Current issue: 54(2)
Four basic attitudes towards forests are distinguished: In utilitarianism the forest is seen merely as a means of increasing the standard of living. Humanism strives for the forest use in the service of educational ideals. Mysticism aims at an immediate experience of unity between man and nature. Primitivism denies all human privileges in nature. These attitudes describe that multiple relations exist between man and forest. An essential question is which attitude can best be defended.
The paper is based on a lecture given in the seminar ‘The forest as a Finnish cultural entity’, held in Helsinki in 1986. The PDF includes a summary in English.
The purpose of this study was to find out about the forest owner’s views on silviculture and any forest management work he had carried out. The data is based on interviews of 289 forest owners in municipalities of Jämsä and Karstula in Central Finland in 1966. The forest owners were a random sample of all males in the municipalities, who alone or together with their wives were in the possession of at least 2 ha of cultivated land and 10 ha of forests.
The forest owners’ attitudes towards silviculture were generally favourable. A common opinion was that money spent on silviculture is a paying proposition (88%), that forest management is better today than it used to be (87%), that cultivation of forests is an economic proposition (81%), and that few owners manage their forests properly unless forced by the law (79%). The need for planning silvicultural measures was also generally accepted (78%).
However, few agreed that the legally imposed silvicultural fee is necessary, that the new silvicultural methods were practicable, or that money he invested in silviculture is profitable to the forest owner. Only 45% agreed that forestry experts have sufficient understanding of the owner’s needs. One third of the forest owners had carried out the following silvicultural tasks: forest cultivation, forest drainage or forest fertilization, on a minimum area of five hectares. Forest cultivation had been carried out by 63%, forest drainage by 44% and forest fertilization by 16% of the respondents. Vast majority (90%) had employed forest experts and a many nearly every year, mainly for marking the trees to be felled.
In the more rural municipality of Karstula, the forest owners’ views towards forestry was more favourable than in the semi-industrialized Jämsä.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
The purpose of the study was to produce information which is needed when planning the influencing the timber sales propensity of private forest owners. The study deals with the relations between communication behaviour and cutting behaviour as well as the attitudes and norms connected with them. On the basis of the results of this study, the choice of psychodynamic model can be recommended as a main strategy of influencing the timber sales propensity of forest owners. The paper gives the information basis for the choice of channels and messages of influencing.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
The purpose of this study is (1) to develop, on the basis of sociological and economic theory, and of occasional observations, a frame of reference capable of providing a starting point for an empirical analysis of the behaviour of forest owners, and (2) to provide an insight into attitudes, and relate these with such general characteristics of forest owners as are theoretically defensible and supported by empirical findings.
The analysis of the results show that the more forest owners know about forestry the more generally are they willing to mark themselves trees for cutting, the more negative toward forest management associations, and the more inclined to believe that teaching forestry in elementary school is useful.
In general, it seems that the attitudes of forest owners toward forestry promotion in its »traditional» form become more negative as industrialization and urbanization raise the level of knowledge and technical know-how. However, this shift is not linear; there is first a weakening of negative attitudes (shift from mechanical to organic solidarity), while a further social change characterized by industrialization, urbanization, etc. seems to result in increasingly negative attitudes.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.