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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Articles containing the keyword 'birch'.

Category: Research article

article id 10052, category Research article
Pentti Niemistö, Harri Kilpeläinen, Henrik Heräjärvi. (2019). Effect of pruning season and tool on knot occlusion and stem discolouration in Betula pendula – situation five years after pruning. Silva Fennica vol. 53 no. 1 article id 10052. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.10052
Highlights: The occlusion was the fastest in the case of small living branches of fast growing trees pruned in springtime; Occlusion was quicker after saw pruning than after secateurs pruning, due to shorter knot stubs; Branches that were pruned in living state occluded faster than the ones pruned as dead; Dead branches hit down with a stick occluded slowly.

This paper investigates and models the effects of pruning season and tool on wound occlusion with varying tree and branch characteristics of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) stems at the pruning height of 0−4 metres. Dates of eight secateurs prunings, three saw prunings and two sticks prunings as well as unpruned control were tested in permanent plots on four sites. Knot occlusion and discolouration in stemwood were measured from about 1600 studied knots of 112 sample trees felled five to six years after pruning in 2010. Knot occlusion rate was modelled according to pruning tool, date, tree growth, and branch characteristics. The occlusion was the fastest in trees pruned in spring or early summer, and the slowest in trees pruned in autumn. Stubs of living branches occluded faster than the dead ones with the same diameter. Saw pruning resulted in clearly better occlusion rates than secateurs pruning, caused by the shorter knot stubs after saw pruning. Hitting dead branches away with a stick resulted in the worst occlusion status. The colour defects spread more often upward from the knot than downward. Discolouration in stemwood was detected more frequently near to the pruned branches than the unpruned ones, and more widely near to the stubs of dead branches than the living ones. Most saw and secateurs pruned branches were completely occluded during the experiment, so these prunings were suitable for all branches under 20 mm in diameter, and for living branches even up to 30 mm in fast-growing trees.

  • Niemistö, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Natural resources, Kampusranta 9 C, FI-60320 Seinäjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pentti.niemisto@luke.fi (email)
  • Kilpeläinen, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Yliopistokatu 6 B, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: harri.kilpelainen@luke.fi
  • Heräjärvi, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production systems, Yliopistokatu 6 B, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: henrik.herajarvi@luke.fi
article id 9985, category Research article
Antonín Martiník, Robert Knott, Jan Krejza, Jakub Černý. (2018). Biomass production of Betula pendula stands regenerated in the region of allochthonous Picea abies dieback. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 5 article id 9985. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9985
Highlights: Biomass equations for individual components of above-ground wood biomass estimation are presented for stands at the age of 4, 8, 17 and 22 years; Peak of the mean annual increment was found at the age from 15 to 20 years and reached over 5.0 t ha–1 y–1 of dry biomass; The share of the stem to the total biomass increased with stand age.

The paper deals with production of above-ground biomass of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) stands in the Czech Republic. One-year biomass dynamics was studied within chronosequence of birch stands at the age of 4–5, 8–9, 17–18 and 22–23 years. With the exception of the youngest stand, which was established by seeding, all experimental birch stands were regenerated naturally after the allochthonous spruce stands. Above-ground biomass (AB) was calculated from plot inventory data and biomass equations were parameterized from destructive sampling of biomass component of sampled trees. Results reveal that the peak of the mean annual increment (MAIABtotal) of birch stands can be expected at the age from 15 to 20 years. Additionally, the stand age, the value of basal area (BA) should be considered as a predictor of stand productivity. If the value of BA varied from 25 to 35 m2 ha–1, the MAI of the birch stands reached the range from 5.0 to 6.5 t of dry biomass per ha y–1 at the age ranging between 15 and 25 years. The stem/branch proportion increased with stand age, the stem relative proportion ranging from 75 to 90% of total above-ground biomass. According to the results of this study, birch stand biomass production and utilization is one of the approaches in terms of forest recovery management in large disturbed areas. Although, no silvicultural treatments were occurred in all analysed stands, the pre-commercial thinning method could increase stand productivity and stability as well.

  • Martiník, Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5906-8830 E-mail: martinik@mendelu.cz (email)
  • Knott, Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: robert.knott@mendelu.cz
  • Krejza, Global Change Research Institute CAS, v.v.i., Bělidla 4a, 603 00 Brno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: krejza.j@czechglobe.cz
  • Černý, The Forestry and Game Management Research Institute, Research Station at Opočno, Na Olivě 550, 517 73 Opočno, Czech Republic ORCID ID:E-mail: cerny@vulhmop.cz
article id 9996, category Research article
Mulualem Tigabu, Mostafa Farhadi, Lars-Göran Stener, Per C. Odén. (2018). Visible + Near Infrared Spectroscopy as taxonomic tool for identifying birch species. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 4 article id 9996. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9996
Highlights: Multivariate modelling of visible + near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra of single seeds distinguished Betula pubescens and B. pendula with 100% and 99% accuracy, respectively; The results demonstrate the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy as taxonomic tool for classification of species that have morphological resemblance.

The genus Betula L. is composed of several species, which are difficult to distinguish in the field on the basis of morphological traits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the taxonomic importance of using visible + near infrared (Vis + NIR) spectra of single seeds for differentiating Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh. Seeds from several families (controlled crossings of known parent trees) of each species were used and Vis + NIR reflectance spectra were obtained from single seeds. Multivariate discriminant models were developed by Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures – Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA). The OPLS-DA model fitted on Vis + NIR spectra recognized B. pubescens with 100% classification accuracy while the prediction accuracy of class membership for B. pendula was 99%. However, the discriminant models fitted on NIR spectra alone resulted in 100% classification accuracies for both species. Absorption bands accounted for distinguishing between birch species were attributed to differences in color and chemical composition, presumably polysaccharides, proteins and fatty acids, of the seeds. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy as taxonomic tool for classification of species that have morphological resemblance.

