditions. Biomass partitioning did not differ between optimization treatments, but between seedling types. The mini seedlings allocated less biomass to the roots and more biomass to needles and stem in comparison with the two other seedling types. Mini seedlings also broke bud earlier. Throughout the experimental period, seedling nutrient status for all treatment combinations was followed and a balanced nutrient supply of macro- and micronutrients was given in the optimization treatment. Nutrient concentrations were constantly higher in seedlings grown in the optimization treatment, but the difference decreased over time. Results from this study shows that, by improving site conditions associated with fast establishment, growth check can be avoided.
  • Johansson, Skogforsk, Svalöv, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: karin.johansson@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Langvall, SLU, Asa Forest Research Station, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Bergh, SLU, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 85, category Research article
Ville A.O. Selonen, Maija Mussaari, Tero Toivanen, Janne S. Kotiaho. (2011). The conservation potential of brook-side key habitats in managed boreal forests. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 5 article id 85. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.85
Today, maintaining biodiversity is included in the targets of boreal forest management. A widespread approach in northern Europe is to identify and preserve woodland key habitats within managed forests. Woodland key habitats are expected to be patches that host populations of threatened and declining species, and the preservation of these patches is assumed to enable the persistence of the focal species in the landscape. In Finland, the criteria for selecting woodland key habitats are defined in the Finnish Forest Act, and the selection has been done by forest practitioners. Our objective was to determine whether the surroundings of boreal brooks and rivulets qualified as key habitats are truly different from brook-side habitats not granted the key habitat status, and whether the brook-side habitats of the two types differ from the forest matrix managed for timber production. We found that the two brook-side habitats were in most aspects rather alike but there was a difference in the composition of ground vegetation assemblages. In contrast, the control forests were distinct from the brook-sides in terms of dead wood, species richness and assemblages of polypores, species richness of epiphytic mosses, and the composition of beetle assemblages. We conclude that brook-sides in general provide an important habitat clearly diverging from the surrounding matrix but that the conservation value of the brook-sides granted the key habitat status may not be substantially larger than that of the brook-sides without the status.
  • Selonen, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Lahti, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ville.selonen@juy.fi (email)
  • Mussaari, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Lahti, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Toivanen, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Lahti, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kotiaho, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Lahti, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 96, category Research article
Scott R. Abella. (2011). How well do U.S. Forest Service terrestrial ecosystem surveys correspond with measured vegetation properties? Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 4 article id 96. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.96
Reliable estimates of species composition that forest sites are capable of supporting – specific to ecosystem mapping units across landscapes – are useful for many purposes in forest science and management. Like forestry agencies in numerous countries, the U.S. Forest Service has invested in ecological land classification (termed terrestrial ecosystem survey [TES] in the study region of Arizona) that includes ecosystem-explicit species lists taken to be estimated potential natural vegetation (PNV). Using multivariate community analyses, PNV in the TES was compared to measured species composition on 66 sites representing among the least-disturbed vegetation (considered this study’s measured PNV) spanning 11 ecosystem types on a Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson landscape in northern Arizona, USA. Agreement between the TES PNV and measured species composition was lowest for forbs and shrubs (compared to graminoids), and species composition differed significantly between the TES and this study for at least one plant lifeform in 73% of ecosystems. Reasons for differences between the TES and this study are difficult to resolve, but in some cases appear to result from identification of different species pools in the region. This study suggests that the TES is a useful starting point in understanding vegetation-environment relationships, but further work is needed to refine species lists and more thoroughly account for the influences of fire, grazing, and climate that can influence both PNV and current vegetation. Refining and updating ecosystem-specific species lists may benefit existing forest site classifications and could be planned for when new site classifications are developed, especially with changing climates.
  • Abella, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154-3064 USA ORCID ID:E-mail: scott.abella@unlv.edu (email)
article id 181, category Research article
Jari Miina, Juha-Pekka Hotanen, Kauko Salo. (2009). Modelling the abundance and temporal variation in the production of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) in Finnish mineral soil forests. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 4 article id 181. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.181
Empirical models for the abundance and berry yield of V. myrtillus were constructed using generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) techniques. The percentage coverage of bilberry was predicted as a function of site and stand characteristics using the permanent sample plots of the National Forest Inventory (NFI) in 1995. The number of bilberries was predicted as a function of percentage coverage and stand characteristics using a sub-sample of the NFI plots in North Karelia. The between-year variation in the bilberry yield was analysed using the permanent experimental plots (MASI) established in different areas of Finland and measured in 2001–2007. The highest coverage of bilberry was found on mesic heath sites; on sub-xeric and herb-rich heath sites the values were 62% of that for mesic sites. The decreasing effect of deciduous trees (compared to spruce) was significant only on herb-rich heath sites. The coverage increased along with stand development up to certain stand ages and basal areas. The bilberry yields were higher in pine-dominated stands than in spruce-dominated ones. In spruce stands, the coverage of bilberry and stand basal area significantly affected the number of berries, whereas in pine stands only the coverage was a significant predictor. In the MASI data, the bilberry yield of pine stands was two times higher than that of spruce stands; however, the between-year variation in bilberry yield was higher in the spruce than in the pine stands. The estimated models were used to predict the bilberry coverage and yield along with stand development. On mesic heath sites in southern Finland (1200 dd.), the predicted annual yield of bilberry was about 25 kg ha–1 (95% confidence interval 9–73 kg ha–1) in a mature pine stand and about 10 kg ha–1 (3–35 kg ha–1) in a mature spruce stand. The models can be included in stand simulators, where they would facilitate the prediction of bilberry abundance and yields for silvicultural and forest planning purposes.
  • Miina, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jari.miina@metla.fi (email)
  • Hotanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Salo, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 179, category Research article
Henna Vartiamäki, Jarkko Hantula, Antti Uotila. (2009). Susceptibility of silver birch pruning wounds to infection by white-rot fungus (Chondrostereum purpureum), a potential bioherbicide. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 4 article id 179. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.179
We artificially inoculated pruning wounds of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) to study seasonal variation in their vulnerability to infection by the fungal decomposer Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. ex Fr.) Pouzar. This information is critical to the assessment of incidental infection risks in areas where C. purpureum may be used as a bioherbicide. On seven monthly occasions between April and October 2005, 30 birch trees were pruned to yield a total of 210 experimental trees. On each occasion, 10 trees were inoculated immediately with C. purpureum mycelium, 10 were inoculated with blank inoculum and 10 were only pruned. In the summer of 2007, a survey of 129 experimental trees showed that pruning wounds were most susceptible to infection during May. Treatment with C. purpureum at other times during the growing season also increased the extent of discoloration or decay but the effect was considerably less.
  • Vartiamäki, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: henna.vartiamaki@metla.fi (email)
  • Hantula, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Uotila, University of Helsinki, Hyytiälä Forestry Field Station, Hyytiäläntie 124, FI-35500 Korkeakoski, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 242, category Research article
Jyrki Hytönen, Paula Jylhä. (2008). Fifteen-year response of weed control intensity and seedling type on Norway spruce survival and growth on arable land. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 3 article id 242. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.242
The effects of seedling type (2-year-old container seedlings vs. 4-year-old bare-rooted seedlings) and post-planting vegetation control intensity on the growth and survival of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings were compared based on 15-year data from a field experiment established on arable land. Vegetation control treatments with terbuthylazine and glyphosate were carried out 1–3 times on successive years, either as overall or spot applications. The highest stand volumes were obtained with the combination of large bare-rooted seedlings and effective vegetation control. Volume of bare-rooted seedlings was greater than that of container seedlings in all treatments (e.g. on the control plots 9.5 m3/ha vs. 4.1 m3/ha). The best results were obtained with the most intensive weed control treatments (spot treatment repeated twice and overall application repeated three times). These treatments increased both bare-rooted and containerised seedlings’ survival by 33–40% units and their height, breast height diameter, and volume by 45–49%, 17–47%, and 249–279%, respectively. In terms of survival, the container seedlings, in due part to their smaller size, benefited from vegetation control more than the bare-rooted seedlings. Successive early summer frosts damaged the seedlings and significantly retarded their growth. The frequency of frost damage was not affected by vegetation control nor was it attributed to seedling type.
  • Hytönen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Unit, P.O. Box 44, FI-69101, Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jyrki.hytonen@metla.fi (email)
  • Jylhä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Unit, P.O. Box 44, FI-69101, Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 340, category Research article
Petteri Muukkonen, Raisa Mäkipää, Raija Laiho, Kari Minkkinen, Harri Vasander, Leena Finér. (2006). Relationship between biomass and percentage cover in understorey vegetation of boreal coniferous forests. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 2 article id 340. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.340
In the present study, the aboveground biomass of the understorey vegetation of boreal coniferous forests was modelled according to the percentage cover. A total of 224 observations from 22 stands in upland forests and 195 observations from 14 different studies in peatland forests were utilized for the present analyses. The relationships between biomass and percentage cover can be used in ecosystem and carbon-cycle modelling as a rapid nondestructive method for estimation of the aboveground biomass of lichens, bryophytes, herbs and grasses, and dwarf shrubs in upland forests and bottom and field layers in peatland forests.
  • Muukkonen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: petteri.muukkonen@metla.fi (email)
  • Mäkipää, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Unioninkatu 40 A, FI-00170 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laiho, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 24, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Minkkinen, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 24, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vasander, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 24, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Finér, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 355, category Research article
Ilkka Korpela. (2006). Geometrically accurate time series of archived aerial images and airborne lidar data in a forest environment. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 1 article id 355. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.355
Reconstructing three-dimensional structural changes in the forest over time is possible using archived aerial photographs and photogrammetric techniques, which have recently been introduced to a larger audience with the advent of digital photogrammetry. This paper explores the feasibility of constructing an accurate time-series of archived aerial photographs spanning 42 years using different types of geometric data and estimation methods for image orientation. A recent airborne laser scanning (lidar) data set was combined with the image block and assessed for geometric match. The results suggest that it is possible to establish the multitemporal geometry of an image block to an accuracy that is better than 0.5 m in 3D and constant over time. Even geodetic ground control points can be omitted from the estimation if the most recent images have accurate direct sensor orientation, which is becoming a standard technique in aerial photography. This greatly reduces the costs and facilitates the work. An accurate multitemporal image block combined with recent lidar scanning for the estimation of topography allows accurate monitoring and retrospective analysis of forest vegetation and management operations.
  • Korpela, Department of Forest Resource Management, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: ilkka.korpela@helsinki.fi (email)
article id 374, category Research article
Jyrki Hytönen, Paula Jylhä. (2005). Effects of competing vegetation and post-planting weed control on the mortality, growth and vole damages to Betula pendula planted on former agricultural land. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 3 article id 374. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.374
Effects of competing vegetation and weed control methods (fibre board mulch, cover crop of clover, various herbicides) on the survival and growth of and vole damage to silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) were analysed based on data from a field experiment established in southern Finland. The cover percentage of competing vegetation and its shading effect were assessed, and seedling size and vitality were recorded several times during the 11-year research period. Mean seedling height and height increment decreased linearly with increasing vegetation cover. Seedling mortality started to significantly increase once the vegetation cover had reached the level of 60–80%. Herbicides significantly retarded increase of weed cover on the initially weedless areas for two to three years, and a cover crop promoted increase in cover percentage. Successful weed control with herbicides significantly increased seedling growth and survival. After 11 years, the average stem volume on the herbicide-treated plots (28.9 m3 ha–1) was 2.5-fold as compared to that of the control plots (11.6 m3 ha–1). Furthermore, seedling mortality on the control plots (21%) was almost 3.5-fold as compared to the seedling mortality on herbicide-treated plots (6%). Having a cover crop proved to be an ineffective weed control method both in terms of seedling growth and survival. The application of mulch had only a slight effect on height increment (0.6 m in 11 years), but on the other hand, it considerably decreased seedling mortality (control: 21%, mulch treatment: 1.5%). These differences were not, however, statistically significant. Small seedling size, high shading class, and high vegetation coverage percentage increased the risk of voles damaging the seedlings.
  • Hytönen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FI-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jyrki.hytonen@metla.fi (email)
  • Jylhä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FI-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 423, category Research article
Olle Rosenberg, Staffan Jacobson. (2004). Effects of repeated slash removal in thinned stands on soil chemistry and understorey vegetation. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 2 article id 423. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.423
The increased interest in harvesting logging residues as a source of bio-energy has led to concerns about the potentially adverse long-term impact of the practice on site productivity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects on soil chemistry (pH, C, N and AL-extractable P, K, Ca and Mg) in three different soil layers (FH, 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm mineral soil) and understorey vegetation after the second removal of logging residues in whole-tree thinned stands. The study was performed at four different sites, established in the period 1984–87, representing a range of different climatic and soil conditions: a very fertile Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) site in south-western Sweden and three Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sites located in south, south-central and central Sweden. The effects of whole-tree thinning on soil chemistry and understorey vegetation were generally minor and variable. Across all sites the concentrations of Ca and Mg were significantly lower when slash was removed.
  • Rosenberg, Skogforsk – The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: olle.rosenberg@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Jacobson, Skogforsk – The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 431, category Research article
Pauline Stenberg, Miina Rautiainen, Terhikki Manninen, Pekka Voipio, Heikki Smolander. (2004). Reduced simple ratio better than NDVI for estimating LAI in Finnish pine and spruce stands. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 1 article id 431. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.431
Estimation of leaf area index (LAI) using spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) was studied based on data from 683 plots on two Scots pine and Norway spruce dominated sites in Finland. The SVIs studied included the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI), the simple ratio (SR), and the reduced simple ratio (RSR), and were calculated from Landsat ETM images of the two sites. Regular grids of size 1 km2 with gridpoints placed at 50 m intervals were established at the sites and measurements of LAI using the LAI-2000 instrument were taken at the gridpoints. SVI-LAI relationships were examined at plot scale, where the plots were defined as circular areas of radius 70 m around each gridpoint. Plotwise mean LAI was computed as a weighted average of LAI readings taken around the gridpoints belonging to the plot. Mean LAI for the plots ranged from 0.36 to 3.72 (hemisurface area). All of the studied SVIs showed fair positive correlation with LAI but RSR responded more dynamically to LAI than did SR or NDVI. Especially NDVI showed poor sensitivity to changes in LAI. RSR explained 63% of the variation in LAI when all plots were included (n = 683) and the coefficient of determination rose to 75% when data was restricted to homogeneous plots (n = 381). Maps of estimated LAI using RSR showed good agreement with maps of measured LAI for the two sites.
  • Stenberg, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pauline.stenberg@helsinki.fi (email)
  • Rautiainen, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Manninen, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Meteorological research, Ozone and UV radiation research, P.O. Box 503, FIN-00101 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Voipio, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, FIN-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Smolander, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Research Station, FIN-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 484, category Research article
Pekka E. Kauppi. (2003). New, low estimate for carbon stock in global forest vegetation based on inventory data. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 4 article id 484. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.484
Several reports by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have referred to published estimates ranging from 352 to 536 x 109 tons for the global pool of carbon in forest vegetation. However, a rounded estimate of 300 x 109 tons can be derived from the recent Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000 of the FAO, as shown in this paper. By comparing with independent empirical evidence as published in recent scientific literature and by considering sampling principles and the disturbance cycles of large forest regions, it is argued that the new lower estimate is more realistic. A downward correction of the estimate would make an important contribution to balancing the global carbon budget.
  • Kauppi, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Present address: Environmental Science and Policy, Department of Limnology and Environmental Protection, PO Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pekka.kauppi@helsinki.fi (email)
article id 503, category Research article
Jyrki Hytönen. (2003). Effects of wood, peat and coal ash fertilization on Scots pine foliar nutrient concentrations and growth on afforested former agricultural peat soils. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 2 article id 503. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.503
The effects of ash and commercial fertilizers on the foliar nutrient concentrations and stand growth of Scots pine were studied in four field experiments established on former cultivated peat soils. The aims were to compare ash types (wood, peat and coal ash), study the effects of ash treatment (pelletization), compare ash fertilization with commercial fertilizers, and to study the interaction between ash fertilization and weed control. Foliar samples were collected 1–3 years and 7–8 years after fertilization. In the unfertilized plots, the foliar nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were fairly high, while those of potassium were low in all the experiments. The boron levels were low in three out of the four experiments. Application of either loose or pelletized wood ash, as well as of commercial fertilizers, increased foliar potassium and boron concentrations, and thus successfully remedied the existing nutrient imbalances and deficiencies. Since phosphorus deficiencies are rarely encountered on field afforestation sites, poor-quality wood ash with low phosphorus concentration could be used. Peat ash containing phosphorus, but only small amounts of potassium and boron, was not found to be very suitable for soil amelioration in connection with field afforestation. Coal ash, containing only small amounts of potassium, was a good source of boron for pine even when used in small amounts, and thus it can be used in cases where boron deficiencies alone are encountered. Wood ash significantly increased the height growth of Scots pines in two of the experiments, but peat ash and coal ash had no statistically significant effect. Wood ash increased the number of healthy seedlings. Vegetation control decreased seedling mortality by 24%, increased the growth of pine and decreased the proportion of trees damaged by elk and by deciduous trees.
  • Hytönen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, P.O. Box 44, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jyrki.hytonen@metla.fi (email)
article id 512, category Research article
Juha-Pekka Hotanen. (2003). Multidimensional site description of peatlands drained for forestry. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 512. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.512
Sites (n = 119) on drained mires located in the southern aapa mire zone in Finland were analysed by multivariate techniques. The compositional trends of the understorey vegetation were analysed by means of hybrid multidimensional scaling (HMDS). In addition to field classification, two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) and flexible unweighted paired group arithmetic average (FUPGMA) classifications were used. The 1st HMDS dimension primarily reflected variation along a gradient from spruce mire influence to hummock-level bog influence. Variation in nutrient status was also connected to this gradient. Factors underlying the 2nd dimension were variation in nutrient status and drainage succession (moisture). Some sample plots representing herb-rich or Molinia-rich types were separated along the 3rd dimension. The variation in understorey vegetation (i.e. the ordination space) showed high maximum correlation with stand volume r = 0.81, mean annual stand volume increment r = 0.76, and post-drainage dominant height r = 0.75. The covariation between the vegetation and peat bulk density in both the 0–10 and 10–20 cm peat layers was also strong: r = 0.55 and r = 0.80. The correlations for Hv.Post were 0.64 and 0.81, respectively. Of the total macronutrient concentrations, phosphorus (r = 0.73, r = 0.75) and nitrogen (r = 0.59, r = 0.64) were the most strongly correlated with species composition. The environmental sample variables were also presented by the vegetation units of numerical classification. Most of the recorded variables, including nutrient amounts (kg ha–1), were examined in site quality (fertility) classes by succession phases as well. Border variants or transitional forms of the site types were common. Additional vegetation criteria (e.g. surface-water influence) more closely defined the ecology of the site. In addition to the site quality classes, a considerable amount of information about the tree stands, vegetation diversity and peat properties was associated with the separation of the succession phases, i.e. in this study transforming (phase II) vs. transformed (final phase III) sites. In conclusion, the actual vegetation appeared to well reflect various aspects of the ecological conditions, even in labile communities of commercial forests on drained peatlands.
  • Hotanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P.O.Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: juha-pekka.hotanen@metla.fi (email)
article id 568, category Research article
Minna Malmivaara, Irja Löfström, Ilkka Vanha-Majamaa. (2002). Anthropogenic effects on understorey vegetation in Myrtillus type urban forests in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 1 article id 568. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.568
The growth of urban population in Finland has resulted in increased fragmentation of urban forests and consequently increased recreational pressure on these forests. The effects of fragmentation and trampling on the ground and field layer vegetation were studied in mesic Myrtillus type Norway spruce-dominated urban forest stands of varying size in the greater Helsinki area. The number of residents living in the vicinity of the forest stands was an important factor affecting the understorey vegetation in urban forests. The cover of understorey vegetation in urban forests was remarkably lower than in rural areas, especially the ground layer cover, e.g. cover of Pleurozium schreberi, was significantly lower in urban forests than in the reference areas. Thus, the ground layer proved to be most susceptible to trampling. In the field layer, the cover of dwarf shrubs, especially of Vaccinium myrtillus, was lower in deteriorated than in undeteriorated urban forest stands.
  • Malmivaara, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: minna.malmivaara@metla.fi (email)
  • Löfström, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vanha-Majamaa, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 635, category Research article
Manfred J. Lexer, Karl Hönninger, Helfried Scheifinger, Christoph Matulla, Nikolaus Groll, Helga Kromp-Kolb. (2000). The sensitivity of central European mountain forests to scenarios of climatic change: methodological frame for a large-scale risk assessment. Silva Fennica vol. 34 no. 2 article id 635. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.635
The methodological framework of a large-scale risk assessment for Austrian forests under scenarios of climatic change is presented. A recently developed 3D-patch model is initialized with ground-true soil and vegetation data from sample plots of the Austrian Forest Inventory (AFI). Temperature and precipitation data of the current climate are interpolated from a network of more than 600 weather stations to the sample plots of the AFI. Vegetation development is simulated under current climate (‘control run’) and under climate change scenarios starting from today's forest composition and structure. Similarity of species composition and accumulated biomass between these two runs at various points in time were used as assessment criteria. An additive preference function which is based on Saaty’s AHP is employed to synthesize these criteria to an overall index of the adaptation potential of current forests to a changing climate. The presented methodology is demonstrated for a small sample from the Austrian Forest Inventory. The forest model successfully simulated equilibrium species composition under current climatic conditions spatially explicit in a heterogenous landscape based on ground-true data. At none of the simulated sites an abrupt forest dieback did occur due to climate change impacts. However, substantial changes occured with regard to species composition of the potential natural vegetation (PNV).
  • Lexer, Institute of Silviculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Peter-Jordanstrasse 70, A-1190 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: lexer@edv1.boku.ac.at (email)
  • Hönninger, Institute of Silviculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Peter-Jordanstrasse 70, A-1190 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Scheifinger, Institute of Meteorology and Physics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Türkenschanzstrasse 18, A-1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Matulla, Institute of Meteorology and Physics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Türkenschanzstrasse 18, A-1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Groll, Institute of Meteorology and Physics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Türkenschanzstrasse 18, A-1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kromp-Kolb, Institute of Meteorology and Physics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Türkenschanzstrasse 18, A-1180 Vienna, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 10195, category Research note
Tiina Laine, Leena Hamberg, Veli-Matti Saarinen, Timo Saksa. (2019). The efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum against sprouting of deciduous species after mechanized pre-commercial thinning. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 3 article id 10195. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10195
Highlights: Fungal treatments increased stump mortality compared to the control (cutting only); The fungal treatment did not decrease the number of sprouts per stump; Application during mechanized pre-commercial thinning did not yield as high stump mortalities as in earlier treatments performed manually.

