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Articles containing the keyword 'allometry'.

Category: Commentary

article id 475, category Commentary
Petteri Muukkonen, Raisa Mäkipää. (2006). Biomass equations for European trees: addendum. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 4 article id 475. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.475
A review of stem volume and biomass equations for tree species growing in Europe (Zianis et al. 2005) resulted in suggestions for additional equations. The numbers of original equations, compiled from scientific articles were 607 for biomass and 230 for stem volume. On the basis of the suggestions and an updated literature search, some new equations were published after our review, but more equations were also available from earlier literature. In this addendum, an additional 188 biomass equations and 8 volume equations are presented. One new tree species (Pinus cembra) is included in the list of volume equations. Biomass equations for twelve new tree species are presented: Abies alba, Carbinus betulus, Larix decidua, P. cembra, P. nigra, Quercus robur, Salix caprea, S. ‘Aquatica’, S. dasyclados, S. phylicifolias, S. triandra and S. accuparia. The tree-level equations predict stem volume, whole tree biomass or biomass of certain components (e.g., foliage, roots, total above-ground) as a function of diameter or diameter and height of a tree. Biomass and volume equations with other independent variables have also been widely developed but they are excluded from this addendum because the variables selected may reflect locally valid dependencies that cannot be generalized to other geographical regions. Most of the equations presented here are developed for Sweden, Finland and Norway in northern Europe, for Austria in central Europe and for Italy in southern Europe. There are also few equations from Poland and Belgium. Most of the equations deal with above-ground components such as stem, branches and foliage, but some new equations are also available for root biomass. Zianis et al. (2005) and this addendum can be used together as guides to the original publications of these equations. Our updated database of the biomass and volume equations is available also from the website www.metla.fi/hanke/3306/tietokanta.htm.
  • Muukkonen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: petteri.muukkonen@metla.fi
  • Mäkipää, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: raisa.makipaa@metla.fi (email)

Category: Research article

article id 7748, category Research article
Dominik Bayer, Hans Pretzsch. (2017). Reactions to gap emergence: Norway spruce increases growth while European beech features horizontal space occupation – evidence by repeated 3D TLS measurements. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 5 article id 7748. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7748
Highlights: Analysis of the closure dynamics of a Norway spruce, a European beech and a mixed forest gap by repeated TLS measurements; Norway spruce allocated additional resources predominantly into DBH growth and displayed stronger resilience against mechanical crown damage; European beech allocated resources towards space occupation and displayed higher crown plasticity; Species mixture had no significant effect.

The reach of different tree species’ crowns and the velocity of gap closure during the occupation of canopy gaps resulting from mortality and thinning during stand development determine species-specific competition and productivity within forest stands. However, classical dendrometric methods are rather inaccurate or even incapable of time- and cost-effectively measuring 3D tree structure, crown dynamics and space occupation non-destructively. Therefore, we applied terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in order to measure the structural dynamics at tree and stand level from gap cutting in 2006 until 2012 in pure and mixed stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). In conclusion, our results suggest that Norway spruce invests newly available above-ground resources primarily into DBH as well as biomass growth and indicate a stronger resilience against loss of crown mass induced by mechanical damage. European beech showed a vastly different reaction, investing gains from additional above-ground resources primarily into faster occupation of canopy space. Whether our sample trees were located in pure or mixed groups around the gaps had no significant impact on their behavior during the years after gap cutting.