  • Tigabu, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Box 49, SE-230 52 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: mulualem.tigabu@slu.se (email)
  • Farhadi, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Box 49, SE-230 52 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: mostafa.farhadi@gmail.com
  • Stener, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Ekebo 2250, SE-268 90 Svalöv, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars-goran.stener@skogforsk.se
  • Odén, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Box 49, SE-230 52 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: per.christer.oden@slu.se
article id 9996, category Research article
Mulualem Tigabu, Mostafa Farhadi, Lars-Göran Stener, Per C. Odén. (2018). Visible + Near Infrared Spectroscopy as taxonomic tool for identifying birch species. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 4 article id 9996. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9996
Highlights: Multivariate modelling of visible + near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra of single seeds distinguished Betula pubescens and B. pendula with 100% and 99% accuracy, respectively; The results demonstrate the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy as taxonomic tool for classification of species that have morphological resemblance.

The genus Betula L. is composed of several species, which are difficult to distinguish in the field on the basis of morphological traits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the taxonomic importance of using visible + near infrared (Vis + NIR) spectra of single seeds for differentiating Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh. Seeds from several families (controlled crossings of known parent trees) of each species were used and Vis + NIR reflectance spectra were obtained from single seeds. Multivariate discriminant models were developed by Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures – Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA). The OPLS-DA model fitted on Vis + NIR spectra recognized B. pubescens with 100% classification accuracy while the prediction accuracy of class membership for B. pendula was 99%. However, the discriminant models fitted on NIR spectra alone resulted in 100% classification accuracies for both species. Absorption bands accounted for distinguishing between birch species were attributed to differences in color and chemical composition, presumably polysaccharides, proteins and fatty acids, of the seeds. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy as taxonomic tool for classification of species that have morphological resemblance.

  • Tigabu, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Box 49, SE-230 52 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: mulualem.tigabu@slu.se (email)
  • Farhadi, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Box 49, SE-230 52 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: mostafa.farhadi@gmail.com
  • Stener, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Ekebo 2250, SE-268 90 Svalöv, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars-goran.stener@skogforsk.se
  • Odén, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Box 49, SE-230 52 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: per.christer.oden@slu.se
article id 5643, category Research article
Katarzyna A. Jadwiszczak, Stanisław Kłosowski, Iwona Zalewska, Agata Banaszek, Agnieszka Chrzanowska. (2017). Genetic diversity and sexual reproduction in relict populations of Betula nana. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 2 article id 5643. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.5643
Highlights: Genetic diversity parameters and meiotic recombination frequencies in the relict populations were comparable to those from widespread localities; Contribution of seeds without ovule was very high; Fully developed seeds germinated better in central populations; Significant differences of groundwater parameters were observed between relict and central populations.

In the present study, the impact of geographical isolation and habitat conditions on genetic diversity and sexual reproduction was tested in four relict populations of dwarf birch Betula nana L. in Poland and Belarus. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method revealed that the endangered central European stands were not genetically extirpated compared with the widespread localities from Finland and Russia, which can result from infrequent outcrossing events in long-living clonal populations. However, genetic clustering methods indicated significant differentiation of the Polish populations because of their small sizes and long-term geographical isolation. Considerable numbers of empty seeds were observed in both relict and central locations, although fully developed seeds germinated better in widespread populations. Analysis of groundwater chemical parameters indicated that two relict populations were significantly different from the remaining samples with respect to pH, electrical conductivity and concentrations of phosphorus ions, which can also influence the efficiency of sexual reproduction. In the light of results obtained it seems that endangered B. nana localities are relatively stable.

  • Jadwiszczak, Institute of Biology, University of Białystok, Ciołkowskiego 1J, 15-245 Białystok, Poland ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9345-8891 E-mail: jadwiszczak2010@gmail.com (email)
  • Kłosowski, Department of Environment Protection and Modelling, The Jan Kochanowski University, Świętokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: stanislaw.klosowski@ujk.kielce.pl
  • Zalewska, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Białystok, Mickiewicza 2a, 15-222 Białystok, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: iwonazalewska1988@gmail.com
  • Banaszek, Institute of Biology, University of Białystok, Ciołkowskiego 1J, 15-245 Białystok, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: banaszek@uwb.edu.pl
  • Chrzanowska, Institute of Biology, University of Białystok, Ciołkowskiego 1J, 15-245 Białystok, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: maga.chrzanowska@gmail.com
article id 1628, category Research article
Jürgen Aosaar, Ülo Mander, Mats Varik, Hardo Becker, Gunnar Morozov, Martin Maddison, Veiko Uri. (2016). Biomass production and nitrogen balance of naturally afforested silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) stand in Estonia. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 4 article id 1628. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1628
Highlights: Leafless aboveground biomass of the 17-year-old natural silver birch stand growing in abandoned agricultural land reached 94 Mg ha–1; The largest fluxes in N budget were net nitrogen mineralization and gaseous N2-N emission; Nitrogen leaching was low; Soil N content increased with the stand age, soil C content remained stable; N2O and N2 fluxes in boreal deciduous forest were analysed.

Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) is one of the main pioneer tree species occupying large areas of abandoned agricultural lands under natural succession in Estonia. We estimated aboveground biomass (AGB) dynamics during 17 growing seasons, and analysed soil nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) dynamics for 10 year period in a silver birch stand growing on former arable land. Main N fluxes were estimated and nitrogen budget for 10-year-old stand was compiled. The leafless AGB and stem mass of the stand at the age of 17-years were 94 and 76 Mg ha–1 respectively. The current annual increment (CAI) of stemwood fluctuated, peaking at 10 Mg ha–1 yr–1 at the age of 15 years; the mean annual increment (MAI) fluctuated at around 4–5 Mg ha–1. The annual leaf mass of the stand stabilised at around 3 Mg ha–1 yr–1. The stand density decreased from 11600 to 2700 trees ha–1 in the 8- and 17-year-old stand, respectively. The largest fluxes in N budget were net nitrogen mineralization and gaseous N2-N emission. The estimated fluxes of N2O and N2 were 0.12 and 83 kg ha–1 yr–1, respectively; N leaching was negligible. Nitrogen retranslocation from senescing leaves was approximately 45 kg ha–1, N was mainly retranslocated into stembark. The N content in the upper 0–10 cm soil layer increased significantly (145 kg ha–1) from 2004 to 2014; soil C content remained stable. Both the woody biomass dynamics and the N cycling of the stand witness the potential for bioenergetics of such ecosystems.

  • Aosaar, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: jyrgen.aosaar@emu.ee (email)
  • Mander, University of Tartu, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Ülikooli 18, 50090 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: ulo.mander@ut.ee
  • Varik, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: mats.varik@emu.ee
  • Becker, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: hardo.becker@emu.ee
  • Morozov, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: gunnar.morozov@emu.ee
  • Maddison, University of Tartu, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Ülikooli 18, 50090 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: martin.maddison@ut.ee
  • Uri, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia ORCID ID:E-mail: veiko.uri@emu.ee
article id 1559, category Research article
Karol Bronisz, Mike Strub, Chris Cieszewski, Szymon Bijak, Agnieszka Bronisz, Robert Tomusiak, Rafał Wojtan, Michał Zasada. (2016). Empirical equations for estimating aboveground biomass of Betula pendula growing on former farmland in central Poland. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 4 article id 1559. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1559
Highlights: We developed equations for aboveground biomass components of young silver birch stands on post-agricultural lands in central Poland for single tree level; Simplified equations were based exclusively on diameter at ground level or breast height, while expanded ones were based on the appropriate diameter and tree height; For large trees, diameter at breast height is a more appropriate explanatory variable than diameter at ground level; Biomass estimations based on models from neighboring countries were consistent with our results.

We determined empirical models for estimating total aboveground as well as stem, branches, and foliage dry biomass of young (age up to 16 years) silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) growing on the post-agricultural lands. Two sets of allometric models for trees with a height below or above 1.3 m (small and large trees respectively) were developed. Simplified models were elaborated based exclusively on appropriate tree diameter (diameter at ground level for small trees, diameter at breast height for large trees), while expanded models also included tree height. Total aboveground biomass was estimated as the sum of biomass of all tree components. To assure additivity of the developed equations, the seemingly unrelated regression approach for the final model fitting was used. Expanded models in both tree groups were characterized by a better fit to the data (R2 for total aboveground biomass for small and large trees equaled 0.8768 and 0.9752, respectively). Diameter at breast height appeared to be a better predictor than diameter at ground level – simplified models had better fit for large trees (R2 for total aboveground biomass equals 0.9611) than for small ones (R2 = 0.7516). The developed equations provide biomass predictions consistent with available Latvian, Estonian, Finnish, Swedish, and Norwegian models for silver birch.