The use of a white-rot fungus, Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. Ex Fr.) Pouzar, as a biocontrol agent against sprouting has been studied with good results. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of two pre-commercial thinning machines, Tehojätkä and Mense, to spread an inoculum of C. purpureum as a biocontrol agent on freshly cut birch (Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh.), European aspen (Populus tremula L.), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.), and goat willow (Salix caprea L.) stumps (the fungal treatment) and compare that to the control (cutting only, done by Tehojätkä). Efficacy was investigated in terms of stump mortality and the number of sprouts per stump. This study was conducted in one stand and sprouting was investigated for three years after treatment. The fungal treatment resulted in higher mortality of stumps (34.0% for Tehojätkä and 41.5% for Mense after three years), compared to the control (13.4%). However, the fungal treatment did not decrease the number of sprouts per stump compared to the control. The low occurrence of basidiomata indicates that the accuracy of the spreading mechanism was not satisfactory, causing low mortality figures for the fungal treatment compared to previous studies. In the future, this mechanized method may provide a promising alternative in sprout control if the spreading mechanisms, the accuracy of the treatment, and consequently the efficacy could be improved.

  • Laine, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tiina.laine@luke.fi (email)
  • Hamberg, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and environment, Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: leena.hamberg@luke.fi
  • Saarinen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mulinvuori@gmail.com
  • Saksa, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.saksa@luke.fi
article id 1716, category Research note
Nelson Thiffault, Alain Paquette, Christian Messier. (2017). Early silvicultural guidelines for intensive management of hybrid larch plantations on fertile sub-boreal sites. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 2 article id 1716. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1716
Highlights: Satisfactory growth can be obtained using a wide range of site preparation intensities; There is a net advantage of performing two motor-manual release treatments over a single release; A second release treatment cannot be replaced by more intensive site preparation; Planting depth had no influence on planted seedling growth after 6 years.

Use of fast-growing tree plantations on dedicated areas is proposed as a means of reconciling fibre production with conservation objectives. Success of this approach however requires fine-tuning silvicultural scenarios so that survival and growth are optimized while management and environmental costs are minimized. This is particularly challenging for hybrid larch (Larix × marschlinsii Coaz), a shade-intolerant species planted on fertile sites in Quebec (Canada) where legislation prevents the use of chemical herbicides. In this context, multiple motor-manual release treatments are often required, with high impacts on costs and social issues related to the scarcity of a qualified workforce. We established a split-split-plot design on a recently harvested site to assess the main and interaction effects of mechanical site preparation (MSP) intensity (five modalities of trenching or mounding), motor-manual release scenario (one or two treatments) and planting depth (0–3 cm or 3–10 cm) on hybrid larch seedling growth and survival six years after planting. Mechanical site preparation intensity and planting depth did not influence seedling growth after 6 years. The lack of significant interaction between MSP and release scenarios indicates that these operations should be planned independently. A more intensive MSP treatment cannot replace a second motor-manual release on fertile sites, as proposed to reduce costs. Our results also show the significant advantage of performing two motor-manual release treatments two years apart (the first one early in the scenario), over performing a single treatment. Our study provides silvicultural guidelines for the establishment of high-yield exotic larch plantations.

  • Thiffault, Direction de la recherche forestière, Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs du Québec, 2700 rue Einstein, Québec, QC, Canada G1P 3W8; Centre d’étude de la forêt, CP 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, QC, Canada H3C 3P8 ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2017-6890 E-mail: nelson.thiffault@mffp.gouv.qc.ca (email)
  • Paquette, Centre d’étude de la forêt, CP 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, QC, Canada H3C 3P8; Université du Québec à Montréal, Département des sciences biologiques, CP 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, QC, Canada H3C 3P8 ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1048-9674 E-mail: alain.paquette@gmail.com
  • Messier, Centre d’étude de la forêt, CP 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, QC, Canada H3C 3P8; Université du Québec à Montréal, Département des sciences biologiques, CP 8888, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, QC, Canada H3C 3P8; Institut des Sciences de la Forêt tempérée (ISFORT), 58 rue Principale, Ripon, QC, Canada JOV 1V0 E-mail nelson.thiff ORCID ID:E-mail: christian.messier@uqo.ca
article id 1024, category Research note
Petter Nilsen, Line Tau Strand. (2013). Carbon stores and fluxes in even- and uneven-aged Norway spruce stands. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 4 article id 1024. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1024
Highlights: Long term (81 years) C sequestration is slightly higher in an even-aged compared to an uneven-aged spruce stand; The even-aged stand has at 81 years age a slightly lower soil C content than the uneven-aged stand; Present C fluxes indicate that the difference in long term C sequestration will increase in favour the even-aged stand if final felling is postponed.
This investigation compares present C stores, fluxes and historic tree C sequestration in an uneven-aged and an even-aged Norway spruce stand under similar high productive soil conditions in south-eastern Norway. A selection cutting system has been performed in the uneven-aged forest stand for 81 years and the even-aged stand was established after clear-cutting 81 years ago. Timber productivity has been measured in the uneven stand for 81 years and in the even-aged stand for 52 years. C storage was determined based on tree measurements, tree biomass functions, soil samples and C analyses from trees and soil. Litter fall was sampled during one year and CO2 efflux from the soil was measured during one growing season. The present tree C storage (including roots) was 210 Mg C ha-1 in the even-aged stand and 76 Mg C ha-1 in the uneven-aged stand, while the corresponding figures for C in the soil was 178 and 199 Mg C ha-1. The long term timber production in the uneven-aged stand was measured to be 95% of the even-aged stand and the difference in net C sequestration was 37 Mg ha-1 in an 81 year period in favour the even-aged stand. The highest present CO2 efflux from soil was measured in the even-aged stand. The total net C sequestered in trees during 81 years minus the present soil C-stock accounts to 16 Mg ha-1 in favour the even-aged system
  • Nilsen, The Research Council of Norway, P.O. Box 2700, St. Hanshaugen, N-0131 Oslo, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: pn@rcn.no (email)
  • Strand, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: line.strand@umb.no
article id 569, category Research note
Heikki Kauhanen. (2002). Occurrence of fires in the eastern Saariselkä area, north-west Russia. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 1 article id 569. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.569
The occurrence of fires was studied in the eastern Saariselkä area, North-West Russia, by using satellite images and topographical maps. In total, more than 330 burned areas were pinpointed in the study area of 4770 km2. Old burns were concentrated in the eastern part of the study area, but young burns were more common in the west. Sites affected by fires in the more recent past were much smaller than those burnt over earlier. The abundance of burns along rivers and the border surveillance road provided evidence of human impact. The most significant changes in the landscape were found in the eastern part of the study area, where spruce forests had been replaced by birch woodlands.
  • Kauhanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kolari Research Station, Muoniontie 21 A, FIN-95900 Kolari, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: heikki.kauhanen@metla.fi (email)

Category: Article

article id 7155, category Article
Bo Högnäs. (1966). Investigations on forest types and stand development in Åland in Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 78 no. 2 article id 7155. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7155

The purpose of this study is to clarify the forest types in pure coniferous stands in Åland in Finland, to study them in a biological light and account for the production of the stands on respective sites. The flora of the forest types in Åland has been described in an earlier study, but as the plant associations have not been described it has often been difficult to determine the correct types in field work. Sample plots were chosen in coniferous forests with maximum 20% of other species. The vegetation analysis was limited to determine composition of species, projected coverage and the frequency of species. In addition, cubic volume and growth of the growing stock was calculated for the stands.

The results of the study showed that site type and fertility correspond to each other nearly without exception only on normal moraines, if only the ground vegetation is used as a criterion for the type. The general occurense of soils of different qualities makes it necessary to determine, besides forest type, other characteristics in the stands, preferably the dominant height. The total production of coniferous forests with great probability is smaller in Åland than in mainland Finland. The results can be applied also to Åboland’s archipelago, where the milieu of the coniferous forests is similar.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Högnäs, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7132, category Article
Juhani Sarasto. (1961). Über die Klassifizierung der für Walderziehung entwässerten Moore. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 74 no. 5 article id 7132. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7132
English title: On classification of peatlands drained for forestry purposes.

The aim of the study is to find out 1) whether and how the original moor type can be found out based on vegetation regardless the phase of drainage; 2) whether the different phases of draining can be distinguished based on the vegetation; and 3) is it possible to classify the well drained moors into vegetation types that would reflect the productive capacity of the land.

The data consists of samples collected from ditched areas. There are 11 moor types from two climatic ditching zones. The results show that the original moor type can be determined based on vegetation, the phase of drainage can be determined under some limitations, and the classification for productivity can be done for practical purposes.    

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Sarasto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7132, category Article
Juhani Sarasto. (1961). Über die Klassifizierung der für Walderziehung entwässerten Moore. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 74 no. 5 article id 7132. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7132
English title: On classification of peatlands drained for forestry purposes.

The aim of the study is to find out 1) whether and how the original moor type can be found out based on vegetation regardless the phase of drainage; 2) whether the different phases of draining can be distinguished based on the vegetation; and 3) is it possible to classify the well drained moors into vegetation types that would reflect the productive capacity of the land.

The data consists of samples collected from ditched areas. There are 11 moor types from two climatic ditching zones. The results show that the original moor type can be determined based on vegetation, the phase of drainage can be determined under some limitations, and the classification for productivity can be done for practical purposes.    

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Sarasto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7485, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1959). A method for establishing small permanent sample plots for ecological studies. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 3 article id 7485. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7485

Especially in experimantal ecological research it is used small sample plots that are inventoried consequently. The paper describes a method for establishing small sample plots, developed by the writer in 1956. In the method, the central point of the sample plot is marked with an iron skewer, and the marking of the area to be inventoried was accomplished with a circular frame that is movable. The frame was fitted to the skewer with an aperture that indicated the central point. The area of the frame was relatively small, 0,25 m2. The sample plots were arbitarily placed at intervals from one another.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7478, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1958). Tutkimuksia ojitettujen turvemaiden kulotuksesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 4 article id 7478. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7478
English title: Studies on prescribed burning of drained peatlands.

Prescribed burning has been used to treat the mineral soil sites, but the method has been little used in drained peatlands. The course and methods of prescribed burning in drained peatlands, and the effect of burning on sprouting of broadleaved trees, growth of ground vegetation and regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by sowing was studied in drained pine bogs in Southern Finland. The top layer of the peat was mostly Sphagnum peat. The material included a prescribed burned 12 ha drained peatland area in Tuomarniemi district, in addition to which ten previously burned areas were investigated.

The burning had succeeded mostly well, but also unsuccessfully burned sites were observed. Estinguishing of the fire was easy, and no peat fires occurred. The fire burned only the logging residue, ground vegetation and the dry top layer of the peat. The roots of brushwood and grasses survived in the peat that insulated the top layer from the heat. For instance, the abundance of cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.) increased after the fire. Similarly, burning did not affect sprouting of the stumps of downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.). It cannot thus be used as a method to restrict the growth of coppice in regenerated areas. The seeds of Scots pine germinated well on the burned surface. 46% of the seeds developed to seedlings on sphagnum-shrub vegetation and 16% in feathermoss-shrub vegetation.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7470, category Article
Juhani Sarasto. (1957). Metsän kasvattamiseksi ojitettujen soiden aluskasvillisuudenrakenteesta ja kehityksestä Suomen eteläpuoliskossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 65 no. 7 article id 7470. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7470
English title: Understorey vegetation and its development in drained peatlands in the southern half of Finland.

According to studies following the development of vegetation of drained peatlands, it seems that they have transformed to a relatively stable plant communities during the succession. In earlier studies it was assumed that after drainage a mire type would develop to a corresponding forest site. This investigation studies what kinds of plant communities are formed during succession of different mire types on peatlands drained for forestry in the southern half of Finland. Understorey vegetation was studied in 18 sample plots established by Forest Research Institute on drained peatlands. In addition, sample plots were studied on peatlands in natural state.

The results suggest that understorey vegetation on peatlands drained for forestry have developed into plant communities, the most advanced of which are the so-called dry plant communities. They represent transformed site types, which are the following: drained peatlands with upland herb-rich vegetation, drained peatlands with upland grass-herb vegetation, drained peatlands with upland Myrtillus site type vegetation, drained peatlands with upland Vaccinium site type vegetation, and drained peatlands with upland Calluna site type vegetation. Drained peatlands with upland Cladonia site type vegetation seem to be a temporary type caused by incomplete drainage. The transition between Myrtillus and Vaccinium dominated dry plant communities is not clear, but especially the pure Vaccinium vitis-ideae communities justify its place as an independent plant community. The dry drwarf shrub plant communities are also stable.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Sarasto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7470, category Article
Juhani Sarasto. (1957). Metsän kasvattamiseksi ojitettujen soiden aluskasvillisuudenrakenteesta ja kehityksestä Suomen eteläpuoliskossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 65 no. 7 article id 7470. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7470
English title: Understorey vegetation and its development in drained peatlands in the southern half of Finland.