  • Bayer, Address Technical University of Munich (TUM), Chair for Forest Growth and Yield Science, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, 85354, Freising, Germany ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2084-3019 E-mail: dominik.bayer@lrz.tu-muenchen.de (email)
  • Pretzsch, Address Technical University of Munich (TUM), Chair for Forest Growth and Yield Science, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, 85354, Freising, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: hans.pretzsch@lrz.tu-muenchen.de
article id 113, category Research article
Jinsong Wang, Chunyu Zhang, Fucai Xia, Xiuhai Zhao, Lianhai Wu, Klaus von Gadow. (2011). Biomass structure and allometry of Abies nephrolepis (Maxim) in Northeast China. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 2 article id 113. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.113
Above- and below-ground tree biomass structure and allometric relationships of Abies nephrolepis (Maxim) were assessed in an old secondary forest dominated by A. nephrolepis, Pinus koraiensis, Quercus mongolica, Tilia amurensis, Fraxinus mandshurica and Acer mono in northeast China. Based on the breast-height diameter (D), a total of 21 sample trees were divided into three tree size classes: the small trees (1 cm ≤ D < 10 cm), the medium trees (10 cm ≤ D < 20 cm) and the big trees (D ≥ 20 cm). The greatest amount of live branch biomass was located in the middle and bottom layers of the crown, while the largest foliage biomass was found in the middle layer in each tree size category. The relative contribution of canopy biomass components (live branches and foliage) decreased with increasing tree size, while that of coarse root biomass remained almost constant. The relationship between above- and belowground biomass was linear. D and tree height (H) decreased with increasing competition intensity. The small trees had lower average crown ratio and higher average height-to-diameter ratio than those of the medium and big trees. The big trees had higher average stem to foliage mass ratio than those of the small and medium trees. Crown ratio, height-to-diameter ratio and stem to foliage mass ratio were not correlated with competition intensity in the same tree size class. Root to shoot mass ratio was almost constant among tree sizes. Allometric equations based on D gave higher correlations compared to those with other stem diameters: at tree base, at 30-cm height and at crown base.
  • Wang, Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation of Ministry of Education, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Zhang, Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation of Ministry of Education, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Xia, Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation of Ministry of Education, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Zhao, Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation of Ministry of Education, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China ORCID ID:E-mail: zhaoxh@bjfu.edu.cn (email)
  • Wu, Rothamsted Research, Okehampton, Devon, UK ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Gadow, Faculty of Forestry and Forest Ecology, Georg-August-University Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 174, category Research article
Akihiro Sumida, Taro Nakai, Masahito Yamada, Kiyomi Ono, Shigeru Uemura, Toshihiko Hara. (2009). Ground-based estimation of leaf area index and vertical distribution of leaf area density in a Betula ermanii forest. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 5 article id 174. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.174
We developed a ground-based method for estimating leaf area index (LAI) and vertical distribution of leaf area density (LAD) for two Betula ermanii plots, combining an allometric method for tree leaf area with the MacArthur–Horn (MH) method using a portable laser rangefinder, including a correction for changes in leaf inclination angle along the vertical gradient measured with a portable digital protractor from a canopy access tower in each plot. Vertical distribution of projected leaf area density obtained by the MH method (LADMH) was transformed to relative distribution for allotting fixed LAI to different heights. Hence, we first developed an allometric method for estimating tree leaf area for LAI determination. Trunk cross-sectional area at branching height (AB) was accurately estimated (r2 = 0.97) from ground-based measurements of tree dimensions. We used this method to apply pipe model allometry between tree leaf area and AB, and estimated LAI (4.56 and 4.57 m2 m–2). We then examined how leaf inclination angle affected estimation of the vertical distribution of actual LAD. Leaf inclination angle measurements revealed that actual LAD in the upper canopy was 1.5–1.8-times higher than LADMH, because of steep leaf inclination, while the correction factor was 1.15–1.25 in the lower canopy. Due to the difference among heights, vertical distribution of LAD estimated with correction for vertical change in leaf inclination was more skewed to the upper canopy than that without correction. We also showed that error in LAD distribution can result if horizontal canopy heterogeneity is neglected when applying the MH method.
  • Sumida, Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, N19W8, Sapporo 060-0819, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail: asumida@lowtem.hokudai.ac.jp (email)
  • Nakai, International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 930 Koyukuk Drive, P.O. Box 757340, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775-7340, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Yamada, International Meteorological & Oceanographic Consultants Co., Ltd. Kawaguchi-cho 2-6528-87, Choshi, Chiba 288-0001, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ono, Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, N19W8, Sapporo 060-0819, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Uemura, Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University, Tokuda 250, Nayoro, Hokkaido 096-0071, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hara, Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, N19W8, Sapporo 060-0819, Japan ORCID ID:E-mail:

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