  • Bronisz, Laboratory of Dendrometry and Forest Productivity, Faculty of Forestry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: karol.bronisz@wl.sggw.pl (email)
  • Strub, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30605, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: strub@mcfns.com
  • Cieszewski, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30605, USA ORCID ID:E-mail: thebiomat@gmail.com
  • Bijak, Laboratory of Dendrometry and Forest Productivity, Faculty of Forestry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: szymon.bijak@wl.sggw.pl
  • Bronisz, Laboratory of Dendrometry and Forest Productivity, Faculty of Forestry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: agnieszka.bronisz@wl.sggw.pl
  • Tomusiak, Laboratory of Dendrometry and Forest Productivity, Faculty of Forestry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: robert.tomusiak@wl.sggw.pl
  • Wojtan, Laboratory of Dendrometry and Forest Productivity, Faculty of Forestry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: rafal.wojtan@wl.sggw.pl
  • Zasada, Laboratory of Dendrometry and Forest Productivity, Faculty of Forestry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail: michal.zasada@wl.sggw.pl
article id 46, category Research article
Matti Rousi, Boy J.H.M. Possen, Risto Hagqvist, Barb R. Thomas. (2012). From the Arctic Circle to the Canadian prairies – a case study of silver birch acclimation capacity. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 3 article id 46. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.46
Earlier provenance research has indicated poor success even in short distance transfers (> 2–3° latitude) of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) southward from their origin. These results may indicate poor adaptability of silver birch to a warming climate. Some of the scenarios for a warming climate in Finland suggest effective heat sums are likely to double in the north and increase 1.5 fold in the south for the period of 2070–2099. Consequently, the outlook for silver birch appears bleak. To study the acclimation of birch to this projected change we established a provenance trial in northeastern Alberta, Canada, at the temperature area currently predicted for Central Finland (lat. 64–66°N) at the turn of this century (1400 dd). Our 10-year experiment showed that all the Finnish provenances (origins 61–67°N) have acclimated well to the warmer growth conditions experienced in Alberta at 54°N. These results suggest that silver birch has the potential to acclimate to thermal conditions predicted for Finland at the end of the 21st century. Our results also indicate that silver birch has the potential as a plantation species in Canada, where the Finnish birch grew faster in the boreal forest region of Canada than local paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) provenances.
  • Rousi, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: matti.rousi@metla.fi (email)
  • Possen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hagqvist, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Thomas, University of Alberta, Dept of Renewable Resources, Edmonton & Alberta-Pacific Forest Industries Inc., Boyle, Alberta, Canada ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 43, category Research article
Anni Markkanen, Panu Halme. (2012). Polypore communities in broadleaved boreal forests. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 3 article id 43. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.43
The cover and extent of boreal broadleaved forests have been decreasing due to modern forest management practices and fire suppression. As decomposers of woody material, polypores are ecologically important ecosystem engineers. The ecology and conservation biology of polypores have been studied intensively in boreal coniferous forests. However, only a few studies have focused on the species living on broadleaved trees. To increase knowledge on this species group we conducted polypore surveys in 27 broadleaved forests and 303 forest compartments (539 ha) on the southern boreal zone in Finland and measured dead wood and forest characteristics. We detected altogether 98 polypore species, of which 13 are red-listed in Finland. 60% of the recorded species are primarily associated with broadleaved trees. The number of species in a local community present in a broadleaved forest covered approximately 50 species, of which 30–40 were primarily associated with broadleaved trees. The size of the inventoried area explained 67% of the variation in the species richness, but unlike in previous studies conducted in coniferous forests, dead wood variables as well as forest structure had very limited power in explaining polypore species richness on forest stand level. The compartments occupied by red listed Protomerulius caryae had an especially high volume of living birch, but otherwise the occurrences of red-listed species could not be predicted based on the forest structure.
  • Markkanen, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anni.e.markkanen@gmail.com (email)
  • Halme, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 117, category Research article
Harri Kilpeläinen, Jari Lindblad, Henrik Heräjärvi, Erkki Verkasalo. (2011). Saw log recovery and stem quality of birch from thinnings in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 2 article id 117. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.117
The objective of this study was to examine the timber quality of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and European white birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) trees in the first and second thinnings in southern parts of Finland, from the viewpoint of sawing of small-diameter, short logs, in particular. The average stem volume of birch was 0.140 m3 in the first thinning stands and 0.206 m3 in the second thinning stands. In planted stands, the trees were larger in the first thinnings but slightly smaller in the second thinnings, compared with naturally regenerated pure birch stands or mixed stands of Norway spruce and birch species. Almost 60% of the harvested and 35% of the remaining stems that could provide saw logs were graded as pulpwood for timber quality due to the occurrence of stem defects. The most common stem defects were multiple crooks and middle crooks. Only minor between-stratum differences were detected in the numbers of defects. Depending on the bucking option, the total percentage of saw and plywood logs from the total birch recovery in the thinning of the sample stands varied between 11.7 and 18.2. The recovery of saw logs was clearly higher in the second thinnings, 12–19%, than in the first thinnings, 8–14%. Of the stand types, saw log recovery was the highest in planted birch stands, 12–19%, but lower in naturally regenerated pure birch stands and mixed stands of Norway spruce and birch. The highest share of saw logs was in the second thinning of planted stands, 17–25%. This study shows that the harvesting recoveries of end-use based timber assortments can be estimated in different kinds of thinning birch stands. Based on tree and log dimensions and stem squality, silver birch firstly from plantations and secondly from mixed stands should be the most interesting source of raw material for the saw milling, furniture and interior product sectors.
  • Kilpeläinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Eastern Finland Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lindblad, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Eastern Finland Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heräjärvi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Eastern Finland Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: henrik.herajarvi@metla.fi (email)
  • Verkasalo, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Eastern Finland Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 117, category Research article
Harri Kilpeläinen, Jari Lindblad, Henrik Heräjärvi, Erkki Verkasalo. (2011). Saw log recovery and stem quality of birch from thinnings in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 2 article id 117. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.117
The objective of this study was to examine the timber quality of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and European white birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) trees in the first and second thinnings in southern parts of Finland, from the viewpoint of sawing of small-diameter, short logs, in particular. The average stem volume of birch was 0.140 m3 in the first thinning stands and 0.206 m3 in the second thinning stands. In planted stands, the trees were larger in the first thinnings but slightly smaller in the second thinnings, compared with naturally regenerated pure birch stands or mixed stands of Norway spruce and birch species. Almost 60% of the harvested and 35% of the remaining stems that could provide saw logs were graded as pulpwood for timber quality due to the occurrence of stem defects. The most common stem defects were multiple crooks and middle crooks. Only minor between-stratum differences were detected in the numbers of defects. Depending on the bucking option, the total percentage of saw and plywood logs from the total birch recovery in the thinning of the sample stands varied between 11.7 and 18.2. The recovery of saw logs was clearly higher in the second thinnings, 12–19%, than in the first thinnings, 8–14%. Of the stand types, saw log recovery was the highest in planted birch stands, 12–19%, but lower in naturally regenerated pure birch stands and mixed stands of Norway spruce and birch. The highest share of saw logs was in the second thinning of planted stands, 17–25%. This study shows that the harvesting recoveries of end-use based timber assortments can be estimated in different kinds of thinning birch stands. Based on tree and log dimensions and stem squality, silver birch firstly from plantations and secondly from mixed stands should be the most interesting source of raw material for the saw milling, furniture and interior product sectors.
  • Kilpeläinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Eastern Finland Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lindblad, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Eastern Finland Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heräjärvi, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Eastern Finland Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: henrik.herajarvi@metla.fi (email)
