Current issue: 53(3)

Under compilation: 53(4)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'aikatutkimus'.

Category: Article

article id 7184, category Article
Bror-Anton Granvik. (1967). Havusahatavaran valmistus kenttäpyörösahalla : työtieteellinen tutkimus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 84 no. 3 article id 7184. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7184
English title: The preparation of coniferous sawn goods using circular saws. A work study.

The objectives of the paper were to find out structure of the sawing time when using field circular saws, influence of the different factors on the sawing time and its structure, average sawing time per unit of raw material and sawn goods, and the fundamentals for the creation of an equitable system for the determination of the basis of payment in sawing work. The observations of the time study were made on both a single log and a work period basis. The material was collected using four saws of different brands.

The results showed that the season when the work was done, and top diameter of the logs to be sawn affected the constant times included in the total sawing time and the time used for sawing of center pieces. While the tree species did not affect the constant times, the grade of the logs of different tree species did have effect, especially in winter sawing. The factors affecting the different phases of the work are described in detail. The length of sawing time was longer in the winter than in the summer. The preparatory jobs in sawing required in average 82 cmin per log, and the time increased with increasing top diameter. The actual sawing is the most time-consuming part of the work, it took in average 132 cmin. 

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Granvik, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7445, category Article
Jaakko Vöry. (1954). Puutavaran valmistuksen keskityötulosten määrittäminen tilastoteitse. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 33 article id 7445. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7445
English title: Statistical determination of the average work performance in the preparation of timber.

Work studies conducted in Finland and Sweden on forest work have shown that the performance of different workers or even of a same worker vary greatly, although external conditions such as the size and other properties of the trees, weather etc. are similar. It has been decided in the Northern Countries that as it is impossible to assess the working speed of a man, it is not possible to find out the average work performances, not even from long term time studies. The only way is to collect performance statistics.

Metsäteho (Forest Work Studies Section of the Central Association of Finnish Woodworking Industries) has collected since 1946 statistics on the working sites of forest industry companies in different parts of Finland on the preparation on timber. To make it comparable the material has been converted to uniform values by using the ratios given by the work time studies of various forest jobs conducted by Metsäteho. The ratios are necessary in trying to determine average performances by statistical means. The actual length of time each man is at work on different days and the actual number of days is needed, because in Finland the workers can themselves decide fairly freely the length of a working day. In forest work, wages are paid for the quantity prepared, not for time. The statistics collected by Metsäteho include information on the length of the working days, and conditions in each forest, such as the size of the trees, form of stem, branchiness, bark thickness, terrain, density of the forest, weather conditions etc.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Vöry, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7374, category Article
Paavo Aro. (1942). Eräitä halkosahoilla suoritettujen sahauskokeiden tuloksia. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 21 article id 7374. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7374
English title: Results of sawing experiments using wooden bow saw.

Effectiveness of 18 different saw blades of wooden bow saw from four producers (Oy Suomen Sandvik Sahat, Epilä Oy, Ab Orsa Sågbladsfabrik Oy, Kone ja Terä Oy) was tested in 1937. The experiments were divided into test series according to type of maintenance of the blade and tree species (Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch) to be sawn. Each saw blade was sharpened into four different sharpening angles (54°, 60°, 64°, 70°). Four blades had markedly longer sawing times compared to the others. These blades had a special serration. In addition, two blades with sparse serration had slightly poorer results than the blades in general. When the tree species were compared, birch (Betula sp.) was slowest to saw followed by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.).

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Aro, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7372, category Article
Vilho Seppänen. (1942). Sahatukkien teosta aikatutkimuksen valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 19 article id 7372. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7372
English title: Time studies on making of saw logs.

A time study was conducted in saw log harvesting site in state forests of Evo in Southern Finland in 1934. Felling was performed in teams of two loggers. Two teams were observed. The work was divided into several stages of work: felling, branching, cross-cutting, barking and making of top log. On the site grew Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.).