According to studies following the development of vegetation of drained peatlands, it seems that they have transformed to a relatively stable plant communities during the succession. In earlier studies it was assumed that after drainage a mire type would develop to a corresponding forest site. This investigation studies what kinds of plant communities are formed during succession of different mire types on peatlands drained for forestry in the southern half of Finland. Understorey vegetation was studied in 18 sample plots established by Forest Research Institute on drained peatlands. In addition, sample plots were studied on peatlands in natural state.

The results suggest that understorey vegetation on peatlands drained for forestry have developed into plant communities, the most advanced of which are the so-called dry plant communities. They represent transformed site types, which are the following: drained peatlands with upland herb-rich vegetation, drained peatlands with upland grass-herb vegetation, drained peatlands with upland Myrtillus site type vegetation, drained peatlands with upland Vaccinium site type vegetation, and drained peatlands with upland Calluna site type vegetation. Drained peatlands with upland Cladonia site type vegetation seem to be a temporary type caused by incomplete drainage. The transition between Myrtillus and Vaccinium dominated dry plant communities is not clear, but especially the pure Vaccinium vitis-ideae communities justify its place as an independent plant community. The dry drwarf shrub plant communities are also stable.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Sarasto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7464, category Article
Erkki K. Kalela. (1956). Ü̈ber Veränderungen in den Wurzelverhältnissen der Kiefernbestände im Laufe der Vegetationsperiode. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 65 no. 1 article id 7464. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7464
English title: Variations of the root systems of a pine stand during the growing period.

The article presents the results of the studies about the horizontal root systems of pine. The results have been obtained with the method developed by the author.

The size of the root system varies very strongly during the growing period. The amount of roots is at the smallest in the spring, increasing then rapidly and peaking at the end of July. After that the amount of roots decreases again against the winter to the same size than in the spring. The differences are due the changes in the amount of the smallest roots. There seem to be no big differences in the amount of roots between stand of different ages.

After the thinning there is a drop in the amount of roots on the stand level, but after two growing periods then standing trees have taken over the unused land. However after selection felling the less vital trees are not capable of utilizing the vacant resource as effectively.     

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7349, category Article
Ilmari Paasio. (1940). Zur Kenntnis der Waldhochmoore Mittelfinnlands. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 2 article id 7349. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7349
English title: Knowledge on high moors in middle Finland.

The southern border of occurrence of high moors is only known for western Finland. In other parts of southern Finland the high moors are bordered with Karelian mixed moor type. The article presents observations on high moor alike moors in middle Finland. The characteristics of these high moors are described and compared with other moor types in the area.

Morphological and hydrographicalas well as vegetation related characters are presented. The most important character of the moors increasingly occurring when moving from south the north is decrease in convexity of the moor. In western part of the country clarity of raises, in eastern part of the country the abundance of large dwarf shrubs are also typical. Climatic differences between west Finland and east Finland seem to cause the differences.   

Results indicate that the climatic reasons, meaning the more continental climate in eastern part of the country, is the reason that there are fewer high moors in eastern Finland than in western Finland. The areas with tendency for developing as high moors develop themselves as drier forest high moors. It is reasonable to limit the north border of occurrence of proper high moors further south than what has been done.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Paasio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7349, category Article
Ilmari Paasio. (1940). Zur Kenntnis der Waldhochmoore Mittelfinnlands. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 49 no. 2 article id 7349. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7349
English title: Knowledge on high moors in middle Finland.

The southern border of occurrence of high moors is only known for western Finland. In other parts of southern Finland the high moors are bordered with Karelian mixed moor type. The article presents observations on high moor alike moors in middle Finland. The characteristics of these high moors are described and compared with other moor types in the area.

Morphological and hydrographicalas well as vegetation related characters are presented. The most important character of the moors increasingly occurring when moving from south the north is decrease in convexity of the moor. In western part of the country clarity of raises, in eastern part of the country the abundance of large dwarf shrubs are also typical. Climatic differences between west Finland and east Finland seem to cause the differences.   

Results indicate that the climatic reasons, meaning the more continental climate in eastern part of the country, is the reason that there are fewer high moors in eastern Finland than in western Finland. The areas with tendency for developing as high moors develop themselves as drier forest high moors. It is reasonable to limit the north border of occurrence of proper high moors further south than what has been done.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Paasio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7347, category Article
Aarno Kalela. (1939). Über Wiesen und wiesenartige Pflanzengesellschaften auf der Fischerhalbinsel in Petsamo Lappland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 48 no. 2 article id 7347. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7347
English title: On meadows and meadow alike vegetation communities on the Rybachy Peninsula in Petsamo, Lapland.

The article presents the characteristics of different vegetation areas (meadows and peatlands) by their distinctive vegetation. The study area is by the Barents Sea and is the northernmost part of continental European Russia. Different sites are classified by plant communities and/or vegetation units.

The article continues on the second PDF-file. 

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7347, category Article
Aarno Kalela. (1939). Über Wiesen und wiesenartige Pflanzengesellschaften auf der Fischerhalbinsel in Petsamo Lappland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 48 no. 2 article id 7347. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7347
English title: On meadows and meadow alike vegetation communities on the Rybachy Peninsula in Petsamo, Lapland.

The article presents the characteristics of different vegetation areas (meadows and peatlands) by their distinctive vegetation. The study area is by the Barents Sea and is the northernmost part of continental European Russia. Different sites are classified by plant communities and/or vegetation units.

The article continues on the second PDF-file. 

  • Kalela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7331, category Article
Ilmari Paasio. (1936). Suomen nevasoiden tyyppijärjestelmää koskevia tutkimuksia. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 44 no. 3 article id 7331. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7331
English title: Studies on the peatland types of treeless bogs in Finland.

Ground vegetation can be used to determine the fertility of the peatlands. This information is needed when deciding if a peatland is suitable for drainage. The spruce and pine swamp types of Finland have been well established. The aim of the study was to develop further the peatland type classification for treeless bogs in Finland, presented in earlier studies. The treeless bogs consist of diversity of small patches of different vegetation that blend into complexes. Consequently, classification that is based on defining bog complexes makes it easier to determine a peatland type for a larger peatland area. A system describing peatland complexes for treeless bogs is presented with detailed description of the vegetation. The study identifies nine different peatland complex types for treeless bogs.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Paasio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7331, category Article
Ilmari Paasio. (1936). Suomen nevasoiden tyyppijärjestelmää koskevia tutkimuksia. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 44 no. 3 article id 7331. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7331
English title: Studies on the peatland types of treeless bogs in Finland.

Ground vegetation can be used to determine the fertility of the peatlands. This information is needed when deciding if a peatland is suitable for drainage. The spruce and pine swamp types of Finland have been well established. The aim of the study was to develop further the peatland type classification for treeless bogs in Finland, presented in earlier studies. The treeless bogs consist of diversity of small patches of different vegetation that blend into complexes. Consequently, classification that is based on defining bog complexes makes it easier to determine a peatland type for a larger peatland area. A system describing peatland complexes for treeless bogs is presented with detailed description of the vegetation. The study identifies nine different peatland complex types for treeless bogs.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Paasio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7319, category Article
K. Linkola. (1935). Über die Dauer und Jahresklassenverhältnisse des Jugendstadiums bei einigen Wiesenstauden. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 42 no. 2 article id 7319. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7319
English title: Duration and age class distribution of some meadow grasses in the young age.

The data has been collected from an old natural meadow in Sortavala, Karelia (on that time it was part of Finland). The vegetation on that meadow was very homogenous. All plants of the selected species (Trollius europaeus; Ranunculus auricomus; R. acer; Potentilla erecta; Alchemilla vulgaris; Geum rivale; Prunella vulgaris; Chrysanthemum leucanthemum; Polygonum viviparum) were collected from the sample plots with their roots. The seedlings were then ordered into age classes, and the shortest possible time before inflorescence was determined. To find out the germination time sowing trials were conducted.

The seedlings are very abundant in the youngest age classes and then the amount of plant individuals sinks quickly. The reasons for dying are e.g. insufficient amount of nutrients available and the lack of winter hardiness.   

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7282, category Article
Vilho A. Pesola. (1934). Die Waldvegetation feuchten Geländes in N-Kuusamo und SE-Kuolajärvi. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 5 article id 7282. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7282
English title: Forest vegetation on the moisture areas of North-Kuusamo-commune and south-east Kuolajärvi-commune.

The article presents the studies about the vegetation communes on moisture soils in northern Finland. The studies are part of another study about calcium carbonate content of the soil as a factor influencing the vegetation.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Pesola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7274, category Article
Ilmari Paasio. (1933). Über die Vegetation der Hochmoore Finnlands. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 39 no. 3 article id 7274. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7274
English title: On the vegetation of the raised bogs in Finland.
Original keywords: Hochmoor; Vegetation; Klassifizierung

The study is based on the measurements and observations made during summers 1927-1929 and 1932 on South- and West-Finnish high moors. The article aims to give an overview on the vegetation if the Finnish high moors. The study seeks to answer following questions: to what extent and what kind of characters of other moor types are present in high moors, to what extent occur the characteristics of high moors outside the high moor area, and what are the typical characteristics of high moors?

The article describes the different types of raised bogs and the plant topographic characters. The high moors in different parts of Finland differ from each other with their characteristics and vegetation that they are classified in three groups: high moors in south-west Finland, high moors of northern part of Satakunta-province, and high moors south-east Finland.    

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.

  • Paasio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7274, category Article
Ilmari Paasio. (1933). Über die Vegetation der Hochmoore Finnlands. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 39 no. 3 article id 7274. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7274
English title: On the vegetation of the raised bogs in Finland.
Original keywords: Hochmoor; Vegetation; Klassifizierung

The study is based on the measurements and observations made during summers 1927-1929 and 1932 on South- and West-Finnish high moors. The article aims to give an overview on the vegetation if the Finnish high moors. The study seeks to answer following questions: to what extent and what kind of characters of other moor types are present in high moors, to what extent occur the characteristics of high moors outside the high moor area, and what are the typical characteristics of high moors?

The article describes the different types of raised bogs and the plant topographic characters. The high moors in different parts of Finland differ from each other with their characteristics and vegetation that they are classified in three groups: high moors in south-west Finland, high moors of northern part of Satakunta-province, and high moors south-east Finland.    

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.

  • Paasio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7261, category Article
K. Linkola. (1930). Über die Halbhainwälder in Eesti. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 36 no. 3 article id 7261. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7261
English title: On half-deciduous woodlands in Estonia.

Half-deciduous woodlands are the combination of deciduous forests and heath forests from their vegetation. The article describes three half-deciduous forest types from the commune of Hager, 40 kilometers south form Tallinn.

The occurrence of half-deciduous forests depends on the soil conditions, especially on lime content of the soil, when the occurrence of other forest types is more a question of climate. They are important as an original site for many continental plant species.   

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7261, category Article
K. Linkola. (1930). Über die Halbhainwälder in Eesti. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 36 no. 3 article id 7261. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7261
English title: On half-deciduous woodlands in Estonia.

Half-deciduous woodlands are the combination of deciduous forests and heath forests from their vegetation. The article describes three half-deciduous forest types from the commune of Hager, 40 kilometers south form Tallinn.

The occurrence of half-deciduous forests depends on the soil conditions, especially on lime content of the soil, when the occurrence of other forest types is more a question of climate. They are important as an original site for many continental plant species.   

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7253, category Article
K. Linkola. (1929). Zur Kenntnis der Waldtypen Eestis. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 40 article id 7253. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7253
English title: Knowledge on the forest types in Estonia.

The article summarizes the observations about forest types from different parts of Estonia. The chosen examples represent the normal forest where age class division is natural and the species composition has not been altered through felling or grazing. These are mainly found in the areas of earlier manors of the nobility. The samples are only from mineral soils. Vegetation analysis and middle-European height-over-age-survey were made.

Because of the great share of herb-rich-forest the forest type classification for Estonia is complex. There are many types that have not been described earlier.

The study describes the characteristics and the vegetation types of the heath forests, fresh forests, half-herb-rich-forests and herb-rich-forests.        

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7253, category Article
K. Linkola. (1929). Zur Kenntnis der Waldtypen Eestis. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 40 article id 7253. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7253
English title: Knowledge on the forest types in Estonia.

The article summarizes the observations about forest types from different parts of Estonia. The chosen examples represent the normal forest where age class division is natural and the species composition has not been altered through felling or grazing. These are mainly found in the areas of earlier manors of the nobility. The samples are only from mineral soils. Vegetation analysis and middle-European height-over-age-survey were made.

Because of the great share of herb-rich-forest the forest type classification for Estonia is complex. There are many types that have not been described earlier.

The study describes the characteristics and the vegetation types of the heath forests, fresh forests, half-herb-rich-forests and herb-rich-forests.        

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7230, category Article
Viljo Kujala. (1929). Die Bestände und die ökologischen Horizontalschichten der Vegetation. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 17 article id 7230. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7230
English title: Populations and the ecological layers of vegetation in horizontal direction.

To be able to exactly describe the similarities and differences of vegetation in certain areas, classifying the vegetation only in communities or formations is not enough. Therefore more classes are needed. The classification according the horizontal layers is based on the heights of plants and their relations to each other. Every population in one community has own area of height which extends to horizontal direction.

In comparison with populations the vegetation horizons create a biologically validated comparison of different vegetation groups and their parts. Defining the populations and vegetation horizons creates a division and systematization of plant communities on an ecological basis.       

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Kujala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7230, category Article
Viljo Kujala. (1929). Die Bestände und die ökologischen Horizontalschichten der Vegetation. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 17 article id 7230. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7230
English title: Populations and the ecological layers of vegetation in horizontal direction.

To be able to exactly describe the similarities and differences of vegetation in certain areas, classifying the vegetation only in communities or formations is not enough. Therefore more classes are needed. The classification according the horizontal layers is based on the heights of plants and their relations to each other. Every population in one community has own area of height which extends to horizontal direction.

In comparison with populations the vegetation horizons create a biologically validated comparison of different vegetation groups and their parts. Defining the populations and vegetation horizons creates a division and systematization of plant communities on an ecological basis.       

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Kujala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7224, category Article
C. H. Bornebusch. (1929). Danmarks skovtyper. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 11 article id 7224. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7224
English title: Forest types in Denmark.

The paper describes plant species characteristic for ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.) forests in Denmark, and compares the vegetation to beech (Fagus ssp.) forests, the dominating tree species in Danish forests, which have notably simpler ground vegetation. The writer concludes that ground vegetation can be divided into distinct types. Beech grows in several types of soil differing in their fertility (bonitet). The writer has divided the different soil types by their flora (tilstandstyper). The flora is influenced by three factors: climate, fertility of the soil and soil moisture. The paper defines the types of vegetation which describe fertility of the sites (bonitet), and discusses how age, silvicultural condition and tree species affect the vegetation.

  • Bornebusch, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5634, category Article
Leena Finér, Mika Nieminen. (1997). Dry mass and the amounts of nutrients in understorey vegetation before and after fertilization on a drained pine bog. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 4 article id 5634. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8536

Dry mass and nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B) contents of field layer vegetation and a combination of bottom layer vegetation and litter (referred to as bottom/litter layer in the text) were studied one year before and three years after fertilization (NPK and PK) on a drained low-shrub pine bog in eastern Finland. The results of an earlier study on the tree layer were combined with those of this study in order to estimate the changes caused by fertilization in the total plant biomass and litter. Before fertilization the average dry mass of the field and bottom/litter layers was 8,400 kg ha-1 and 7,650 kg ha-1, respectively. The above-ground parts accounted for 25% of the total field layer biomass. The dry mass of the field and bottom/litter layers together was < 20% of the dry mass accumulated in the total plant biomass and litter. The corresponding figures for N, P, K, Ca, Mg and B were 44%, 38%, 30%, 38%, 31% and 17%, respectively. Fertilization did not significantly affect the dry mass of either the field layer vegetation or the bottom/litter layer. 33% of the applied P was accumulated in the total plant biomass and litter on the PK-fertilized plots, and 25% on the NPK-fertilized plots. For the other elements, the proportions on the PK-fertilized plots were K 31%, Ca 6%, Mg 11% and B 13%. On the NPK-fertilized plots, the corresponding figures were N 62%, K 32%, Ca 6%, Mg 9% and B 13%. Except for B and K, the accumulation of fertilizer nutrients in the understorey vegetation and litter was of the same magnitude or greater than the uptake by the tree layer.

  • Finér, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nieminen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5586, category Article
Robert A. Monserud, Olga V. Denissenko, Tatyana P. Kolchugina, Nadja M. Tchebakova. (1996). Change in Siberian phytomass predicted for global warming. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5586. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9231

An equilibrium model driven by climatic parameters, the Siberian Vegetation Model, was used to estimate changes in the phytomass of Siberian vegetation under climate change scenarios (CO2 doubling) from four general circulation models (GCM's) of the atmosphere. Ecosystems were classified using a three-dimensional climatic ordination of growing degree days (above a 5 °C threshold), Budyko's dryness index (based on radiation balance and annual precipitation), and Conrad's continentality index. Phytomass density was estimated using published data of Bazilevich covering all vegetation zones in Siberia. Under current climate, total phytomass of Siberia is estimated to be 74.1 ± 2.0 Pg (petagram = 1,015 g). Note that this estimate is based on the current forested percentage in each vegetation class compiled from forest inventory data.