  • Verkasalo, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Eastern Finland Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 173, category Research article
Erik Hellberg, Torbjörn Josefsson, Lars Östlund. (2009). The transformation of a Norway spruce dominated landscape since pre-industrial times in northern Sweden: the influence of modern forest management on forest structure. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 5 article id 173. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.173
Logging history and the study of reference conditions in Scandinavian boreal forests has tended to focus on Scots pine dominated ecosystems. This paper presents a regional study of pre-industrial forest conditions and examines the effects of the industrial exploitation of ecosystems dominated by Norway spruce in northern Sweden. Historical records covering a period which preceded industrial logging in the study area (1917–1927) were used to obtain quantitative data on forest structure and influence of forest fires. These data were compared with a modern data set (2003) to analyse changes due to the industrial transformation of the forest. The early 20th century landscape was dominated by old, multi-cohorted spruce forests and mixed coniferous forests. It was found that fire affected both the structure and composition of the landscape. In post-burnt areas, even-aged forests dominated by deciduous species were the principal forest type. Between the early and modern data sets, profound changes in tree-species composition and age structure were documented. While the total volume of deciduous species increased substantially, the coverage of forests dominated by deciduous species decreased. There was also a significant increase in pine-dominated forests and in the total volume of pine. The industrial transformation of the studied landscapes has had profound effects on the structure of spruce forests, but much less so on deciduous forests. The study concludes that the present forest structure is a function of past management regimes, and that future transformations of the landscape will continue, thus affecting the natural variability and biodiversity of the forests.
  • Hellberg, Tunstigen 10, SE-831 43 Östersund, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Josefsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: torbjorn.josefsson@svek.slu.se (email)
  • Östlund, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 190, category Research article
Katri Luostarinen, Veikko Möttönen. (2009). Effect of felling season, storage and drying on colour of silver birch (Betula pendula) wood from four different growing sites. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 4 article id 190. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.190
Darkening of birch wood during artificial drying is a significant problem regarding the use of its timber as raw material by the mechanical wood industry. In the future, an increasing proportion of birch timber will be obtained from plantation forests, which differ from natural forests in many respects. In this investigation sample boards of Betula pendula, both from naturally regenerated stands and plantations, were sawn into the dimensions used as raw material for parquet billets. Growing site, felling season, and storage of logs were taken into account as possible factors affecting wood colour changes during drying. The wood of birches from fertile plantations remained lighter-coloured during conventional drying than the wood of naturally regenerated birches from low- and medium-fertile stands. The reason may be the difference in tree age and growth rate between natural and planted stands. Thus, it could be beneficial to grow birch in fertile stands so that the trees reach log size as young as possible. The results of this study emphasise the good quality of the birch wood from planted stands compared to natural stands with regard to its colour.
  • Luostarinen, Faculty of Forest Sciences, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: katri.luostarinen@joensuu.fi (email)
  • Möttönen, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 179, category Research article
Henna Vartiamäki, Jarkko Hantula, Antti Uotila. (2009). Susceptibility of silver birch pruning wounds to infection by white-rot fungus (Chondrostereum purpureum), a potential bioherbicide. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 4 article id 179. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.179
We artificially inoculated pruning wounds of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) to study seasonal variation in their vulnerability to infection by the fungal decomposer Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers. ex Fr.) Pouzar. This information is critical to the assessment of incidental infection risks in areas where C. purpureum may be used as a bioherbicide. On seven monthly occasions between April and October 2005, 30 birch trees were pruned to yield a total of 210 experimental trees. On each occasion, 10 trees were inoculated immediately with C. purpureum mycelium, 10 were inoculated with blank inoculum and 10 were only pruned. In the summer of 2007, a survey of 129 experimental trees showed that pruning wounds were most susceptible to infection during May. Treatment with C. purpureum at other times during the growing season also increased the extent of discoloration or decay but the effect was considerably less.
  • Vartiamäki, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: henna.vartiamaki@metla.fi (email)
  • Hantula, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Uotila, University of Helsinki, Hyytiälä Forestry Field Station, Hyytiäläntie 124, FI-35500 Korkeakoski, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 236, category Research article
Jaakko Repola. (2008). Biomass equations for birch in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 4 article id 236. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.236
Biomass equations were compiled for the above- and below-ground tree components of birch (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.). The equations were based on 127 sample trees in 24 birch stands located on mineral soil sites. The study material consisted of 20 temporary plots and ten plots from four thinning experiments with different thinning intensities (unthinned, moderately and heavily thinned plots). The equations were estimated for the following individual tree components: stem wood, stem bark, living and dead branches, foliage, stump, and roots. In the data analysis, a multivariate procedure was applied in order to take into account the statistical dependency among the equations. Three multivariate variance component models were constructed for the above-ground biomass components, and one for the below-ground biomass components. The multivariate model (1) was mainly based on tree diameter and height, and in the multivariate models (2) and (3) additional commonly measured tree variables were used. The equations provided logical biomass predictions for a number of tree components, and were comparable with other functions used in Finland and Sweden. The applied statistical method generated equations that gave more reliable biomass estimates than the equations presented earlier. Furthermore, the structure of the multivariate models enables more flexible application of the equations, especially for research purposes.
  • Repola, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, P.O. Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaakko.repola@metla.fi (email)
article id 274, category Research article
Timo Saksa, Jari Miina. (2007). Cleaning methods in planted Scots pine stands in southern Finland: 4-year results on survival, growth and whipping damage of pines. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 4 article id 274. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.274
The effects of four cleaning treatments on the survival, growth of, and whipping damage to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) main stems were studied in young planted pine stands in southern Finland. Treatments were: no cleaning, point-cleaning of broadleaves (mainly birch, Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh.) within a radius of 1 m from the pine, topping of competing broadleaves, and total cleaning of broadleaves. A randomised complete block design with three replicates was established in five sapling stands: the mean height of the pines was 1.5 m in the three younger stands (6 or 7 years old), and 3 m in the two older stands (9 years old). Measurements taken four growing seasons later showed that in the younger stands, all cleaning treatments significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the mortality and increased the diameter increment of the pines. The height increment of the pines on point-cleaned and topped plots was significantly greater than on totally cleaned plots. In the older stands, the effects of cleaning treatments on the mortality and increment of pines were non-significant. In the younger and older stands, point-cleaning and total cleaning significantly reduced the whipping damage to pines, whereas the topping of competing broadleaves did not. The preliminary results support the use of point-cleaning in planted Scots pine stands when the mean height of the pines is about 1.5 m.
  • Saksa, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Suonenjoki Unit, Juntintie 154, FI-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: timo.saksa@metla.fi (email)
  • Miina, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Unit, P.O.Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 322, category Research article
Jaakko Repola. (2006). Models for vertical wood density of Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch stems, and their application to determine average wood density. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 4 article id 322. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.322