The daily working hours not including breaks was in average 5 hours and 33 minutes. The most time-consuming stage of the work was barking of the stem (55% of working time for Scots pine and 47% for Norway spruce), followed by felling (22.5% for pine and 19.4% for spruce), branching (11.7% and 21.6%) and cross-cutting (11.3% and 11.8%). Temperature affects barking strongly. Scots pine is slower to bark than Norway spruce. Similarly, butt and middle logs are slower to bark than top logs. It took in average 79.02 min to process one solid m3 of timber with bark and 91.45 min without bark.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Seppänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4874, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1973). Runkojen järeys puunkorjuun monitoimikoneiden ajanmenekin ennustamisessa. Silva Fennica vol. 7 no. 1 article id 4874. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14704
English title: The size of stems in estimating the time consumption of processors.

The problem considered in this paper is how to analyse the usefulness of some average volume values of stems in predicting the average time consumption of some processors. In this connection, the usual arithmetic mean, the arithmetic mean weighted with volume and the geometric mean were used. The functions describing the dependence of time consumption per tree on the volume of the tree were obtained from previous studies, as were the stand properties.

The results were obtained with the aid of computer simulation techniques and the deterministic model described above. According to the results, the usual arithmetic mean is very applicable for predicting the time consumption. The geometric mean is nearly as good, or in some cases even better. However, as a rule its computation is much more tedious than that of the arithmetic average volume for the purpose.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4720, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1963). Aikatutkimuksia koivun karsimisesta. Silva Fennica no. 115 article id 4720. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14279
English title: Time studies in the pruning of birch.

On the basis of time studies on pruning, one thousand stems in four stands was pruned, carried out in 1962. The work was done in two phases with Olli pruning saw, first attached to a shaft about 1.8 metres long and the to a shaft about 4 metres long.

The total time of moving from one stem to another when pruning the stem varied from 0,28 to 0.31 min per stem in the different working sites. The resting time was 19–20% of the effective working time, which included actual pruning time and the moving time. In average, 7.5% of the actual pruning time was unproductive. The actual pruning took in average 0.75–1.1 min/stem in the different sites. The time depended on size of the tree, the DBH, and on the length of the part to be pruned. The total working site time for the pruning was in average 1.34–1.98 min/stem. The output of the work per 7 hours’ working day varied from 226 to 280 stems, and the costs from 10 to 14 pennies per stem.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4706, category Article
Pentti Nisula. (1961). Aikakello- ja pistokoemenetelmän vertailu. Silva Fennica no. 112 article id 4706. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14233
English title: A comparison between the stop-watch method and the random-sample method.

The aim of this study was to find out to what extent it is possible to time phases of work by making instant observations at regular intervals according to the principles of the method of random samples, and arrive at similar results as obtained by timing continuously with a decimal-minute stop watch. In the first mentioned method the observer of the time study is given a sound signal at even intervals, in this case each 1/10-minute period, during the signal he records the phase of work (element) the object is performing.

The material of the study consists of studies in skidding and loading in connection with transportation by tractor during a period of 8 days. The duration of each element in using tractor hand in skidding and hauling was measured with an ordinary stop watch using repetitive timing. This material was then converted into random sample material.

The analysis of the material showed that the method of random samples yielded observations from all phases of work present in the material obtained by measuring with the stop watch. The duration of elements as determined by the random-sample method were of the same order as determined with stop watch. The results did not cause any observable systematic deviation or rhythmic repetition of elements.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Nisula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4643, category Article
Paavo Yli-Vakkuri. (1954). Aikatutkimuksia metsäojitusten kivitöistä. Silva Fennica no. 84 article id 4643. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9105
English title: Time studies on stone work done in forest drainage.

When ditches are dug in forest drainage, smaller stones are removed by hand, but the larger ones require the use of explosives or stone lifting machinery. Use of explosives have been a more common method for the larger stones. Due to development of detonation methods, it has also been used for smaller stones than earlier.

The investigation was a time study comparing five different stone lifting machines. Time needed for different stages of the work was measured. The stages lasted approximately as long for all of the machines. However, the effectivity of the machines could not be determined, because the stones removed were not similar enough. Stone lifting machine Pekka appeared slightly more effective than the other four machines. It was also easy to assemble, disassemble and move.

The article includes a summary in German.

  • Yli-Vakkuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:

Register
Click this link to register for Silva Fennica submission and tracking system.
Log in
If you are a registered user, log in to save your selected articles for later access.
Contents alert
Sign up to receive alerts of new content
Your selected articles

Committee on Publication Ethics A Trusted Community-Governed Archive