Moderate warming associated with the GISS (Goddard Institute for Space Studies) and OSU (Oregon State Univ.) projections resulted in a 23–26 % increase in phytomass (to 91.3 ± 2.1 Pg and 93.6 ± 2.4 Pg, respectively), primarily due to an increase in the productive Southern Taiga and Sub-taiga classes. Greater warming associated with the GFDL (General Fluid Dynamics Laboratory) and UKMO (United Kingdom Meteorological Office) projections resulted in a small 3–7 % increase in phytomass (to 76.6 ± 1.3 Pg and 79.6 ± 1.2 Pg, respectively). A major component of predicted change using GFDL and UKMO is the introduction of a vast Temperate Forest-Steppe class covering nearly 40% of the area of Siberia, at the expense of Taiga; with current climate, this vegetation class is nearly non-existent in Siberia. In addition, Sub-boreal Forest-Steppe phytomass double with all GCM predictions. In all four climate change scenarios, the predicted phytomass stock of all colder, northern classes is reduced considerably (viz., Tundra, Fore Tundra, northern Taiga, and Middle Taiga). Phytomass in Sub-taiga increases greatly with all scenarios, from a doubling with GFDL to quadrupling with OSU and GISS. Overall, phytomass of the Taiga biome (Northern, Middle, Southern and Sub-taiga) increased 15% in the moderate OSU and GISS scenarios and decreased by a third in the warmer UKMO and GFDL projections. In addition, a sensitivity analysis found that the percentage of a vegetation class that is forested is a major factor determining phytomass distribution. From 25 to 50% more phytomass is predicted under climate change if the forested proportion corresponding to potential rather than current vegetation is assumed.

  • Monserud, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Denissenko, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kolchugina, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tchebakova, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5586, category Article
Robert A. Monserud, Olga V. Denissenko, Tatyana P. Kolchugina, Nadja M. Tchebakova. (1996). Change in Siberian phytomass predicted for global warming. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5586. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9231

An equilibrium model driven by climatic parameters, the Siberian Vegetation Model, was used to estimate changes in the phytomass of Siberian vegetation under climate change scenarios (CO2 doubling) from four general circulation models (GCM's) of the atmosphere. Ecosystems were classified using a three-dimensional climatic ordination of growing degree days (above a 5 °C threshold), Budyko's dryness index (based on radiation balance and annual precipitation), and Conrad's continentality index. Phytomass density was estimated using published data of Bazilevich covering all vegetation zones in Siberia. Under current climate, total phytomass of Siberia is estimated to be 74.1 ± 2.0 Pg (petagram = 1,015 g). Note that this estimate is based on the current forested percentage in each vegetation class compiled from forest inventory data.

Moderate warming associated with the GISS (Goddard Institute for Space Studies) and OSU (Oregon State Univ.) projections resulted in a 23–26 % increase in phytomass (to 91.3 ± 2.1 Pg and 93.6 ± 2.4 Pg, respectively), primarily due to an increase in the productive Southern Taiga and Sub-taiga classes. Greater warming associated with the GFDL (General Fluid Dynamics Laboratory) and UKMO (United Kingdom Meteorological Office) projections resulted in a small 3–7 % increase in phytomass (to 76.6 ± 1.3 Pg and 79.6 ± 1.2 Pg, respectively). A major component of predicted change using GFDL and UKMO is the introduction of a vast Temperate Forest-Steppe class covering nearly 40% of the area of Siberia, at the expense of Taiga; with current climate, this vegetation class is nearly non-existent in Siberia. In addition, Sub-boreal Forest-Steppe phytomass double with all GCM predictions. In all four climate change scenarios, the predicted phytomass stock of all colder, northern classes is reduced considerably (viz., Tundra, Fore Tundra, northern Taiga, and Middle Taiga). Phytomass in Sub-taiga increases greatly with all scenarios, from a doubling with GFDL to quadrupling with OSU and GISS. Overall, phytomass of the Taiga biome (Northern, Middle, Southern and Sub-taiga) increased 15% in the moderate OSU and GISS scenarios and decreased by a third in the warmer UKMO and GFDL projections. In addition, a sensitivity analysis found that the percentage of a vegetation class that is forested is a major factor determining phytomass distribution. From 25 to 50% more phytomass is predicted under climate change if the forested proportion corresponding to potential rather than current vegetation is assumed.

  • Monserud, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Denissenko, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kolchugina, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tchebakova, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5572, category Article
Markku Lehtelä, Juha-Pekka Hotanen, Pentti Sepponen. (1996). Understorey vegetation in fresh and herb-rich upland forests in southwest Lapland. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 1 article id 5572. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9217

Fresh and herb-rich upland forest sites in the north-western part of the central boreal vegetation zone in Finland were studied with respect to vegetation structure and vegetation-environment relationships (soil, stand characteristics). Two fresh heath vegetation data sets, one from the northern boreal zone and the other from the central boreal zone, were compared with the data of this study using multivariate methods.

The variation in heath forest vegetation within the climatically uniform area was mainly determined by the fertility of the soil (primarily Ca and Mg) and the stage of stand development. N, P and K content of the humus layer varied little between the vegetation classes. Fertile site types occurred, in general, on coarse-textured soils than infertile site types, may be due to the fact that the sample plots were located in various bedrock and glacial till areas, i.e. to sampling effects.

The place of the vegetational units of the study area in the Finnish forest site type system is discussed. The vegetation of the area has features in common with the northern boreal zone as well as the southern part of the central boreal vegetation zone. The results lend some support to the occurrence of a northern Myrtillus type or at least that intermediate form of fresh and herb-rich mineral soil sites commonly occur in the studied area. It is argued that the older name Dryopteris-Myrtillus type is more suitable than Geranium-Oxalis-Myrtillus type for herb-rich heath sites in the study area.

  • Lehtelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hotanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sepponen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7193, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1926). The theory of forest types. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 29 no. 3 article id 7193. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7193

The forest sites have typically been classified by two principles, either as stand quality classes or as locality (site) classes. This article describes the principles of Finnish forest site types (forest quality classes) which are based on classification of localities according to their forest plant associations. All the stands that belong to the same forest site type are characterized by a distinct, more or less identical plant species composition. The forest site types are independent of the tree species. The forest site types in a larger area are relatively numerous, but can be grouped according to their normal form. The Finnish forests are separated to dry moss forest class, the moist moss-forest forest class and grass-herb forest class. The different forest site types belonging to the classes are described in detail. Growth of the trees is different for the different forest site types, but varies little within a same site type. The forest site types suit therefore well for the purposes of forest mensuration and for yield tables. The forest site types reflect also the properties of the soil.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7193, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1926). The theory of forest types. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 29 no. 3 article id 7193. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7193

The forest sites have typically been classified by two principles, either as stand quality classes or as locality (site) classes. This article describes the principles of Finnish forest site types (forest quality classes) which are based on classification of localities according to their forest plant associations. All the stands that belong to the same forest site type are characterized by a distinct, more or less identical plant species composition. The forest site types are independent of the tree species. The forest site types in a larger area are relatively numerous, but can be grouped according to their normal form. The Finnish forests are separated to dry moss forest class, the moist moss-forest forest class and grass-herb forest class. The different forest site types belonging to the classes are described in detail. Growth of the trees is different for the different forest site types, but varies little within a same site type. The forest site types suit therefore well for the purposes of forest mensuration and for yield tables. The forest site types reflect also the properties of the soil.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5557, category Article
Klaus Silfverberg. (1995). Forest regeneration on nutrient-poor peatlands: Effects of fertilization, mounding and sowing. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 3 article id 5557. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9208

The effects of wood ash and PK fertilization on natural regeneration and sowing of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied in field experiments on nitrogen-poor (Ntot 0.87–1.26%) peat substrates. The study material was derived from three drained, nutrient-poor pine mires (64°52’ N, 25°08’ E) at Muhos, near Oulu, Finland. The experimental fields were laid out in 1985 as a split-split-plot design including the following treatments; mounding, natural regeneration and sowing and fertilization; PK (400 kg ha-1) and wood ash (5,000 kg ha-1). The seedlings were inventoried in circles in July–August 1991.

Changes in the vegetation were small and there were no statistical differences due to the fertilization treatments in the ground vegetation. PK or ash fertilization did not cause vegetation changes harmful to Scots pine regeneration on nitrogen-poor peatlands. Both sowing and fertilization significantly increased the number of pine seedlings, but not their height. Wood ash increased seedling number more than PK fertilizer. The number of seedlings varied from 7,963 (control) to 42,781 ha-1 (mounding + sowing + ash). The seedling number was adequate for successful regeneration even on non-mounded, non-fertilized naturally regenerated plots.

The number of birch seedlings varied more than that of pine (370–25,927 ha-1). Mounding especially increased the number of birches. The difference between PK fertiliser and ash was less pronounced than that for pine. In addition, to the field studies the effects of ash and PK fertilizer on the germination of Scots pine seeds was studied in a greenhouse experiment. Soaking in ash solutions strongly reduced seed germination, while the PK solution was less harmful.

  • Silfverberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7192, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1925). Metsätyyppiteoria. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 29 no. 2 article id 7192. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7192
English title: The theory of forest types.

The forest sites have typically been classified by two principles, either as stand quality classes or as locality (site) classes. This article describes the principles of Finnish forest site types (forest quality classes) which are based on classification of localities according to their forest plant associations. All the stands that belong to the same forest site type are characterized by a distinct, more or less identical plant species composition. The forest site types are independent of the tree species. The forest site types in a larger area are relatively numerous, but can be grouped according to their normal form. The Finnish forests are separated to dry moss forest class, the moist moss-forest forest class and grass-herb forest class. The different forest site types belonging to the classes are described in detail. Growth of the trees is different for the different forest site types, but varies little within a same site type. The forest site types suit therefore well for the purposes of forest mensuration and for yield tables. The forest site types reflect also the properties of the soil.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7192, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1925). Metsätyyppiteoria. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 29 no. 2 article id 7192. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7192
English title: The theory of forest types.

The forest sites have typically been classified by two principles, either as stand quality classes or as locality (site) classes. This article describes the principles of Finnish forest site types (forest quality classes) which are based on classification of localities according to their forest plant associations. All the stands that belong to the same forest site type are characterized by a distinct, more or less identical plant species composition. The forest site types are independent of the tree species. The forest site types in a larger area are relatively numerous, but can be grouped according to their normal form. The Finnish forests are separated to dry moss forest class, the moist moss-forest forest class and grass-herb forest class. The different forest site types belonging to the classes are described in detail. Growth of the trees is different for the different forest site types, but varies little within a same site type. The forest site types suit therefore well for the purposes of forest mensuration and for yield tables. The forest site types reflect also the properties of the soil.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5399, category Article
Raisa Mäkipää. (1994). Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the humus layer and ground vegetation under closed canopy in boreal coniferous stands. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 2 article id 5399. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9164

Forest ecosystems may accumulate large amounts of nitrogen in the biomass and in the soil organic matter. However, there is increasing concern that deposition of inorganic nitrogen compounds from the atmosphere will lead to nitrogen saturation; excess nitrogen input does not increase production. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term changes caused by nitrogen input on accumulation of nitrogen in forest soils and in ground vegetation.

The fertilization experiments used in this study were established during 1958–1962. They were situated on 36- to 63-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands of different levels of fertility. The experiments received nitrogen fertilization 5–7 times over a 30-year period, and the total input of nitrogen was 596–926 kg/ha.

Nitrogen input increased the amount of organic matter in the humus layer and the nitrogen concentration in the organic matter. Furthermore, the total amount of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) bound by the humus layer increased due to the increase in the amount of organic matter. However, nitrogen input decreased the biomass of ground vegetation. The nitrogen concentration of the plant material on the nitrogen-fertilized plots was higher than on the control plots, but the amount of nutrients bound by ground vegetation decreased owing to the drastic decrease in the biomass of mosses. Ground vegetation does not have the potential to accumulate nitrogen, because vegetation is dominated by slow-growing mosses and dwarf shrubs which do not benefit from nitrogen input.

  • Mäkipää, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5523, category Article
Reijo Solantie. (1993). Snow and soil frost in Finnish forests. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 4 article id 5523. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15684

Abundant snowfalls and thick snow cover influence forest ecology mainly in two ways. Snow loading increases the number of damaged stems, which increases the amount of decay in stems, in its turn important for many animals. Second, the ground remains unfrozen under the snow cover, which is of crucial importance for many perennial species of ground vegetation. These winter phenomena also have influenced the early Finnish culture as man in his everyday life in the wilderness was in close contact with nature. In this paper, ecological interactions between snow conditions, forest flora, fauna and early culture are discussed mainly with reference to the province of Uusimaa in Southern Finland.

  • Solantie, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5512, category Article
Christian Messier, Pasi Puttonen. (1993). Coniferous and non-coniferous fine-root and rhizome production in Scots pine stands using the ingrowth bag method. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 3 article id 5512. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15673

Coniferous and non-coniferous fine root and rhizome production was measured after one growing season using the ingrowth bag method in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands differing in ages from 7 to 105 years in Southern Finland. Total fine-root production decreased from the 7-year to 20-year-old stands, and then increased slightly in the 85- to 105-year-old stands. Most of the total fine-root biomass in the youngest age groups came from non-conifer species, whereas most of the total fine-root biomass in the three older age groups came from conifer species. The maximum coniferous fine-root production was found to occur at crown closure in the 11- to 13-year-old stands. Rhizome production was the lowest and highest in the 20- and 85- to 105-year-old stands, respectively. The increase in rhizome production in the 85- to 105-year-old stands was associated with an abundant understory cover of Vaccinium myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea and an increase in light penetration. The ingrowth bag method was found to be useful in assessing the relative fine-root production among species-group and successional stages of Scots pine stands.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Messier, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Puttonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5445, category Article
Taneli Kolström. (1991). Kuusen kylvö- ja istutuskoe viljavilla kivennäismailla Pohjois-Karjalassa. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 2 article id 5445. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15599
English title: Results from the sowing and planting experiment of Norway spruce (Picea abies) on fertile sites in North Karelia, Finland.

Different methods of sowing and planting of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) were compared on fertile sites in North Karelia (62°20’N, 29°35’E, 85–120 m a.s.l.). The planting material were 4-year-old bare-rooted transplants, 2-year-old bare-rooted seedlings, and 2-year-old containerized seedlings raised in plastic greenhouse. The sowing methods were band sowing and shelter sowing. Ground vegetation was controlled during the first growing season mechanically or chemically, or the control was omitted totally.

Planting of spruce gave better results than sowing. After eight growing seasons there were sowed seedlings left in 30% of the sowing pots. The average height of them was 35 cm. Seedling survival was best with large bare-rooted transplants (91%). Survival of containerized seedlings was 79% and of small bare-rooted transplants 71%. The average height of large bare-rooted transplants was 131 cm, of containerized seedlings 86 cm and small bare-rooted seedlings 68 cm.

Sowing is not an advisable method for regeneration of spruce due to the small survival rate and slow initial development when ground vegetation is controlled only once. Also 2-year-old seedlings gave a satisfactory result in regeneration. Seedlings raised in greenhouse were more sensitive to frost damage than seedlings grown on open ground.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kolström, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5436, category Article
Leena Finér. (1991). Root biomass on an ombrotrophic pine bog and the effects of PK and NPK fertilization. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 1 article id 5436. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15590

Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) living root biomass (ø≤ 10 mm) was 640 g/m2 on the studied low-shrub pine bog before fertilization, and that of the ground vegetation almost the same. The total root necromass was 23% of the biomass of living roots. The length of the pine roots was 2,440 m/m2. The biomass of living roots and root necromass were mostly located in the top 20 cm layer of the soil. The ø < 1 mm pine root fraction accounted for almost 90% of the pine root length; in contrast, over 50% of the biomass was in the 1–10 mm thick root biomass, pine root length and PK (MgB) fertilization did not affect total living root biomass, pine root length, nor the root necromass during the three-year observation period.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Finér, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5421, category Article
Tiina Tonteri. (1990). Inter-observer variation in forest vegetation cover assessments. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5421. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15575

Differences in vegetation cover estimation by field biologists of the 8th National Forest Inventory in Finland were tested. Eleven observers estimated the canopy coverages of six forests taxa in 25 sample plots, located in one stand. The experiment was arranged after the field work. The coverage of Vaccinium vitis-idaea and the ground layer appeared to be the most difficult to estimate. The mean of the highest estimator was about double that of the lowest one. The least abundant species and the sample plots with the smallest coverages had the largest estimation errors. The most important compositional gradient of the data was natural, even though the test was made in a homogenous area. However, the effect of the observer could be recognized. The differences between observers could be caused by the differences both in visual estimation level and in placing the sampling frame. The results suggest that tests should always be made when several observers are used in vegetation surveys. If calibration is used, it should be made separately for each species.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Tonteri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5421, category Article
Tiina Tonteri. (1990). Inter-observer variation in forest vegetation cover assessments. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5421. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15575

Differences in vegetation cover estimation by field biologists of the 8th National Forest Inventory in Finland were tested. Eleven observers estimated the canopy coverages of six forests taxa in 25 sample plots, located in one stand. The experiment was arranged after the field work. The coverage of Vaccinium vitis-idaea and the ground layer appeared to be the most difficult to estimate. The mean of the highest estimator was about double that of the lowest one. The least abundant species and the sample plots with the smallest coverages had the largest estimation errors. The most important compositional gradient of the data was natural, even though the test was made in a homogenous area. However, the effect of the observer could be recognized. The differences between observers could be caused by the differences both in visual estimation level and in placing the sampling frame. The results suggest that tests should always be made when several observers are used in vegetation surveys. If calibration is used, it should be made separately for each species.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Tonteri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7105, category Article
J. P. Norrlin. (1923). Übersicht der Moose und Flechten von Torneå- (Muonio-) und den angrenzenden Teilen von Kemi-Lappmark. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 23 no. 6 article id 7105. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7105
English title: Overview of moos and lichen in Tornio-Muonio and the bordering parts of Kemi-Lappmark in Finnish Lapland.

The article begins on the page 91/122 of the PDF file.

The data has been collected during summer 1867. It examines the moos and lichen species in for regions of Lapland: spruce region, pine region, birch region and fjeld region. The division of the regions is related to the climatic and biological conditions of areas, the first mentioned being the most southern and still suitable e.g. for many grasses. Respective regions have been presented with their general characters and list of species. Finally the findings of different regions are compared.   

