Current issue: 53(2)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'barges'.

Category: Research article

article id 49, category Research article
Kalle Karttunen, Kari Väätäinen, Antti Asikainen, Tapio Ranta. (2012). The operational efficiency of waterway transport of forest chips on Finland’s Lake Saimaa. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 3 article id 49. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.49
New and cost-efficient methods for use in supply chains for energy wood should be found, to reach the targets of the renewable energy utilisation set by the European Union. The long-distance waterway transportation of forest fuels should be thoroughly investigated, especially in areas where the transport distance is long and waterways could provide a feasible method of conveying forest fuel. In comparison to transport of forest chips by truck, barge-based waterway transport shows a competitive advantage due to the larger loads and higher bulk density of chips it allows. The cost-efficiency of waterway transportation operations related to forest chips in Finland’s Lake Saimaa region was studied using practical demonstrations and discrete-event simulation. The varying demand for fuel wood in three separate bio-power plants on the Saimaa lakeside (near the cities of Varkaus, Mikkeli, and Savonlinna) was addressed in several barge transportation scenarios. Finally, the economy of barge transportation was compared to the economy of truck transportation as a function of transportation distance and in terms of the annual performance of the transportation methods examined. The waterway supply chain of forest chips was cost-competitive to road transport by truck after 100–150 km. According to the simulation study, the most economical waterway transport options were based on fixed barge system and shift-independent harbor logistics where loading and unloading of barges were carried-out with a wheeled loader and a belt conveyor. Total supply chain costs including the best waterway logistics from road side storage to power plant ranged from 10.75 euros to 11.64 euros/MWh in distances of 100–150 km by waterways. The energy-density of forest chips in the barge load was found to be, on average, 25% higher than that in truck hauling, because of the better compaction of chips. Waterway transport is a viable option for long-distance transportation of forest chips in Eastern Finland.
  • Karttunen, Lappeenranta University of Technology, LUT Savo Sustainable Technologies, Mikkeli, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kalle.karttunen@lut.fi (email)
  • Väätäinen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kari.vaatainen@metla.fi
  • Asikainen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: antti.asikainen@metla.fi
  • Ranta, Lappeenranta University of Technology, LUT Savo Sustainable Technologies, Mikkeli, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tapio.ranta@lut.fi

Category: Article

article id 7477, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1958). Raakapuun kaukokuljetus Saimaan vesistössä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 3 article id 7477. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7477
English title: Transportation of round timber in the Lake Saimaa water system.

This paper aims at investigating which factors, in the point of view of the entrepreneur, define the choice of long-distance transport either as floating in bundles, steamship transport or barge transport in the waterway system of Lake Saimaa in 1950s. It defines the usage, kind of fleet, operation and costs of the abovesaid modes of transport. The investigation is mainly based on statistics of Enso-Gutzeit Oyj and the fuel office of the Finnish State Railways.

Location of the industrial enterprise sets the limits for use of the different modes of transport of roundwood. Previous decisions can influence the future choices, for instance, the capital the company has earler invested on the transportation system. Also, the type and amount of timber acquired by the company, transportation distance, time, and means of transport affect the choice of mode of transport. Those factors that direct decision-making, often lead the entrepreneur to stick to the chosen mode of transport.

Floating becomes the more inexpensive the larger the scale of operation is, and if the timber assortment is suitable for floating and water storage. For instance, dry wood is an asset for a wood export agency, and their sales have often time pressures, which rules floating out of their choices. Transportation in vessels has decreased to 4% of all roundwood haulage, but has its function as a supplementary way of transport.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7401, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1950). Tutkimuksia pinopuutavaran proomuun lastauksesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 58 no. 1 article id 7401. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7401
English title: Investigations on loading piled wood into barges.

In Finland, transportation of wood by vessels has decreased, but is still an important mode of transport especially for firewood. In 1941-1947, nearly 25% of the firewood procured by the State Fuel Board was transported by vessels. This investigation concentrates on loading of wood into barges, since the share of wages of total expenses is greatest in this phase. The loading work amounts to nearly 40% of the total wages.

Two methods of loading barges are used in Finland: loading from the shore and truck loading. This study concentrates on the more common method, loading from the shore. A time study was conducted on the different stages of loading and piling wood into barges, most of which is done by hand. Most time-consuming part of the work is transporting the logs to the barge with a wheelbarrow, comprising over 40% of the working time. Time required for loading firewood is almost twice as much as loading pulp wood. Recommendations for loading places and organization of work are given in the article to improve the efficiency of the work.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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