The purpose of this study was to investigate the vertical dependence of the basic density of Scots pine, Norway spruce, and birch stems, and how such dependence could be applied for determining the average stem wood density. The study material consisted of 38 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), 39 Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) and 15 birch (Betula pendula and Betula pubescens) stands located on mineral soil sites in southern Finland. The stem material mainly represented thinning removal from stands at different stages of development. The linear mixed model technique, with both fixed and random effects, was used to estimate the model. According to the fixed part of the model, wood density was dependent on the vertical location along the stem in all three tree species. Wood density in pine decreased from the butt to the top, and the gradient in wood density was steep at the butt but decreased in the upper part of the stem. The vertical dependence was similar in birch, but the density gradient was much smaller. For spruce the vertical dependence of the basic density was moderate. The model can be calibrated for a tree stem when one or more sample disks are measured at freely selected heights. Using treewise calibrated predictions of the vertical density dependence and measured stem diameters, almost unbiased estimates, and lower prediction errors than with traditional methods, were obtained for the average stem wood density. The advantages of the method were greater for pine with a strong vertical dependence in basic density, than for spruce and birch.
  • Repola, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, Eteläranta 55, FI-96300 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaakko.repola@metla.fi (email)
article id 322, category Research article
Jaakko Repola. (2006). Models for vertical wood density of Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch stems, and their application to determine average wood density. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 4 article id 322. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.322
The purpose of this study was to investigate the vertical dependence of the basic density of Scots pine, Norway spruce, and birch stems, and how such dependence could be applied for determining the average stem wood density. The study material consisted of 38 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), 39 Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) and 15 birch (Betula pendula and Betula pubescens) stands located on mineral soil sites in southern Finland. The stem material mainly represented thinning removal from stands at different stages of development. The linear mixed model technique, with both fixed and random effects, was used to estimate the model. According to the fixed part of the model, wood density was dependent on the vertical location along the stem in all three tree species. Wood density in pine decreased from the butt to the top, and the gradient in wood density was steep at the butt but decreased in the upper part of the stem. The vertical dependence was similar in birch, but the density gradient was much smaller. For spruce the vertical dependence of the basic density was moderate. The model can be calibrated for a tree stem when one or more sample disks are measured at freely selected heights. Using treewise calibrated predictions of the vertical density dependence and measured stem diameters, almost unbiased estimates, and lower prediction errors than with traditional methods, were obtained for the average stem wood density. The advantages of the method were greater for pine with a strong vertical dependence in basic density, than for spruce and birch.
  • Repola, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, Eteläranta 55, FI-96300 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jaakko.repola@metla.fi (email)
article id 392, category Research article
Veikko Huhta, Mika Räty. (2005). Soil animal communities of planted birch stands in central Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 1 article id 392. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.392
The aim of this study was to compare soil animal communities in planted birch (Betula pendula) stands of different origin with each other and with natural forests. Six 30-year-old birch stands were investigated, three planted after clear-cutting of spruce stands, and three planted on cultivated soil. The faunal communities were markedly different in plantations established on spruce forest soil and on arable soil. “Birch after Spruce” communities were relatively similar to those of coniferous forests, though the population densities were generally lower. “Birch after Field” communities were sparse and could be characterised as “impoverished forest communities”, except in Lumbricidae and Enchytraeidae that have affinities with deciduous forests and cultural landscapes. Soil conditions are not sufficient to explain the differences between the forests. Colonisation and transport by man may determine the presence of certain species, especially earthworms. These in turn affect soil properties, and compete with or otherwise have negative effects on other soil fauna. Thus the community differences between different forests are an outcome of several factors: soil characteristics, site history, colonisation ability and interspecific interactions.
  • Huhta, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyväskylä University, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: v.huhta@pp.inet.fi (email)
  • Räty, Ojalanlenkki 4, FI-80140 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 426, category Research article
Uwe Schmitt, Risto Jalkanen, Dieter Eckstein. (2004). Cambium dynamics of Pinus sylvestris and Betula spp. in the northern boreal forest in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 38 no. 2 article id 426. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.426
Wood formation dynamics of pine and birch along a south-north transect in Finnish Lapland were determined by the pinning technique. For all trees at all sites a more or less sigmoid shape of the wood formation intensity is characteristic with a slow beginning, a faster growth in the middle and a decreasing activity towards the end of the vegetation period. Wood formation of pine started at sites 1–3 (southern sites) in the second week of June and at sites 4 and 5 (northern sites) only in the last week of June, whereas wood formation ended within the first half of August. Wood formation of birch started in the second half of June and ended around the beginning of August. First cells were laid down by pine and birch when the temperature sum had reached the level of 85 to 90 degree days and 110 to 120 degree days, respectively. The intensity of wood formation in pine was highest in July, in birch within two weeks in the middle of July. Wood formation in pine lasted for about seven weeks at the southernmost and about six weeks at the northernmost site. In birch, the duration of wood formation was about five weeks at the southernmost site and around three weeks at the other sites.
  • Schmitt, Federal Research Centre for Forestry and Forest Products, Institute for Wood Biology and Wood Protection, and University of Hamburg, Chair for Wood Biology, Leuschnerstr. 91, P. O. Box 800209, D-21002 Hamburg, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail: u.schmitt@holz.uni-hamburg.de (email)
  • Jalkanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Station, Box 16, FI-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Eckstein, Federal Research Centre for Forestry and Forest Products, Institute for Wood Biology and Wood Protection, and University of Hamburg, Chair for Wood Biology, Leuschnerstr. 91, P. O. Box 800209, D-21002 Hamburg, Germany ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 581, category Research article
Henrik Heräjärvi. (2001). Technical properties of mature birch (Betula pendula and B. pubescens) for saw milling in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 4 article id 581. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.581
The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation in selected technical properties of mature (age > 60 years) birch stems in southern and central Finland. Technical properties were defined as the natural external characteristics that cause differences in the usability of a certain section of stem in the mechanical wood industry, saw milling in particular. On mineral soils, birch stems in mixed stands were slightly larger than those in pure birch stands. On peatlands, however, birch stems in pure stands were larger than those in mixed stands. The average stem form of silver birch was straighter than that of white birch. Small-sized log sections of white birch, as well as those of codominant silver birch, typically contain many dead knots. On mineral soils, coniferous admixture had a positive effect on self-pruning of white birch. Self-pruning of silver birch was as good in pure birch stands as in mixed stands of spruce and birch. Occurrence of decay did not differ significantly between the two birch species. Not only silver birch, due to the growth and yield of the stand, but also vigorous and good-quality white birch, because of the possibility to provide high-quality logs, can be maintained profitably as an admixture in coniferous forests until final cutting.
  • Heräjärvi, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P.O. Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: henrik.herajarvi@metla.fi (email)
article id 581, category Research article
Henrik Heräjärvi. (2001). Technical properties of mature birch (Betula pendula and B. pubescens) for saw milling in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 4 article id 581. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.581
The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation in selected technical properties of mature (age > 60 years) birch stems in southern and central Finland. Technical properties were defined as the natural external characteristics that cause differences in the usability of a certain section of stem in the mechanical wood industry, saw milling in particular. On mineral soils, birch stems in mixed stands were slightly larger than those in pure birch stands. On peatlands, however, birch stems in pure stands were larger than those in mixed stands. The average stem form of silver birch was straighter than that of white birch. Small-sized log sections of white birch, as well as those of codominant silver birch, typically contain many dead knots. On mineral soils, coniferous admixture had a positive effect on self-pruning of white birch. Self-pruning of silver birch was as good in pure birch stands as in mixed stands of spruce and birch. Occurrence of decay did not differ significantly between the two birch species. Not only silver birch, due to the growth and yield of the stand, but also vigorous and good-quality white birch, because of the possibility to provide high-quality logs, can be maintained profitably as an admixture in coniferous forests until final cutting.
  • Heräjärvi, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Centre, P.O. Box 68, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: henrik.herajarvi@metla.fi (email)