  • Norrlin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7105, category Article
J. P. Norrlin. (1923). Übersicht der Moose und Flechten von Torneå- (Muonio-) und den angrenzenden Teilen von Kemi-Lappmark. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 23 no. 6 article id 7105. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7105
English title: Overview of moos and lichen in Tornio-Muonio and the bordering parts of Kemi-Lappmark in Finnish Lapland.

The article begins on the page 91/122 of the PDF file.

The data has been collected during summer 1867. It examines the moos and lichen species in for regions of Lapland: spruce region, pine region, birch region and fjeld region. The division of the regions is related to the climatic and biological conditions of areas, the first mentioned being the most southern and still suitable e.g. for many grasses. Respective regions have been presented with their general characters and list of species. Finally the findings of different regions are compared.   

  • Norrlin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7104, category Article
J. P. Norrlin. (1923). Bericht über die naturhistorische Reise in Torneå-Lappmark. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 23 no. 5 article id 7104. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7104
English title: Report on the natural historical Journeys in Tornio- Lappmark area in North of Finland.

The article begins on the page 82/122 of the PDF file.

The article is a travel report of the author’s travel from Helsinki to north of Finland. Alongside the description of the travel arrangements, it contains observations about the vegetation of the destinations they visited. The observations are divided into section of “spruce region”, “pine region” and “fjeld region”. 

  • Norrlin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7104, category Article
J. P. Norrlin. (1923). Bericht über die naturhistorische Reise in Torneå-Lappmark. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 23 no. 5 article id 7104. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7104
English title: Report on the natural historical Journeys in Tornio- Lappmark area in North of Finland.

The article begins on the page 82/122 of the PDF file.

The article is a travel report of the author’s travel from Helsinki to north of Finland. Alongside the description of the travel arrangements, it contains observations about the vegetation of the destinations they visited. The observations are divided into section of “spruce region”, “pine region” and “fjeld region”. 

  • Norrlin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7103, category Article
J. P. Norrlin. (1923). Flora Kareliae onegensis. I. Über die Vegetation von Onega-Karelien und die naturgeschichtliche Grenze Finnlands sowie Skandinaviens im Osten. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 7103. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7103
English title: Flora in area of Ääninen (Onega)-lake in Russian Karelia – Vegetation of Onega Karelia area and the natural historical border of Scandinavia and Finland in East.

The article begins on the page 27/122 of the PDF file.

The first part of the text deals with a general presentation of the geographical, biological and cultural conditions of the studied areas. The second part presents the characteristics of vegetation classified according the forest types, with lists of species. Forested areas, open lands and swampy areas are dealt with separately. The Saoneshje peninsula is presented separately.

The third part of the text discusses the similarities of the natural conditions between studied area and respective part of Finland. The vegetation and amount of species is clearly more diverse in studied area than in parts of middle-Finland. The study shows that in respect to vegetation Onega-Karelia cannot be seen as a part of the same region than Finland.  

  • Norrlin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7103, category Article
J. P. Norrlin. (1923). Flora Kareliae onegensis. I. Über die Vegetation von Onega-Karelien und die naturgeschichtliche Grenze Finnlands sowie Skandinaviens im Osten. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 23 no. 4 article id 7103. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7103
English title: Flora in area of Ääninen (Onega)-lake in Russian Karelia – Vegetation of Onega Karelia area and the natural historical border of Scandinavia and Finland in East.

The article begins on the page 27/122 of the PDF file.

The first part of the text deals with a general presentation of the geographical, biological and cultural conditions of the studied areas. The second part presents the characteristics of vegetation classified according the forest types, with lists of species. Forested areas, open lands and swampy areas are dealt with separately. The Saoneshje peninsula is presented separately.

The third part of the text discusses the similarities of the natural conditions between studied area and respective part of Finland. The vegetation and amount of species is clearly more diverse in studied area than in parts of middle-Finland. The study shows that in respect to vegetation Onega-Karelia cannot be seen as a part of the same region than Finland.  

  • Norrlin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7102, category Article
J. P. Norrlin. (1923). Beiträge zur Flora des südöstlichen Tavastlands. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 23 no. 3 article id 7102. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7102
English title: Writings on the flora of south-eastern Tavastia province.
Original keywords: Tavastland; Flora; Vegetation; Phanerogamen

The article begins on the page 8/122 of the PDF file.

Data for this paper have been collected during years between 1859 and 1862 in the communes of Asikkala, Hollola, Padasjoki, Lammi and Koski. 

The first part of the text deals with a general presentation of the geographical, biological and cultural conditions of the studied areas. The second part presents the vegetation according their habitats; they are classified by the degree of moisture. The last is further classified as forested areas or open lands. The examination concentrates on phanerogams (seed plants).   

The characteristics of vegetation of forests, open lands and paludified places (swampy or swamp forming places) are presented with the most influential characters and lists of species.   

  • Norrlin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7102, category Article
J. P. Norrlin. (1923). Beiträge zur Flora des südöstlichen Tavastlands. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 23 no. 3 article id 7102. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7102
English title: Writings on the flora of south-eastern Tavastia province.
Original keywords: Tavastland; Flora; Vegetation; Phanerogamen

The article begins on the page 8/122 of the PDF file.

Data for this paper have been collected during years between 1859 and 1862 in the communes of Asikkala, Hollola, Padasjoki, Lammi and Koski. 

The first part of the text deals with a general presentation of the geographical, biological and cultural conditions of the studied areas. The second part presents the vegetation according their habitats; they are classified by the degree of moisture. The last is further classified as forested areas or open lands. The examination concentrates on phanerogams (seed plants).   

The characteristics of vegetation of forests, open lands and paludified places (swampy or swamp forming places) are presented with the most influential characters and lists of species.   

  • Norrlin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5379, category Article
Timo Kuuluvainen, Timo Pukkala. (1989). Effect of Scots pine seed trees on the density of ground vegetation and tree seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 23 no. 2 article id 5379. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15536

The study uses the methodology of ecological field theory to model the effect of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seed trees on the density of tree seedlings and other plants in the field layer. The seed trees had a clear effect on the expected value of the amount and distribution of the ground vegetation. The vicinity of seed trees had an adverse effect on the growth of grasses, herbs and seedlings, while mosses were most abundant near the trees. Models based on the ecological field approach were derived to describe the effect of seed trees on the ground vegetation.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kuuluvainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7071, category Article
Alvar Palmgren. (1922). Zur Kenntnis des Florencharakters des Nadelwaldes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 22 no. 2 article id 7071. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7071
English title: Studies on vegetation characters of coniferous forests.

The paper deals with the ground vegetation of the barren coniferous forests of Åland Islands and seeks to describe its special vegetation characters with general features. The study is based on data collected during summers from 1918-1922 on Åland Islands.  Work presents the forest types of Åland Islands classified according Cajander (1909) with their typical species.

The Ålandian coniferous forests seem to have a low number of species. This is because they are mostly old and closed, and have been developing for a long time without human induced disturbances from outside. Some changes have occurred due to forest fires. There is very few traces of non-native species in the forests. If some are found, they have not been able to regenerate or distribute widely.   

  • Palmgren, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7070, category Article
Alvar Palmgren. (1922). Über Artenzahl und Areal sowie über die Konstitution der Vegetation. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 22 no. 1 article id 7070. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7070
English title: About the number of species and area and the structure of vegetation.

The article describes the Ålandian vegetation of most typical habitats with greatest detail. The primary goal of the paper is to find out which deciduous species are native in the Åland Islands and hence can be seen as indicator plants for the living conditions. In addition to determining the native species of the Åland Islands, the study seeks to determine the human influence to the vegetation systems: which species are original, which have been introduced by agricultural activities, and how has the human activity influenced the abundance of the species.

The number of species varies from 44.1% to 79% of the total number of deciduous species. There is a close relation between the size of the area available for species and the number of species found. Because of that, there is a need to consider the abundance of the species alongside their diversity when studying the formation of vegetation systems or their habitats.
  • Palmgren, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7070, category Article
Alvar Palmgren. (1922). Über Artenzahl und Areal sowie über die Konstitution der Vegetation. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 22 no. 1 article id 7070. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7070
English title: About the number of species and area and the structure of vegetation.

The article describes the Ålandian vegetation of most typical habitats with greatest detail. The primary goal of the paper is to find out which deciduous species are native in the Åland Islands and hence can be seen as indicator plants for the living conditions. In addition to determining the native species of the Åland Islands, the study seeks to determine the human influence to the vegetation systems: which species are original, which have been introduced by agricultural activities, and how has the human activity influenced the abundance of the species.

The number of species varies from 44.1% to 79% of the total number of deciduous species. There is a close relation between the size of the area available for species and the number of species found. Because of that, there is a need to consider the abundance of the species alongside their diversity when studying the formation of vegetation systems or their habitats.
  • Palmgren, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7065, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1921). Zur Frage der gegenseitigen Beziehungen zwischen Klima, Boden und Vegetation. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 7065. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7065
English title: The mutual relationship between the climate, the soil and the vegetation.

The article is based on the work “Metsänhoidon perusteet I” [The fundamentals of Forest management I] by the author (1919 in Finnish). The different processes of the soil and the vegetation are dependent on the climatic conditions, but also affect each other. The article presents the climatic zones of the earth and their most important characteristics in regard of cultivation of (to respective zone) exotic trees species and agriculture. 

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7065, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1921). Zur Frage der gegenseitigen Beziehungen zwischen Klima, Boden und Vegetation. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 21 no. 1 article id 7065. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7065
English title: The mutual relationship between the climate, the soil and the vegetation.

The article is based on the work “Metsänhoidon perusteet I” [The fundamentals of Forest management I] by the author (1919 in Finnish). The different processes of the soil and the vegetation are dependent on the climatic conditions, but also affect each other. The article presents the climatic zones of the earth and their most important characteristics in regard of cultivation of (to respective zone) exotic trees species and agriculture. 

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7063, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1922). Vegetationsstatistische Untersuchungen über die Waldtypen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 20 no. 3 article id 7063. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7063
English title: Statistical studies on the vegetation in different forest types.
English keywords: statistic; vegetation; forest type;

The article statistically studies the vegetation patterns in different forest types.  

467 sample plots with area varying from one fourth of a hectare to one eighth, even one tenth of a hectare were collected. There are different amount of sample plots representing every forest type. The sample plots are located in 58 communes in southern parts of Finland, reaching from the Gulf of Finland up to Oulujärvi –see in northern Ostrobothnia. The vegetation was examined from rectangle shaped study plots in even structured and even-aged stands with one primary tree species.

The results are shown in tables for every forest type. The amount of species is at highest in the most nutritious forest types, and decreases with the shift to more infertile types. However, some species occur in all forest types, and some only or mostly on more barren types. The occurrence and abundance of most plant species does not seem to depend on the tree species of the stand, but there are some exceptions to this.

The possible shortcomings of the research method are discussed. The importance of systematic studying of the sample plots with a method of survey lines is emphasized.  

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7063, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1922). Vegetationsstatistische Untersuchungen über die Waldtypen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 20 no. 3 article id 7063. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7063
English title: Statistical studies on the vegetation in different forest types.
English keywords: statistic; vegetation; forest type;

The article statistically studies the vegetation patterns in different forest types.  

467 sample plots with area varying from one fourth of a hectare to one eighth, even one tenth of a hectare were collected. There are different amount of sample plots representing every forest type. The sample plots are located in 58 communes in southern parts of Finland, reaching from the Gulf of Finland up to Oulujärvi –see in northern Ostrobothnia. The vegetation was examined from rectangle shaped study plots in even structured and even-aged stands with one primary tree species.

The results are shown in tables for every forest type. The amount of species is at highest in the most nutritious forest types, and decreases with the shift to more infertile types. However, some species occur in all forest types, and some only or mostly on more barren types. The occurrence and abundance of most plant species does not seem to depend on the tree species of the stand, but there are some exceptions to this.

The possible shortcomings of the research method are discussed. The importance of systematic studying of the sample plots with a method of survey lines is emphasized.  

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7063, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1922). Vegetationsstatistische Untersuchungen über die Waldtypen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 20 no. 3 article id 7063. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7063
English title: Statistical studies on the vegetation in different forest types.
English keywords: statistic; vegetation; forest type;

The article statistically studies the vegetation patterns in different forest types.  

467 sample plots with area varying from one fourth of a hectare to one eighth, even one tenth of a hectare were collected. There are different amount of sample plots representing every forest type. The sample plots are located in 58 communes in southern parts of Finland, reaching from the Gulf of Finland up to Oulujärvi –see in northern Ostrobothnia. The vegetation was examined from rectangle shaped study plots in even structured and even-aged stands with one primary tree species.

The results are shown in tables for every forest type. The amount of species is at highest in the most nutritious forest types, and decreases with the shift to more infertile types. However, some species occur in all forest types, and some only or mostly on more barren types. The occurrence and abundance of most plant species does not seem to depend on the tree species of the stand, but there are some exceptions to this.

The possible shortcomings of the research method are discussed. The importance of systematic studying of the sample plots with a method of survey lines is emphasized.  

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7062, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1922). Zur Begriffsbestimmung im Gebiet der Pflanzentopographie. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 7062. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7062
English title: Determining concepts for topography of plants.

The article presents definitions for central concepts that are commonly used in the research of plant topography. The discipline has close connections to defining and classifying forest types.

The concepts defined involve concrete and abstract concepts linked to vegetation conditions and to habitat. 

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7061, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander, Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1921). Ueber Waldtypen II. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 7061. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7061
English title: About the forest types II.

The article contains tree lectures given in the meeting of the Geographical Society in Finland on February 25th 1921.  The titles of the lectures are I Forest types in general, II Forest types as a basis for new growth and yield tables in Finland, and III Other research on forest types.  

The first lecture is a follow-up of the Cajander’s 1909 published article on forest types. It deepens the theory on forest types. The classification into forest types represents primarily different plant communities of ground cover. The types are named after the characteristic plant species, indicator plants, however, many other species appear in different abundance.

The second lecture represents the research proceedings of mensuration of forest stands of different types to compile yield tables for pine.  The forest types differ from each other distinctly on their growing preconditions, but inside one class the variation of the growing conditions is so small, that the classification can be used for yield tables, determining the basis of taxation and for classification of forest based on height over age.

The third lecture is a summary of other studies about forest type classification.  They confirm the results presented in earlier lectures. 

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7061, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander, Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1921). Ueber Waldtypen II. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 7061. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7061
English title: About the forest types II.

The article contains tree lectures given in the meeting of the Geographical Society in Finland on February 25th 1921.  The titles of the lectures are I Forest types in general, II Forest types as a basis for new growth and yield tables in Finland, and III Other research on forest types.  

The first lecture is a follow-up of the Cajander’s 1909 published article on forest types. It deepens the theory on forest types. The classification into forest types represents primarily different plant communities of ground cover. The types are named after the characteristic plant species, indicator plants, however, many other species appear in different abundance.

The second lecture represents the research proceedings of mensuration of forest stands of different types to compile yield tables for pine.  The forest types differ from each other distinctly on their growing preconditions, but inside one class the variation of the growing conditions is so small, that the classification can be used for yield tables, determining the basis of taxation and for classification of forest based on height over age.

The third lecture is a summary of other studies about forest type classification.  They confirm the results presented in earlier lectures. 

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5247, category Article
Eeva-Liisa Jukola-Sulonen, Maija Salemaa. (1985). A comparison of different sampling methods of quantitative vegetation analysis. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5247. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15426

Different sampling methods (the percentage cover scale, the graphical method, two-point quadrat methods, the five-, nine- and twelve-class cover scales, and the biomass harvesting) were used in estimating abundance of ground vegetation in clear-cut areas and on an abandoned field in Southern and Central Finland. The results are examined with the help of DCA ordinations. In addition, the species numbers and diversity indices obtained by different sampling methods are compared.

There were no large differences in DCA configurations between the sampling methods. According to all the sampling methods, a complex soil fertility-moisture gradient (a forest site type) was interpreted as the main ordination gradient in the vegetation data for clear-cut areas. However, different sampling methods did not give similar estimates of species numbers and diversity indices.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Jukola-Sulonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Salemaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5247, category Article
Eeva-Liisa Jukola-Sulonen, Maija Salemaa. (1985). A comparison of different sampling methods of quantitative vegetation analysis. Silva Fennica vol. 19 no. 3 article id 5247. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15426

Different sampling methods (the percentage cover scale, the graphical method, two-point quadrat methods, the five-, nine- and twelve-class cover scales, and the biomass harvesting) were used in estimating abundance of ground vegetation in clear-cut areas and on an abandoned field in Southern and Central Finland. The results are examined with the help of DCA ordinations. In addition, the species numbers and diversity indices obtained by different sampling methods are compared.

There were no large differences in DCA configurations between the sampling methods. According to all the sampling methods, a complex soil fertility-moisture gradient (a forest site type) was interpreted as the main ordination gradient in the vegetation data for clear-cut areas. However, different sampling methods did not give similar estimates of species numbers and diversity indices.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Jukola-Sulonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Salemaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7057, category Article
Viljo Kujala. (1921). Havaintoja Kuusamon ja sen eteläpuolisten kuusimetsäalueiden metsä- ja suotyypeistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 18 no. 5 article id 7057. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7057
English title: Observations of forest and peatland site types in Norway spruce areas in Kuusamo.
The forest and peatland site types can be identified based on the ground vegetation. Grazing, forest fires, fellings and other interferences, altitude and soil, however, change the species composition. In Kuusamo area, the land is mountaneous, but the moraine layer is mostly continuous. Thus, there is relatively little rocky sites. In addition, the calcareous soil is more fertile than in the most parts of the country. Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) is common on Hylocomium-myrtillus site type, where vegetation differs to some extent from the corresponding forest site types in the southern parts of the country. These changes seem to be caused by the thin stands in the north. In the southern parts of the Kuusamo area, the stands are denser which affects the vegetation. In areas that have been burned, the dominant tree species is mostly Betula sp., and Norway spruce may grow in understorey, and the ground vegetation is herb-rich. The forest become thinner, the higher the altitude. This changes also ground vegetation. Norway spruce is also dominant species in the spruce swamps and transition zones between spruce swamps and the open peatland types.
  • Kujala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5209, category Article
Jussi Kuusipalo. (1984). Diversity pattern of the forest vegetation in relation to some site characteristics. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 2 article id 5209. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15388

A field data set representing boreal forest-floor vegetation in Southern Finland was analysed using a simultaneous equation model. Some physical and chemical characteristics of the soil and some structural characteristics of the tree stand were treated as predictors in such a way that the tree stand factor was specified to be dependent on the soil variables. Alpha diversity, measured as the total number of species per plot, was treated as a criterion variable.

