Current issue: 53(3)

Under compilation: 53(4)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'World Forest Congress'.

Category: Article

article id 5045, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1979). Assessment of forest resources for forest management. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5045. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14902

The general requirements for forest information required in forest management include the availability of quantitative data concerning forest areas and timber volume, data describing that structure and quality of the forest by classes, data dealing with the forest dynamics such as increment and mortality, stand-wise data tied to on-the-ground locations, and the timelines of all this information.

A review of the present inventory systems reveals variations in the information used to manage forests. In many cases, there appears to be an inadequacy of information. There may be no inventory system, or sampling may concern only overall features of the forest. The general trend has been towards a more common use of delineation of stands and the estimation of stands characteristics. In European countries, survey techniques have been improved by, for instance, trying to avoid subjective features in stand-wise assessments and through the use of index sub-compartments which are remeasure. In North America, a new approach was recently introduced to generate stand tables which seems to have significant inventory capabilities. In some cases, the advanced inventory systems may simultaneously employ three kinds of inventories.

In designing an inventory and management information system experiences gained elsewhere should be utilized with studies of sampling methods, remote sensing techniques, new instrumentation and computer services. Improved decision making makes it possible to introduce cheaper methods for periodic inventories. The information system should be only as elaborate as is required to do the job. The costs of acquisition of inventory information correlates with a degree of sophistication of the system, but rarely exceeds one percent of the stumpage of the timber cut. Also, the increase in wood production more than compensates the costs of planning on the basis of inventories.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5043, category Article
V. J. Palosuo, M. Heikinheimo, S. Kaurinkoski. (1979). Role of education and professionalism in the developing of forest policies. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5043. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14900

To what extend can the services of forestry fulfil the needs of a nation? The answer depends not only on the natural resources or the stage of development of a country and its forestry, but also on its base of knowledge and know-how. The question is how to maximize the knowledge of forests and its role in human life, how to analyse this knowledge and in due course forward the result to the decision makers.

As an organic part of economy and culture, forest policy must incorporate a balanced and up-to-date program of education which will cover the needs of all forest-based services to the public. This program ought to guarantee a sufficient number of qualified professionals, technicians and workers who for their part should share their knowledge and especially field experiences for the development of the nation’s forest policy.

The forest management must be turned into a profession that will have its permanent role in the general planning of the nation’s economy and welfare. Depending on the structure of the country’s administration, there are different ways to make the professional voice heard by the responsible politicians. In any case a close and continual discussion and cooperation between politicians and professionals will be essential. Discussions must take place in the early phases of the planning in order to minimize erroneous planning caused by eventual lack of factual knowledge among the politicians. Information must be given in clear and uncomplicated terms, understood also by the public which must be well informed about the aims and duties of the professionals as well.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Palosuo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kaurinkoski, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5042, category Article
Lasse Hellman. (1979). Social promotion of forest workers. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5042. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14899

The social circumstances of forest workers may be considered from the viewpoint of incomes and standard of living. The committee appointed by the U.N. did, however, define in 1961 the standard of living using the following partial factors: health, housing, working conditions, security, human rights, education, recreation, clothing and nutrition.

Research has given a rather gloomy picture of forest workers’ health conditions. The living of a forest worker is cramped and long distances to the work sites often compel him to live in working site accommodations, separated from the family. Transport to the working site and building of family quarters for forest workers in densely populated rural areas and villages can improve the worker’s living. The fall of worker’s income in contract work due to deterioration of his physical capacity of performance starts already at the age of 35. In forest work a man’s energy consumption may be higher than 20,000 kJ (4,800 kcal) per day; it is one of the most strenuous occupations. In addition, there is a high accident risk in the work. The heavy work and the working conditions should be taken into account in determining the correct nutrition. Being those who make objections and are primarily responsible for the forest workers’ conditions, forest technicians and forestry officers should – both in their capacity as forest authorities and as the employer’s representatives – see to the improvement of forest workers’ working conditions and social position.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hellman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5041, category Article
Mikko Kantola. (1979). The development of simple tools for forestry work in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5041. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14898

The paper deals with the development of hand tools and their maintenance methods, and the improvement of working techniques in Finland in the era when forest work was mostly done by muscular power. The development was carried out in a close connection with professional training, permitting the results to be distributed widely throughout the country at short duration courses, and simultaneously collecting new information.

The phases of the entire development cycle is described from founding of the development and training organization to standardization of the tools and comparisons to similar foreign and Finnish tools. On the basis of this, along with analyses and synthesis performed, new hand-made prototypes were created and then tested on forest work sites. The knowledge was used to produce test series in a tool factory, and feedback was gathered from skilled workers. On experience gained, best tools selected could be put into manufacturing. This work gave a natural basis to investigate even working techniques. Good results were achieved through cooperation between researchers, users, manufacturing industry and trade, as well as vocational training.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kantola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5040, category Article
Mikko Kantola. (1979). Social promotion of forest workers. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5040. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14897

Alongside the extent of forest production, the demand for labour input in forestry depends on the development of the structure of production and of the productivity of the work. In this, mechanization of harvesting will have long-lasting influence. Despite the growth in forestry production, the number of forestry workers has decreased considerably in many countries, but at the same time the share of professional forest workers has increased. The permanence of work fundamentally affects the life of a forest worker. It has influence on the income level, on the social position of the worker and on the standard of living.

The appreciation of the occupation of a forest worker will be increased mainly within the increasing mechanization of the work. It requires vocational training, and it will improve wages, competition of skilled workers and social appreciation of the vocation. In order to influence their benefits forest workers have organized themselves into trade unions. They activate their members in to helping the unions to attain their aims. Trade unions try to influence the policies of forestry and forest labour. In this respect they are in contact with political parties. The questions of labour policy occupy a central position in the mutual relations of the labour market organizations. Within mutual cooperation much promotion has been achieved concerning wages, working conditions, rationalization, improvement of housing facilities and other living conditions. Especially in some East-European countries attention is being paid to the motivation of forest workers.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kantola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5039, category Article
Pertti Elovirta. (1979). Forestry as an employer in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5039. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14896

The article describes the significance of forestry as a source of employment in the rural areas of Finland. The historical perspective of the presentation dates from the 1860’s. This period includes all the relevant stages in the development of the theme in question, the preindustrial age up to the 1890’s, the period of the creation of the forest industries to the end of 1920’s, the period of the forest industries’ expansion to the end of 1950’s and the period of mechanization from the beginning of 1960’s. The long perspective is possible because of the existence of time series data.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Elovirta, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5037, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1979). Environmental content of forestry education in Europe. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5037. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14894

Traditionally, European forest education has emphasized environmental conservation. Forest education reflects the needs of society. After the industrial revolution, rapidly growing forest industries needed an increasing amount of wood, and the emphasis of forestry education was on timber production on the basis of sustained yield, and on efforts for progressively raising yields.

The technical and economic development of the recent decades introduced two themes in the environmental content of forest education: 1) The changing role of forests in society increase importance of protection and recreational functions of forests, and 2) modern technology has caused great changes in the forestry itself. These changes have to be taken into account also in the forest education. The environmental content of forest education can be divided into two broad fields, the ecological basis and environmental influences of various forest operations, and forest management for non-production uses. In both fields university curricula include a) basic courses, obligatory for all forestry students, b) optional courses, and c) advanced courses for higher degrees.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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