Category: Research note

article id 379, category Research note
Daniel Ligné, Lars Eliasson, Tomas Nordfjell. (2005). Time consumption and damage to the remaining stock in mechanised and motor manual pre-commercial thinning. Silva Fennica vol. 39 no. 3 article id 379. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.379
Selective pre-commercial thinning (PCT) is usually carried out by workers with a brush saw in order to increase the growth of the potential crop trees (main stems) through removal of competing trees. In the last decade relative PCT costs have increased, partly because stands are denser and have higher trees when treated, which has led to new interest for mechanised PCT. The objective was to compare mechanised and motor manual PCT regarding productivity and damage to remaining main stems. Time consumption for, and damage after, mechanised and motor manual PCT were studied on 50 plots per treatment in mixed pine birch stands with an initial stand density exceeding 4500 stems ha–1. In the present study productivity was influenced by stand density, stand height and the quota between height and diameter. Irrespectively of these factors, mechanised PCT was 0.74 hours ha–1 slower than motor manual PCT. Motor manual PCT of the average stand (average height 3.69 m, 10 816 stems ha–1) took 5.06 effective hours. In average 2475 and 2805 main stems ha–1 were left after the mechanised and motor manual treatments, respectively, whereof 1.3 and 2.1% were damaged by the treatments. The results show that efficiency in motor manual PCT has increased in dense and tall stands compared to older studies. Motor manual PCT was more time effective than mechanised PCT, and thereby also even more cost-effective. However, the potential for technical and methodological development of mechanised PCT is probably larger than for motor manual PCT.
  • Ligné, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Silviculture, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Eliasson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Silviculture, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: lars.eliasson@norraskogsagarna.se (email)
  • Nordfjell, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Silviculture, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7178, category Article
Matti Keltikangas, Pekka Tiililä. (1968). Koivun ja kuusen istutuksen keskinäinen edullisuusjärjestys käenkaali-mustikkatyypin metsämailla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 82 no. 5 article id 7178. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7178
English title: The economic sequence of silver birch (Betula pendula) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) when planting Oxalis-Myrtillus type forest land.

The present study proposes to calculate the economic sequence of two of Finland’s three main tree species, Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) when planted on Oxalias-Myrtillus type sites where both species are equally suitable, on biological grounds. In addition, the accuracy and applicability of the present Finnish yield tables to an economic comparison is tested. Benefit/cost ratio was selected as criterion of profitableness. All future net incomes and costs were discounted into the planting time and added together. The ratio between the discounted net revenues and the discounted investment costs (later called profit ratio) was the criterion. There is no reliable method to forecast the future wood prices, therefore two price ratios, birch veneer timber to spruce pulpwood and birch cordwood to spruce pulpwood, were chosen as free variables. The economic sequence of the tree species was determined as the function of these variables.