The model explains 60% of variance in the alpha diversity indicating markedly strong relationships with the site characteristics. Alpha diversity appears to increase with increases in site fertility characteristics. On the other hand, measured characteristics of the tree stand indicate no significant independent effects on the alpha diversity.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kuusipalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5205, category Article
Juha Suominen, Alfred Varkki. (1984). Lauhanvuoren kasvisto. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 1 article id 5205. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15384
English title: Vascular plant flora of Lauhavuori Hill, Western Finland.

The Lauhavuori area is barren, consisting of sandstone and granite bedrock covered by coarse moraine and sand. The woodlands are dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Calluna. The top of the hill, rising 230 metres above the sea level, is more fertile, as it was never covered by the ancient Baltic Sea. Numerous springs and spring brooks are bordered by herb-rich Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) woodlands and swamps. Although most of the peatlands are oligotrophic, several mesotrophic peatland plants occur, some southern, giving the peatlands a rather northerly character.

The study area is 8 by 12 km. According to the vegetation analysis, 310 species were identified, 208 of which were native to the area and 102 immigrants. The native species can be separated from the immigrants because the area is largely undisturbed.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Suominen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Varkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5201, category Article
Jussi Kuusipalo. (1983). Distribution of vegetation on mesic forest sites in relation to some characteristics of the tree stand and soil fertility. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5201. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15184

Vegetation data collected from a random sample of mature forest stands representing mesic upland forest sites in Southern Finland were analysed and classified using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN). The variation of some characteristics of the tree stand and soil fertility between the produced vegetation units were analysed statistically.

Both the species list and the sample list arranged by TWINSPAN reflects the overall site fertility considerably well. The results are in agreement with the main division of mesic forest sites in the Finnish forest site type classification: vegetation units which can be assigned to the Oxalis-Myrtillus site type are clearly separated from the remaining units, and the overall site fertility indicates a statistically significant difference. The within-type variation in the vegetation composition in the Oxalis-Myrtillus site type reflects the variation in site fertility, whereas the within-type variation in the Myrtillus site type is mainly caused by the tree stand factor.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kuusipalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5194, category Article
Tapio Lindholm, Matti Nummelin. (1983). Changes in the community structure of forest floor vegetation after repeated litter disturbance by raking. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5194. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15177

The tolerance of disturbance of the ground and field layer vegetation in a moderately fertile Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) on Oxalis-Myrtillus type forest in Southern Finland was studied. One of the sites, a summer cottage yard had been raked regularly during the last 25 years. The structure of the vegetation was quite different compared to the other sample site situated in a virgin forest. The phytomass and percentual coverage of the vegetation was remarkable lower in the raked habitat. Tall mosses, Pleuroxium schreberi and Hylocomnium splendens had especially disappeared. Most grass shrubs had also deteriorated. Only Deschampsia flexuosa was quite tolerant to raking. The phytomass of the dwarf shrubs was lower in the raked area but their relative production was higher. Three different kinds strategies of species were described: species of virgin shaded forest, species of meadow-like forest floor and species which tolerate or benefit from disturbance. The raked habitat had a higher species diversity than the virgin area. Nitrogen and carbon contents were lower in the soil of the raked area.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lindholm, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nummelin, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5190, category Article
Jussi Kuusipalo. (1983). Mustikan varvuston biomassamäärän vaihtelusta erilaisissa metsiköissä. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5190. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15173
English title: The distribution of blueberry biomass in different forest stands.

The study deals with the distribution of above-ground biomass of Vaccinium myrtillus L. along the vegetation continuum segregated by using phytosociological classification method composite clustering. The qualitative characteristics of forest sites corresponding to different vegetational clusters were defined on the basis of indirect gradient analysis of vegetation data and description of tree stand properties in stands in 160 sample areas in Southern Finland.

Six vegetation types differing from each other mainly in abundance of the most constant and dominant plant species were formed. Sample areas with rich grass-herb vegetation, as well as sample areas representing comparatively dry, barren site type were clearly separated from other groups of sample areas. Stand characteristics, particularly the proportional distribution of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seems to be another important factor affecting the vegetation composition.

The lowest biomass values of blueberry were connected with herb-rich vegetation and shady spruce-dominated stands. Comparatively low values were connected to also other spruce-dominated sample areas. Pine-dominant or mixed pine-spruce stands the biomass values were significantly higher. Even if the site quality is essentially equal, the abundance relationships between Vaccinium myrtillus and other components of the ground vegetation may vary in wide ranges and cause difficulties in practical site classification.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusipalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5157, category Article
Eino Mälkönen, Vesa Aro-Heinilä, Seppo Kellomäki. (1982). Lannoituksen ja kastelun vaikutus männikön pintakasvillisuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 16 no. 1 article id 5157. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15072
English title: Effect of fertilization and irrigation on the ground vegetation of a Scots pine stand.

A mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand growing on a site of the Vaccinium type in Southern Finland was fertilized with nitrogen-rich NPK fertilizer at a level of 150 kg pure nitrogen per hectare. The sample plots were also irrigated during four growing seasons. The total amount of irrigation during this period was 1,200 mm. Fertilization alone increased the coverage of grasses and dwarf shrubs. The culmination of the increase occurred during the second growing season after the start of the treatment. The rapid effect of irrigation on the coverage of ground vegetation was not so strong as that of fertilization. It was concluded on the basis of the developed growth model that the coverage of dwarf shrubs, especially Calluna vulgaris, was, however, increased with the fertilization treatment for a prolonged period. Fertilization and irrigation had no visible effect on the coverage of lichens and mosses.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mälkönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Aro-Heinilä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5143, category Article
Ib Johnsen. (1981). Heavy metal deposition on plants in relation to immission and bulk precipitation. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5143. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15370

Monitoring of heavy metal accumulation in plants has been used to reflect the deposition of heavy metals in terrestrial ecosystems. In some cases, the accumulation rates in plants are linearly correlated to deposition measured as bulk precipitation collected in funnel samplers. It is uncertain, however, how large the contribution due to adsorption/impaction of small particles is to this relationship. The need for design of enlightening experiments on deposition rates in different vegetation types and their relation to immission and bulk precipitation data is discussed.

  • Johnsen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7037, category Article
O. J. Lakari. (1920). Tutkimuksia Pohjois-Suomen metsätyypeistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 7037. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7037
English title: Studies on forest site types in Northern Finland.

The forest site classification system used in Finland is based on ground vegetation rather than the wood production capacity. A. K. Cajander has presented a detailed classification of different forest site classes in different parts of the country. This study focuses on the forest site types of Northern Finland, which are less well defined. The article presents detailed vegetation analysis and lists of plant species in different forest site types in Northern Finland. In contrast to southern parts of Finland, both the natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst) stands are uneven-aged in the north. The forests are also relatively thin. There is a marked difference in height of trees between the richest and poorest sites, but the dominant trees of the same site type were of similar height both in the north and south part of the study area. The differences in the height of dominant trees seem to be smaller than in Southern Finland. Also, in windy areas prone to snow damage, climate conditions can affect tree growth more than the forest site type. In more sheltered areas forest site type determines forest growth.

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  • Lakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7037, category Article
O. J. Lakari. (1920). Tutkimuksia Pohjois-Suomen metsätyypeistä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 7037. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7037
English title: Studies on forest site types in Northern Finland.

The forest site classification system used in Finland is based on ground vegetation rather than the wood production capacity. A. K. Cajander has presented a detailed classification of different forest site classes in different parts of the country. This study focuses on the forest site types of Northern Finland, which are less well defined. The article presents detailed vegetation analysis and lists of plant species in different forest site types in Northern Finland. In contrast to southern parts of Finland, both the natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst) stands are uneven-aged in the north. The forests are also relatively thin. There is a marked difference in height of trees between the richest and poorest sites, but the dominant trees of the same site type were of similar height both in the north and south part of the study area. The differences in the height of dominant trees seem to be smaller than in Southern Finland. Also, in windy areas prone to snow damage, climate conditions can affect tree growth more than the forest site type. In more sheltered areas forest site type determines forest growth.

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  • Lakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5056, category Article
Liisa Nylund, Antti Haapanen, Seppo Kellomäki, Markku Nylund. (1980). Radial growth of Scots pine and soil conditions at some camping sites in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 1 article id 5056. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14997

Radial growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was investigated in seven camping areas located in Southern Finland. Radial growth reduction of 20–40% were found. The magnitude of this reduction was related to the amount of damage in the trees, and the age of the trees. A loss of humus, exposure of the roots and soil compaction were associated with the use of area but not related to the reduction in growth.

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  • Nylund, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Haapanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nylund, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5052, category Article
Markku Nylund, Antti Haapanen, Seppo Kellomäki, Liisa Nylund. (1979). Deterioration of forest ground vegetation and decrease of radial growth of trees on camping sites. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 4 article id 5052. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14909

The ground cover vegetation and tree growth at several camping sites in Southern Finland were investigated. The deterioration of ground vegetation appeared to be unavoidable in these areas, and only a few grass species were tolerant to heavy trampling. Only moderate deterioration was, however, detected when the trampling level was lower than 10,00015,000 user days. On the other hand, the ground cover was completely destroyed when the trampling level exceeded 100,000 user days. A considerable decrease in radial growth appeared to be associated with destruction of the ground vegetation. The decrease was abrupt and was found to continue throughout the whole period of use. After ten years’ use the growth in the trampled areas was 35% lower than that that of the untrampled areas. A further decrease in radial growth is expected in the future. 

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  • Nylund, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Haapanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nylund, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5001, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1978). Recreational potential of a forest stand. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 3 article id 5001. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14855

The aim of the paper was to investigate the recreational potential of successional stand based on the suitability of the stands for different recreational activities and the trampling tolerance of ground cover. The relationship between selected recreational activities and the volume of the stands under study has been determined. These functions have been utilized in determining the potential of the successional stand for different recreational activities. Combining this information with trampling tolerance gave criteria for determining the recreational potential of a stand. The results emphasize the importance of varying the distribution of development stages in a recreational area and in its management.

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  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4988, category Article
Irja Lehtonen. (1978). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4988. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14842
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand: IV The amount of phytomass and nutrients.

The distribution of the dry matter and nutrients in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tree stock growing on a Vaccinium type site, ground vegetation, and humus were determined in the study. The greatest part of the dry matter in the tree was found in the stemwood. The living branches, roots, bark, needles and dead branches decreasing order of magnitude made up the rest of the biomass. The trees contained over 90%, the field layer vegetation 3% and the bottom layer vegetation 2% of the dry matter in the tree stand. The tree stock contained 86–95% of the total amount nutrients in the stand. The field layer vegetation contained less nutrients than the bottom layer vegetation. Nitrogen, however, was an exception, the amount being approximately the same in both vegetation layers. 

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  • Lehtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4981, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Pertti Hari, Pekka Kauppi, Eero Väisänen. (1977). Production of structural matter by a plant community in successional environment. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 4 article id 4981. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14835

The structural matter production of selected plant species of a ground cover community was determined in relation to light available for photosynthesis. The resulting functions were applied in a situation where the light reaching the ground cover was controlled by the dynamics of the tree crown strata, and the occurrence of different plant species at different stages of succession was determined on the basis of their production of structural matter in actual light conditions. The possible strategies involved in adaptation to a successional environment have been discussed.

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  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kauppi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Väisänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4980, category Article
Eero Väisänen, Pertti Hari, Seppo Kellomäki. (1977). Annual growth level of some plant species as a function of light available for photosynthesis. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 4 article id 4980. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14834

A quantitative method for determining the annual growth level of plant species has been presented. In particular, attention was paid to the dependence of the growth level on the amount of light available for photosynthesis. A mathematical model for the dependence of structural matter production on photosynthetic production has been presented for some plant species.

The study is based on the assumption that the total amount of annual net photosynthesis plays a role of primary importance in determining the relationship between photosynthetic production and structural matter production. The basic environmental factors determining the photosynthetic rate are light and temperature, if the water and nutrient supply is adequate. The dependence of photosynthetic rate on light and temperature was determined by monitoring the CO2 uptake rate of natural plant populations between the photosynthetic levels of different plant populations with an infrared gas analyser.

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  • Väisänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4972, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1977). Deterioration of forest ground cover during trampling. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4972. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14823

The aim of the present study was to investigate the trampling tolerance of forest ground cover of the Calluna, Vaccinium and Myrtillus type sites. Positive correlation was found between the site fertility and trampling tolerance of plant communities. Annual trampling at level of about 16,000 visits per hectare decreased the biomass of the ground cover to almost half of the original amount, and annual trampling of about 160,000 visits per hectare completely destroyed the forest ground cover irrespective of site fertility. Comparisons made between herb and grass dominated forest ground cover showed that herb and grass cover is in the long run the best alternative for the management of ground cover in intensively used recreation areas.

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  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4946, category Article
I. Lehtonen, S. Kellomäki, C. J. Westman. (1976). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 3 article id 4946. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14792
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand I. Seasonal variation in nutrient content of vegetation and soil.

The paper deals with variation in the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium content of vegetation and soil of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand of Vaccinium site type situated in Central Finland. The material consists of sequential samples representing soil, ground vegetation and trees taken during summer 1974.

The amount of soluble nutrients in the humus layer decreased in June when maximum growth of trees and dwarf shrubs occurred. The nutrient content of this layer subsequently began to increase towards the end of the growing period.

The variation in the nutrient content of the bottom and ground layers followed a similar pattern. Nitrogen content increases at the beginning of the summer. After this phase it started to decrease and reached its lowest values by the end of growing period. Phosphorus and potassium content increased throughout the growing period.

The nutrient content of the needles and wood were positively correlated with tree height and negatively with the age of material. The highest values for the nutrient content were for new cells.

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  • Lehtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4932, category Article
Marketta Hoogesteger. (1976). Kasvillisuuden muuttuminen Koilliskairan autiotupien ympärillä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 1 article id 4932. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14774
English title: Changes in vegetation around refuge huts in Koilliskaira forest area in Finnish Lapland.

The area of Koilliskaira, situated in the eastern part of Finnish Lapland, is a popular venue for hikers. The present work examines the change of vegetation around 35 refuge huts in the area. The indigenous vegetation was found to conform to the various heath forest types common to forests in Lapland and continental subalpine mountain birch forest types, principally dry or fairly dry heath forest.

According to the study, the change in vegetation showed a clear positive correlation with the number of summer visitors. The dwarf shrubs and lichens were the most susceptible to trampling, and the grasses the least so. Both resilient and susceptible species were to be found among the mosses. The incoming hemerophilous flora was seen to consist principally of species known to accompany Lappish settlement in the area, and only occasional cases of alien species were noted.

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  • Hoogesteger, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7019, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1919). Tutkimuksia viljavan maa-alan jakautumisesta etenkin Savossa ja Karjalassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 9 no. 1 article id 7019. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7019
English title: Studies on distribution of fertile lands in Savo and Karelia.

The article presents a survey on distribution of fertile lands, soil types and site classes in Savo and Karelia in the central and eastern parts of Finland. The survey was based both in existing publications and statistics, a line survey, and visual observations during field trips. The site quality classification is based on the vegetation and occurrence of indicator plant species. The article lists distribution of indicator species in different forest site types on maps of the area. In addition, a review of history of land use and agriculture give indications of the location of the fertile lands in the area. A map of the forest site types in different parts of the area illustrate the data collected from the different sources.

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  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4912, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1975). Havaintoja metsän aluskasvillisuuden biomassan ja peittävyyden välisestä suhteesta. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 1 article id 4912. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14756
English title: Studies concerning the relationship between biomass and coverage in ground vegetation of a forest stand.

The study deals with the relationship between biomass and coverage in ground vegetation of Vaccinium and Calluna forest types. The results show that the biomass of the field layer on both forest types can predict satisfactorily in both coverage values of some the most important species and groups of species. Their total height per plot was used as independent variables. The explaining power of the models constructed for Vaccinium type increased to approximately 57% and for the Calluna type to approximately 74% of the total variation in the amount of dry matter. When the biomass of the bottom layer was predicted using the same kind of variables, the explaining power for the Vaccinium type increased to approximately 35% of the total variation and for the Calluna type approximately 53% of the total variation in the amounts of dry matter. The models for field layer of both Vaccinium and Calluna types were quite well suited for describing the test material. In the case of the bottom layer, the constructed models were not suitable for describing the test material.

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  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4905, category Article
Reijo Solantie. (1974). Kesän vesitaseen vaikutus metsä- ja suokasvillisuuteen ja linnustoon sekä lämpöolojen välityksellä maatalouden toimintaedellytyksiin Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4905. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14749
English title: The influence of water balance in summer on forest and peatland vegetation and bird fauna and through the temperature on agricultural conditions in Finland.

The significance of water budget in June and July for forest and peatland vegetation, and consequent effects on fauna, climate and agriculture has been studied.

In June, the difference between evaporation and precipitation is greater than it is later in the summer. North of the line zero difference of evaporation and precipitation, coinciding with a line of sharp change in forest vegetation, the uppermost part of podsol remains wet throughout the summer. During July, the line of zero difference moves from north to south over the greater part of Finland, run-off being minute and podsol at the driest in this month. This line, indicating the length of the period with evaporation greater than precipitation and causing a sharp change in forest vegetation, in frequency of peatlands, amount of growing stock productive capacity of forests etc. This line is significant also for cultivation: because of the lower evaporation north of this line, night temperature below the freezing point often appear in summer.

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  • Solantie, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4905, category Article
Reijo Solantie. (1974). Kesän vesitaseen vaikutus metsä- ja suokasvillisuuteen ja linnustoon sekä lämpöolojen välityksellä maatalouden toimintaedellytyksiin Suomessa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4905. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14749
English title: The influence of water balance in summer on forest and peatland vegetation and bird fauna and through the temperature on agricultural conditions in Finland.

The significance of water budget in June and July for forest and peatland vegetation, and consequent effects on fauna, climate and agriculture has been studied.

In June, the difference between evaporation and precipitation is greater than it is later in the summer. North of the line zero difference of evaporation and precipitation, coinciding with a line of sharp change in forest vegetation, the uppermost part of podsol remains wet throughout the summer. During July, the line of zero difference moves from north to south over the greater part of Finland, run-off being minute and podsol at the driest in this month. This line, indicating the length of the period with evaporation greater than precipitation and causing a sharp change in forest vegetation, in frequency of peatlands, amount of growing stock productive capacity of forests etc. This line is significant also for cultivation: because of the lower evaporation north of this line, night temperature below the freezing point often appear in summer.

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  • Solantie, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4895, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1974). Metsän aluskasvillisuuden biomassan ja peittävyyden välisestä suhteesta. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 1 article id 4895. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14739
English title: The relation between biomass and coverage in ground vegetation of forest stand.

The possibilities of using results of coverage analyses for estimating the dry matter content of the ground vegetation has been examined in this study. The material covers 150 sample areas, 400 m2 large, which represent ground vegetation of Myrtillus type in the final succession stage. When the material was subjected to linear regression analysis, the amount of dry matter in the field and ground layer has been used as dependant variables and the results of the coverage analysis as the independent variable.

The study shows that it is possible to predict satisfactorily the dry matter content of the ground vegetation by grouping the coverage, according to the coverage weight, into parts of equal size and the using them as independent explaining variables. In particular, the value of the prediction equation for the dry matter content of the field layer could be improved by using the height and density characteristics of the vegetation as explaining variables in addition to the coverage figures. Thus, slightly over 80% of the total variation of the dry matter content of the field layer could be predicted. In the case of the ground layer vegetation, the explaining power rose slightly above 70%.

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  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4882, category Article
Hannu Mannerkoski. (1973). Ekologisia havaintoja eräältä ojitetulta suolta. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 2 article id 4882. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14718
English title: Ecological investigations in a drained peatland area.

The paper deals with the relationships between macronutrients, ground vegetation and tree crop on a drained peatland area in Central Finland. The former herb-rich spruce swamp was drained in 1930s. The Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stand was established by planting under a nurse crop of birch, which was removed later.

There was a negative correlation between the thickness of the peat layer and the volume and mean height of the growing stock. This was found to depend on the negative correlation prevailing between the potassium content of the topmost peat layer and the thickness of the peat cover. The deficiency of potassium is clearly discernible as deficiency symptoms in the needles, the intensity of which showed a strong correlation with the stand characteristics studied. Among the nutrient characteristics of the topmost peat layer, total potassium and the N/K and P/K ratios showed the closest correlation with the stand characteristics. The communities into which the ground vegetation was divided differed from each other with regard to the calcium content of the peat substrate.

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  • Mannerkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4880, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1973). Tallaamisen vaikutus mustikkatyypin kuusikon pintakasvillisuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 2 article id 4880. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14716
English title: Ground cover response to trampling in a spruce stand of Myrtillus type.

The study deals with the trampling tolerance of forest vegetation in a Myrtillus type closed forest of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), based on the effects of simulated trampling on the coverage and biomass on the field and between layers of the vegetation. The reliability of the results from the simulated trampling was tested by comparing them with those obtained from real trampling.

According to the results, the trampling tolerance of the bottom layers is greater than that of the field layer. The trampling tolerance of different species varies, so that grasses and dwarf shrubs have a higher tolerance capacity than herbs. Even light trampling of short duration caused noticeable changes in the coverage and biomass of the ground vegetation. Despite certain deficiencies, the simulated trampling gave parallel results of those obtained for real trampling.

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  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7014, category Article
Raf. Björkenheim. (1919). Beiträge zur Kenntnis einiger Waldtypen in den Fichtenwaldungen des deutschen Mittelgebirges. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 6 no. 3 article id 7014. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7014
English title: Writings on knowledge on forest types in spruce forests of German “Mittelgebirge” (mountainous areas).

The data has been collected in spruce forests in mountainous areas of Germany: Fichtelgebirge and Böhmerwald in Bavaria, Erzgebirge in Saxonia. The studied characteristics of the stand were: growth of the trees in height and diameter, and the ground vegetation. The stands were classified according Cajander’s forest site classification. The article presents the most common plants and other characteristics of every forest site type and studied stands. The relation of the height of the trees and their age is represented in diagrams for every forest type.

The presence of indicator plants is somewhat dependent on the stand age and crown coverage. The amount of species is lowest when the crown coverage is at the greatest.

As conclusion of the study it can be seen that the growth of the stand differentiates clearly depending on the forest site type, being greater at the more nutritious sites. Since the differently growing stands need different management, it would be natural to direct the management of the stand according the forest site type. 

  • Björkenheim, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4844, category Article
Kaarina Rutanen. (1971). Sinivuoren luonnonpuiston kasvisto ja kasvillisuus. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4844. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14646
English title: Flora and vegetation of the Sinivuori Nature Park in Southern Finland.

The Sinivuori Nature Park, located in the northeast part of the county of Häme in Southern Finland represents the rare fertile forest lands in the country, and belong partly to the so-called centre of herb‐rich forests of Häme. Sinivuori is one of the smallest nature reserves in Finland (64 ha). The detailed vegetation analysis was performed in 1969, supplemented by earlier and later observations. The area was divided into 69 one-hectare squares for the study of the flora and vegetation.

The most common rock in the park is mica schist. The pH of the soil is relatively high, in average 6.6. Thermal-time sum is 1,100–1,200. The vegetation differs to a large extent from the surrounding areas. 169 vascular plants were found in the area, some of which very rare in the area. The paper lists the plants and their abundance in the area, and the vegetation is described by the forest types. Distribution maps are presented for the species.

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  • Rutanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4822, category Article
Eino Oinonen. (1970). Metsäkasvien kloonikasvustot maanteiden iän arvioimisen apuneuvoina. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 4822. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14611
English title: Clone stands of forest plants as aids for estimating the age of roads.

Clone stands of bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn.) wood small reed (Calamagrostis epigeios L.) and lily-of-the-valley (Convallaria majalis L.) are often partly split into two by the road, but often encountered also unilaterally on the roadside in the shape of a semicircle. The unilateral stands can be at times 20–30 m wide and they are sometimes solitary stands of the species. A method to define the age of the solitary stands of six plant species including bracken, wood small reed and lily-of-the-valley was developed in a series of earlier studies.

These stands can be used to define the time the road was built. Clones that are bound by the road unilaterally are younger than the road. If there are several unilateral clones and they are of different sizes, the road is older than the largest clone. When the road is skirted bilaterally only by clones divided by the road, it is younger than the smallest clone. When there are by the road side both unilaterally delimited clones and clones split by the road, the age of the road comes in the range of time determined by the age difference between the largest unilateral and smallest bilateral clone.

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  • Oinonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7515, category Article
Vesa Kaarakka. (1996). Management of bushland vegetation using rainwater harvesting in eastern Kenya. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 253 article id 7515. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7515

Microcatchment water harvesting (MCWH) improved the survival and growth of planted trees on heavy soils in eastern Kenya five to six years after planting. In the best method, the cross-tied furrow microcatchment, the mean annual increment (MAI; based on the average biomass of living trees multiplied by tree density and survival) of the total and usable biomass of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. were 2,787 and 1,610 kg ha-1 a-1 respectively, when the initial tree density was 500 to 1,667 trees per hectare. Based on survival, the indigenous Acacia horrida Span., A. mellifera (Vahl) Benth. and A. zanzibarica (S. Moore) Taub. were the most suitable species for planting using MCWH. When both survival and the yield were considered, a local seed source of P. Juliflora was superior to all other species. The MAI in MCWH was at best distinctly higher than that in the natural vegetation (163–307 and 66–111 kg ha-1 a-1 for total and usable biomass respectively); this cannot satisfy the fuelwood demand of concentrated populations, such as towns or irrigation schemes.

The density of seeds of woody species in the topsoil was 40.1 seeds/m2 in the Acacia-Commiphora bushland and 12.6 seeds/m2 in the zone between the bushland and the Tana riverine forest. Rehabilitation of woody vegetation using the soil seed bank alone proved difficult due to the lack of seeds of desirable species.

The regeneration and dynamics of woody vegetation were also studied both in cleared and undisturbed bushland. A sub-type of Acacia-Commiphora bushland was identified as Acacia reficiens bushland, in which the dominant Commiphora species is C. campestris. Most of the woody species did not have even-aged population but cohort structures that were skewed towards young individuals. The woody vegetation and the status of soil nutrients were estimated to recover in 15–20 years on Vertic Natrargid soils after total removal of above-ground vegetation.

  • Kaarakka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7508, category Article
Tapani Lahti. (1995). Understorey vegetation as an indicator of forest site potential in Southern Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 246 article id 7508. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7508

The relationship between site characteristics and understorey vegetation composition was analysed with quantitative methods, especially from the viewpoint of site quality estimation. Theoretical models were applied to an empirical data set collected from the upland forests of Southern Finland comprising 104 sites dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris. L.) and 165 sites dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Site index H100 was used as an independent measure of site quality.

A new model for the estimation of site quality at sites with a known understorey vegetation composition was introduced. It is based on the application of Bayes’ theorem to the density function of site quality within the study area combined with the species-specific presence-absence response curves. The resulting probability density function may be used for calculating an estimate for the site variable

Using this method, a jackknife estimate of site index H100 was calculated separately for pine- and spruce-dominated sites. The results indicated that the cross-validation root mean squared error (RMSEcv) of the estimates improved from 2.98 m down to 2.34 m relative to the ”null” model (standard deviation of the sample distribution) in pine-dominated forests. In spruce-dominated forests RMSEcv decreased from 3.94 m down to 3.19 m.

In order to assess these results, four other estimation methods based on understorey vegetation composition were applied to the same data set. The results showed that none of the methods was clearly superior to the others. In pine-dominated forests RMSEcv varied between 2.34 and 2.47 m, and the corresponding range for spruce-dominated forest was from 3.13 to 3.57 m.

  • Lahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7638, category Article
Jussi Kuusipalo. (1985). An ecological study of upland forest site classification in southern Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 192 article id 7638. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7638

The vegetation and number of physical and chemical soil properties were studied on a random sample of closed upland forest stands in Southern Finland. The material consists of a total of 410 sample plots. Two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) was carried out in order to produce a hierarchical clustering of samples on the basis of the vegetation data. Discriminant analysis and analysis of variance were applied in order to find environmental correlations of the vegetation clustering.

The vegetation was found to indicate the nutrient regime of the humus layer well, but to a less extent the properties of the sub-soil. The understorey vegetation was found to be jointly dependent on the site fertility and on the properties of the tree stand, especially on the tree species composition. Although the forest vegetation appears to be distributed rather continuously along an axis of increasing site fertility, relatively unambiguous classification can be based on the appearance of indicator species and species groups.

The results of the study were interpreted as indication that operational site classification done using the vegetation is rather good method for classification in closed forest stands. Different methods produce relatively consistent, natural and ecologically interpretable classifications. The results also imply that the vegetation cover and the humus layer develop concurrently during the development of the ecosystem, but the differentiation of the site type is regulated simultaneously by a number of interacting factors ranging from mineralogical properties of the parent material to the topographical exposition of the site. As the plant cover depicts all these primary factors simultaneously, only a relatively rough ecological site classification can be based on the vegetation.

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  • Kuusipalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7638, category Article
Jussi Kuusipalo. (1985). An ecological study of upland forest site classification in southern Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 192 article id 7638. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7638

The vegetation and number of physical and chemical soil properties were studied on a random sample of closed upland forest stands in Southern Finland. The material consists of a total of 410 sample plots. Two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) was carried out in order to produce a hierarchical clustering of samples on the basis of the vegetation data. Discriminant analysis and analysis of variance were applied in order to find environmental correlations of the vegetation clustering.

The vegetation was found to indicate the nutrient regime of the humus layer well, but to a less extent the properties of the sub-soil. The understorey vegetation was found to be jointly dependent on the site fertility and on the properties of the tree stand, especially on the tree species composition. Although the forest vegetation appears to be distributed rather continuously along an axis of increasing site fertility, relatively unambiguous classification can be based on the appearance of indicator species and species groups.

The results of the study were interpreted as indication that operational site classification done using the vegetation is rather good method for classification in closed forest stands. Different methods produce relatively consistent, natural and ecologically interpretable classifications. The results also imply that the vegetation cover and the humus layer develop concurrently during the development of the ecosystem, but the differentiation of the site type is regulated simultaneously by a number of interacting factors ranging from mineralogical properties of the parent material to the topographical exposition of the site. As the plant cover depicts all these primary factors simultaneously, only a relatively rough ecological site classification can be based on the vegetation.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kuusipalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7588, category Article
Niilo Söyrinki, Risto Salmela, Jorma Suvanto. (1977). Oulangan kansallispuiston metsä- ja suokasvillisuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 154 article id 7588. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7588
English title: The forest and mire vegetation of the Oulanka National Park, Northern Finland.

The Oulanka National Park is situated in the district of Kuusamo on the eastern border of Finland, close to the Arctic Circle and within the coniferous forest zone. It covers a surface area of 107 km2, and is known for the richness of its vegetation and flora, a product of a varied bedrock pattern including occurrences of dolomite. A description is given of the vegetation of the 9 forest and 47 peatland types distinguishable in the area by means of tables based on quadrat surveys. The distribution of each forest and peatland type is described in a vegetation map. The vegetation types are discussed in terms of the structure of their soil and the ecological and floristic features of their plant cover.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Söyrinki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Salmela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Suvanto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7588, category Article
Niilo Söyrinki, Risto Salmela, Jorma Suvanto. (1977). Oulangan kansallispuiston metsä- ja suokasvillisuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 154 article id 7588. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7588
English title: The forest and mire vegetation of the Oulanka National Park, Northern Finland.

The Oulanka National Park is situated in the district of Kuusamo on the eastern border of Finland, close to the Arctic Circle and within the coniferous forest zone. It covers a surface area of 107 km2, and is known for the richness of its vegetation and flora, a product of a varied bedrock pattern including occurrences of dolomite. A description is given of the vegetation of the 9 forest and 47 peatland types distinguishable in the area by means of tables based on quadrat surveys. The distribution of each forest and peatland type is described in a vegetation map. The vegetation types are discussed in terms of the structure of their soil and the ecological and floristic features of their plant cover.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Söyrinki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Salmela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Suvanto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7581, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Varpu-Leena Saastamoinen. (1975). Trampling tolerance of forest vegetation. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 147 article id 7581. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7581

The trampling tolerance of ground vegetation of different types of forest stands has been examined in this study in the light of short-term trampling. The trampling treatment was simulated by a mechanical tamp. The relation between deterioration of the ground vegetation and the amount of the trampling was presumed to follow a curvilinear pattern when the material was being analysed. In order to quantify this relationship, a mathematical equation was developed for every plant community and their members of which the trampling tolerance was analysed. The trampling tolerance was compared using a parameter of the developed equations. Vegetation growing on sites of the Myrtillus, Vaccinium and Calluna types was included in the study.

The study showed a clear difference in the trampling tolerance between the ground vegetation of sites differing in their fertility. The ground vegetation typical of the Calluna type was found to have a lower trampling tolerance than the vegetation of the most fertile sites which were studied. It can be concluded that the relationship between the site fertility and the trampling tolerance of the ground vegetation is a curvilinear one such that the trampling tolerance of the vegetation on the poorest and the richest sites is lower than that of the vegetation growing on sites of medium fertility. However, it does appear that the most fertile sites have a higher trampling tolerance than the poorest sites. In addition, information about the trampling tolerance of a number of commonly occurring forest plants is also presented.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saastamoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7581, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Varpu-Leena Saastamoinen. (1975). Trampling tolerance of forest vegetation. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 147 article id 7581. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7581

The trampling tolerance of ground vegetation of different types of forest stands has been examined in this study in the light of short-term trampling. The trampling treatment was simulated by a mechanical tamp. The relation between deterioration of the ground vegetation and the amount of the trampling was presumed to follow a curvilinear pattern when the material was being analysed. In order to quantify this relationship, a mathematical equation was developed for every plant community and their members of which the trampling tolerance was analysed. The trampling tolerance was compared using a parameter of the developed equations. Vegetation growing on sites of the Myrtillus, Vaccinium and Calluna types was included in the study.

The study showed a clear difference in the trampling tolerance between the ground vegetation of sites differing in their fertility. The ground vegetation typical of the Calluna type was found to have a lower trampling tolerance than the vegetation of the most fertile sites which were studied. It can be concluded that the relationship between the site fertility and the trampling tolerance of the ground vegetation is a curvilinear one such that the trampling tolerance of the vegetation on the poorest and the richest sites is lower than that of the vegetation growing on sites of medium fertility. However, it does appear that the most fertile sites have a higher trampling tolerance than the poorest sites. In addition, information about the trampling tolerance of a number of commonly occurring forest plants is also presented.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saastamoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4688, category Article
L. Heikurainen, Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1960). Symposio metsätyypeistä ja metsäekosysteemeistä Motrealissa elokuun 24. päivänä 1959. IX Kansainvälisen kasvitieteellisen kongressin yhteydessä. Silva Fennica no. 105 article id 4688. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14129
English title: Symposium on forest types and forest ecosystems during the IX international botanical congress Montreal, August 24th 1959.

The paper is a review on the topics of Symposium on forest types and forest ecosystems, held in connection to the IX internal botanical congress in Montreal in August 1959, the chairman of which was Ilmari Hustich. The article includes 18 preparatory papers that were distributed among the participants of the symposium. The common theme of the papers was the question of finding common platform for the different schools of forest types and forest ecosystems. In addition to the papers, the article includes a summary of the proceedings and discussions of the symposium.

 

The following papers were presented in the symposium:

Aichinger, E. Können wir eine gemeinsame Platform für die verscheidenen Schulen in der Waldtypenklassifikationen finden?

Arnborg, T. Can we find a common platform for the different schools of forest type classifications?

Dansereau, P. A combined structural and floristic approach to the definition of forest ecosystems.

Daubenmire, R. Some major problems in vegetation classification

Ellenberg, H. Können wir eine gemeinsame Platform für die verscheidenen Schulen in der Waldtypenklassifikationen finden?

Hills, G.A. Comparison of forest ecosystems (vegetation and soil) in different climatic zones

Kalela, A. Classification of the vegetation, especially of the forest, with particular reference to regional problems

Krajina, V.J. Can we find a common platform for the different schools of forest type classifications?

Kühler, A.W. Mapping tropical forest vegetation

Linteau, A. Y. a-t-il. Un terrain d’entente possible entre les différentes écoles au sujet de la classification de types forestiers?

Medvecka-Kornaś, A. Some problems of forest climaxes in Poland

Ovington, J.D. The ecosystem concept as aid to forest classification

Puri, G.S. The concept of climax in forest botany as applied in India

Rowe, J.S. Can we find a common platform for the different schools of forest type classifications?

Scamoni, A. Können wir eine gemeinsame Grundlage für die verscheidenen Schulen in der Waldtypenklassifikationen finden?

Sukachev, V.N. The correlation between the concept ’forest ecosystem’ and ’forest biogeocoenise’ and their importance for the classification of forests

Webb, L.J. A new attempt to classify Australian rain forest

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4672, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1957). Lettoräme ja sen metsäojituskelpoisuus. Silva Fennica no. 93 article id 4672. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9119
English title: Eutrophic pine bogs and their suitability for draining.

There are about 155,000 ha of fen-like pine swamps (eutrophic pine bogs) in Finland, major part of which are situated in Northern Finland. In the classification system for drainability of peatlands, this type of peatlands had been placed in the first class. The study presents a new evaluation for the peatland type, based on vegetation and tree growth.

According to a previous study, the vegetation of fen-like pine swamps can be characterised by distinctive plant communities that seem to reflect the fertility and high pH of the underlying soil. In this study, the fen-like pine swamps were divided in two subtypes based on the vegetation: proper fen-like pine swamps and fen-like pine swamps with ericaceous shrubs. Both have distinctive vegetation, which is described in the article. The distribution of the subtypes seems to be different: fen-like pine swamps with ericaceous shrubs are more common in eastern parts of Northern Finland. The two subtypes could be divided in different drainability classes according to tree growth, proper fen-like pine swamps belonging to class 1 and fen-like pine swamps with ericaceous shrubs to class 4.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4640, category Article
Jaakko Jalas. (1953). Rokua : suunnitellun kansallispuiston kasvillisuus ja kasvisto. Silva Fennica no. 81 article id 4640. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9102
English title: Vegetation and flora in the planned national park of Rokua in Northern Finland.

The 4.4 km2 sized area of Rokua is a sandy ridge situated in the transitional zone between Central and Northern Finland. It has been suggested to become a new national park due to its, in the area unique landscape and geological characteristics.

The vegetation of the area has been little studied. A vegetation analysis was performed in 1945, 1947 and 1949. Due to low nutrients in the sandy soil, the number of species is relatively low, including 236 vascular plants. The climate is continental. Lichen covering of soil in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated forests is mostly intact compared to the more northern areas, because grazing of reindeer has been little. Fellings have increased in the surrounding areas of the planned national park. The article includes a detailed description of vegetation and flora in the area.

The article includes a summary in German.

  • Jalas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4637, category Article
Eero Paavola. (1953). Selostus kenttäkokeista, jotka koskivat eräiden kemiallisten aineiden käyttömahdollisuuksia metsänkylvössä. Silva Fennica no. 80 article id 4637. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14053
English title: Review of field experiments on the fitness of certain chemicals for use at seeding.

Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the 7th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes a field experiment on the use of herbicides to prevent growth of ground vegetation in cutting areas before sowing. The study suggests that the chemicals used in the experiment were not effective enough to prevent growth of ground vegetation in the more fertile lands, but were effective in poorer lands. However, the treatment affected also growth of tree seedlings.

  • Paavola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4625, category Article
Olavi Huikari. (1952). Suotyypin määritys maa- ja metsätaloudellista käyttöarvoa silmällä pitäen. Silva Fennica no. 75 article id 4625. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9097
English title: Determination of peatland type considering their drainage value for agriculture and forestry.

Growth capacity of peatlands after draining depends largely on quality of the surface peat. The future growth capacity can be determined with considerable accuracy by the vegetation of the peatland. The aim of this study was to draw guidelines to identify the fertility of a peatland and its potential for draining based on its vegetation.

Certain species and plant associations were identified to describe the fertility of different peatland types. Brown mosses indicate an abundant nutrient content of the site, certain herbs moderately abundant nutrient content, sedges (Carex sp.) moderate nutrient content, shrubs poor nutrient content and vegetation indicating an oligotrophic peatland indicates excessively poor nutrient content. The article includes detailed descriptions of the vegetation of different peatland types.

Supplementary features, such as thin peat, flooded parts or abundance of Spangnum fuscum can be used as additional indications to determine the drainability of the site. The article describes an identification tool to determine the drainability of a peatland based on vegetation and the supplementary features of the peatland.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Huikari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4620, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1951). Eräs suokasvillisuuden analysoimismenetelmä. Silva Fennica no. 70 article id 4620. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9092
English title: Determination method for peatland vegetation.

The aim of the study was to develop an determination method to define vegetation type of fen-like pine swamps, which are combinations of two peatland types, quagmire and pine swamp. Typical for this peatland type is that the vegetation is very heterogenous. Patches of different types of plant communities are found within a small area, but in a large scale, there are only few main types of plant communities. The commonly used way to use sample plots to study tree stands suit poorly to determine the type of this kind of heterogenous ground vegetation. The article compares strip survey and circular plot survey, of which circular plot survey is determined to be less time consuming. The article describes a way to choose the locations of sample points to achieve most correct areas for different plant communities.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4597, category Article
Lauri Teivainen. (1949). Pisavaaran luonnonpuiston metsäkasvillisuudesta ja kasvistosta. Silva Fennica no. 65 article id 4597. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13978
English title: Forest vegetation and flora of Pisavaara national park.

A vegetation survey was conducted in the Pisavaara national park in Northern Finland in 1946 and 1947. The national park (49,9 km2) includes southern half of the Pisavaara hills. The rock is quartzite. The most common vegetation type is dry upland forest type, but also fresh mineral soil sites are typical for the area.

The most common forest type, Empetrum-Myrtillus type coveres almost as much of the area as all the other forest types combined. The article describes in detail the vegetation of all forest types and gives a complete list of all plant species found in the survey. Total of 291 vascular plants was found, 242 of which were native to the area. In addition, 49 anthropochores had spread to the area when the forest ranger’s cottage was built. Number of species growing in the northern edge of their natural range is. Southern species can be found in the southern slopes of the hill.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Teivainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4597, category Article
Lauri Teivainen. (1949). Pisavaaran luonnonpuiston metsäkasvillisuudesta ja kasvistosta. Silva Fennica no. 65 article id 4597. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13978
English title: Forest vegetation and flora of Pisavaara national park.

A vegetation survey was conducted in the Pisavaara national park in Northern Finland in 1946 and 1947. The national park (49,9 km2) includes southern half of the Pisavaara hills. The rock is quartzite. The most common vegetation type is dry upland forest type, but also fresh mineral soil sites are typical for the area.

The most common forest type, Empetrum-Myrtillus type coveres almost as much of the area as all the other forest types combined. The article describes in detail the vegetation of all forest types and gives a complete list of all plant species found in the survey. Total of 291 vascular plants was found, 242 of which were native to the area. In addition, 49 anthropochores had spread to the area when the forest ranger’s cottage was built. Number of species growing in the northern edge of their natural range is. Southern species can be found in the southern slopes of the hill.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Teivainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4579, category Article
Reino Kalliola. (1942). Pyhätunturin kansallispuiston kasvillisuudesta ja kasvistosta. Silva Fennica no. 59 article id 4579. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9083
English title: Vegetation and flora in the Pyhätunturi National Park.

The article is based on the writer’s visits in the area in 1933 and 1939. Pyhätunturi national park was established in 1938. The fell of Pyhätunturi rises up to 540 meters above the sea level, and 357 meters above the surrounding area. The soil is predominantly stony, and the rock is quartzite. The climate is continental with low rainfall. This results in a barren area, where array of plant species is limited with the exception of few gorges with fertile river valleys. The forests have remained mostly in natural state.

Vegetation is arranged in three zones: forested area, subalpine fell birch area and alpine bare top of the fell. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forms timberline more often than Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Coniferous forests rise up to 365 meters on the northern slopes and up to about 385 on the southern slopes of the fell. It is followed by fell birch zone (Betula tortuosa, now Betula pubescens subsp. Czerepanovii) up to about 450-475 meters on the eastern and northern slopes, and 475-490 meters on the western slopes. The most common forest site type is Empetrum-Myrtillus site type. Herb-rich spruce swamps along the rivers have highest diversity of species. The article describes the plant species found in forests, peatlands, fell birch zone and top of the fell in detail. In all 162 different vascular plant species and 16 non-indigenous species were found in the area.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Kalliola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4579, category Article
Reino Kalliola. (1942). Pyhätunturin kansallispuiston kasvillisuudesta ja kasvistosta. Silva Fennica no. 59 article id 4579. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9083
English title: Vegetation and flora in the Pyhätunturi National Park.

The article is based on the writer’s visits in the area in 1933 and 1939. Pyhätunturi national park was established in 1938. The fell of Pyhätunturi rises up to 540 meters above the sea level, and 357 meters above the surrounding area. The soil is predominantly stony, and the rock is quartzite. The climate is continental with low rainfall. This results in a barren area, where array of plant species is limited with the exception of few gorges with fertile river valleys. The forests have remained mostly in natural state.

Vegetation is arranged in three zones: forested area, subalpine fell birch area and alpine bare top of the fell. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forms timberline more often than Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Coniferous forests rise up to 365 meters on the northern slopes and up to about 385 on the southern slopes of the fell. It is followed by fell birch zone (Betula tortuosa, now Betula pubescens subsp. Czerepanovii) up to about 450-475 meters on the eastern and northern slopes, and 475-490 meters on the western slopes. The most common forest site type is Empetrum-Myrtillus site type. Herb-rich spruce swamps along the rivers have highest diversity of species. The article describes the plant species found in forests, peatlands, fell birch zone and top of the fell in detail. In all 162 different vascular plant species and 16 non-indigenous species were found in the area.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Kalliola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4571, category Article
Tauno Lampimäki. (1939). Nautakarjan laiduntamisesta metsämailla. Silva Fennica no. 50 article id 4571. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9074
English title: Grazing of cattle in forest land.

Finland has a long tradition of grazing cattle in the forests and common land. There are also reports of degradation of forests by grazing already in 1600th century. The aim of the survey was to study which positive and negative effects grazing has in forests.

The study concludes that grazing has caused considerable economic losses through damages to forests. In addition, woodland pastures cannot give the yields required in modern animal husbandry. The quality of woodland pastures have decreased after the woodlands used in slash and burn culture have become wooded.

Grazing has also some positive effects to forests. It increases the diversity of vegetation in the woodland pastures and spreads species to new areas. This is supported by the lists of species found in different woodland pastures. Cattle destroy large grasses like Calamagrostis, which may avail growth of tree seedlings in the pastures. Grazing can also prepare the site for tree seedlings. On the other hand, prolonged grazing destroys tree seedlings and prevents regeneration.

The article includes a German summary.

  • Lampimäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4524, category Article
Risto Sarvas. (1937). Havaintoja kasvillisuuden kehityksestä Pohjois-Suomen kuloalueilla. Silva Fennica no. 44 article id 4524. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9069
English title: Observations on development of vegetation in burned areas in Northern Finland.

The aim of the study was to follow development of vegetation in dry upland forest sites after forest fire. The sample sites were situated in the counties of Muonio, Kolari, Sodankylä, Pelkosenniemi, Savukoski, Kemijärvi and Salla, in the northernmost Finland.
The growth of plant communities can arise either from the vegetation and seeds that survived the fire, or from seeds that spread from the surrounding areas. The development of vegetation in the burned areas was unexpectedly independent of the surrounding areas, which indicates that role of the seeds from the outside of the burned ares is small. The occurence of different species of lichens, moss, scale moss and vascular plants in the burned areas are described in detail. The development of vegetation was strongly dependent on the forest site type. The thin humus layer of Cladina site type burns usually evenly, and also the vegetation develops more evenly than in the more fresh site types. Vegetation typical for burned areas was fully developed within 10-15 years, and after 25 years it began to resemble the vegetation of Cladina site type forests. The ground vegetation of Calluna type burned area was more patchy. It developed quicker than in Cladina type. Absense of lichens made it seem more fertile than is usual for Calluna type. The humus layer of Empetrum-Myrtillus site type burned unevenly, and if the area was lightly burned, the vegetation recovered quickly. The vegetation was often patchy.
The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Sarvas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4522, category Article
A. V. Auer. (1937). Muhkurin kasvisto. Silva Fennica no. 41 article id 4522. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9067
English title: Vegetation in Muhkuri experimental area in southwest Finland.

A vegetation analysis was performed in Muhkuri experimental area of the Forest Research Institute. The area is located in southwest Finland near city of Turku. The dominant tree species of the area is oak (Quercus robur L.) which can be found in all the area. Common woody species are also aspen (Populus tremula L.), mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia L.), hazel (Corylus avellana L.), juniper (Juniperus communis L.) and mountain currant (Ribes alpinum L.). A total of 198 vascular plants were found in the area, 34 of which were common in most parts of the area. Typical vegetation of different parts of the area is described. Finally, a list of all plant species is presented in the article.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Auer, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4478, category Article
Taimi Mäkelä. (1936). Lehdoista ja lehtokasvien leviämisestä Pohjois-Pirkkalan-Tyrvään alueella. Silva Fennica no. 37 article id 4478. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9064
English title: Herb-rich forests and their vegetation in northern Pirkkala-Tyrvää area in Southern Finland.

Vegetation inventory was made to study plant species growing in herb-rich forest in northern Pirkkala-Tyrvää area in Southern Finland. The area belongs to a district that is rich in grass-herb forests, where the bedrock is calciferous. Six herb-rich forest site types were identified in the area. The species composition in the herb-rich forests was compared to those in Turku in southwest Finland, and in Ladogda Karelia in Eastern Finland.  The main characteristics of the plant associations were similar, but there were a few species that are common in Pirkkala-Tyrvää area that are rare in the other areas, and vice versa. The district rich in grass-herb forests of Pirkkala may extend more westwards than it has been assessed earlier. Finally, the article lists the plant species found in the herb-rich forests in the area and defines their distribution and abundance.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4475, category Article
Olavi Cajander. (1934). Viljavan maa-alan jakautumisesta sekä lehtokasvillisuudesta ja -kasvistosta keskisen Längelmäveden seudulla. Silva Fennica no. 34 article id 4475. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9047
English title: Distribution of fertile lands and vegetation indicative for herb-rich forest sites in Längelmävesi area in Southern Finland.

Typical for the area of Längälmävesi, in Satakunta in Southern Finland, are densely populated fertile lowland areas near the waterways and poorer sparcely populated upland areas. The changes in fertility of the land influence the vegetation, and has directed where the population has settled. A vegetation survey was made using specific plant species as indication to fertility. A detailed description of the species composition and distribution of the plant species indicative for fertile land is presented in the article.

Analyzing the fertility only based on the plant species indicative for rich soils underestimates the proportion of fertile lands. Farmlands, on the other hand, have been cleared also on less fertile soils, which would give an overestimate of the fertile lands. A map of fertile lands was drawn based on both vegetation and location of the fields. The changes in fertility influenced also bird species observed in the area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4456, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1930). Wesen und Bedeutung der Waldtypen. Silva Fennica no. 15 article id 4456. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8990
English title: Characters and meaning of forest types.

The article contains three presentations given about forest type classification at the University of Tarto in Estonia. The article has an introduction, a part about the meaning of the natural classification of forest sites and up to now conducted studies on site classification. The second part presents the characteristics of plant communities and the forest types, and practical and theoretical meaning of forest types.

Classifying the forest sites is important in practical forestry, because the forest growth and forest valuation are dependent on the productivity of the soil. The classification of the sites for forest management purposes needs to result in classes that are easily distinguished in the forest. This then leads to forest management that best fits to a certain forest site. 

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4436, category Article
Ernst Häyrén. (1927). Pummanginniemi i Petsamo såsom naturskyddsområde. Silva Fennica no. 3 article id 4436. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8384
English title: Pummanginniemi in Petsamo as a nature reserve.

The article describes the geography and vegetation of Pummanginniemi area in Petsamo (now a Russian municipality of Pechenga; in 1926 the area was part of Finland in north-east Lapland), which has been suggested to become a natural park. Geologically it represented the only paleozoic area in Finland, constituting of layered rocks, mostly of slates and sandstones. The cape Pummanginniemi is situated on the cost of the Arctic Ocean, and it is known for its rich birdlife. Towards the inland, there is a plateau the vegetation of which is alpine. The area is situated above the mountain birch zone.

  • Häyrén, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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