The main conclusions are, first, that under the present price ratios spruce appears to be the better choice for the forest owner, and the most promising policy for changing the situation seems to decrease the production costs of plants in birch nurseries. Second, the present Finnish yield tables are not consistent or accurate enough to enable any sufficiently reliable economic comparisons of tree species in artificial regeneration. The possible error of difference between two rather uncertain estimates is big. More work is needed to construct a uniform system of yield tables covering all main tree species, all site types, all macro climate conditions and all types of regeneration.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tiililä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7167, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1966). Tutkimuksia rauduskoivikon karsimisen kannattavuudesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 81 no. 2 article id 7167. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7167
English title: Studies on the profitability of pruning of common birch (Betula pendula) stands.

The objective of the present investigation was to clarify the profitability of pruning silver birch (Betula verrucosa, now Betula pendula Roth) in the growing of raw material for veneer industry. Calculations were made on the grade, value, and price of pruned and untreated butt logs as well as on costs of pruning and the development of pruned trees.

The grade distribution of unpruned veneer butt logs, the grade distribution of the veneer yield, and consequently, the value of veneer yield and log prices at the plant are considerably better than those of average logs. The grade, value and price increased with increasing diameter. The value and price of pruned butt logs depended primarily on the difference between the turning pruning diameters, and their increase with decreasing pruning diameter and increasing turning diameter. The value of pruned butt logs is always considerably higher than that of unpruned logs. The increase in the value correlates to the pruning and turning diameters, and is, for example, in rotary-cut logs which have been pruned when 10 cm in diameter 80–130%.

Pruning increases the stumpage in naturally regenerated silver birch stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus site by 2,000–3,000 Fmk/ha when employed at 20 years of stand age and rotary cutting at 60–80 years of age respectively. The average pruning costs on Oxalis-Myrtillus site are 51–57 Fmk/ha.

The PDF includes a summary English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7167, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1966). Tutkimuksia rauduskoivikon karsimisen kannattavuudesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 81 no. 2 article id 7167. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7167
English title: Studies on the profitability of pruning of common birch (Betula pendula) stands.

The objective of the present investigation was to clarify the profitability of pruning silver birch (Betula verrucosa, now Betula pendula Roth) in the growing of raw material for veneer industry. Calculations were made on the grade, value, and price of pruned and untreated butt logs as well as on costs of pruning and the development of pruned trees.

The grade distribution of unpruned veneer butt logs, the grade distribution of the veneer yield, and consequently, the value of veneer yield and log prices at the plant are considerably better than those of average logs. The grade, value and price increased with increasing diameter. The value and price of pruned butt logs depended primarily on the difference between the turning pruning diameters, and their increase with decreasing pruning diameter and increasing turning diameter. The value of pruned butt logs is always considerably higher than that of unpruned logs. The increase in the value correlates to the pruning and turning diameters, and is, for example, in rotary-cut logs which have been pruned when 10 cm in diameter 80–130%.

Pruning increases the stumpage in naturally regenerated silver birch stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus site by 2,000–3,000 Fmk/ha when employed at 20 years of stand age and rotary cutting at 60–80 years of age respectively. The average pruning costs on Oxalis-Myrtillus site are 51–57 Fmk/ha.

The PDF includes a summary English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7167, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1966). Tutkimuksia rauduskoivikon karsimisen kannattavuudesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 81 no. 2 article id 7167. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7167
English title: Studies on the profitability of pruning of common birch (Betula pendula) stands.

The objective of the present investigation was to clarify the profitability of pruning silver birch (Betula verrucosa, now Betula pendula Roth) in the growing of raw material for veneer industry. Calculations were made on the grade, value, and price of pruned and untreated butt logs as well as on costs of pruning and the development of pruned trees.

The grade distribution of unpruned veneer butt logs, the grade distribution of the veneer yield, and consequently, the value of veneer yield and log prices at the plant are considerably better than those of average logs. The grade, value and price increased with increasing diameter. The value and price of pruned butt logs depended primarily on the difference between the turning pruning diameters, and their increase with decreasing pruning diameter and increasing turning diameter. The value of pruned butt logs is always considerably higher than that of unpruned logs. The increase in the value correlates to the pruning and turning diameters, and is, for example, in rotary-cut logs which have been pruned when 10 cm in diameter 80–130%.

Pruning increases the stumpage in naturally regenerated silver birch stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus site by 2,000–3,000 Fmk/ha when employed at 20 years of stand age and rotary cutting at 60–80 years of age respectively. The average pruning costs on Oxalis-Myrtillus site are 51–57 Fmk/ha.

The PDF includes a summary English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7166, category Article
J. E. Hårdh. (1966). Trials with carbon dioxide, light and growth substances on forest tree plants. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 81 no. 1 article id 7166. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7166

Growth-promoting effects of enhanced caron dioxide levels upon forest tree seedlings grown in plastic houses was studied in 1964 and 1965 in the Forest Breeding Foundation in Haapastensyrjä near Loppi in Southern Finland. In both years more vigorous height and weight growth, and development of root system was achieved when the CO2 concentration was increased to 0.2% than in the normal conditions (CO2 0.03%). The CO2 concentration was increased by burning propane in the plastic houses. Burning continued for four hours per day either at 8–10 and 14–16 a clock or 6–10 a clock. Growth was not affected by the time of the treatment, and it was equally high in 0.1% and 0.2% concentrations.

Treatment of the seedlings with 100–200 ppm gibberellic acid (GA) increased the height growth of healthy, well-rooted seedlings. Treatment with a concentrated (600 ppm) dosage, as well as treatment with a combination of GA and 1-naphtyl acetic acid (NAA) caused serious defects in grafts of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). GA treatments did not induce flower formation in pine. Red light during the night seemed to enhance growth of grafts of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.).

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Hårdh, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7165, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1966). Tutkimuksia koivujen vikaisuuksista, niiden vaikutuksesta sorvaustulokseen sekä niiden huomioonottamisesta laatuluokituksessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 80 no. 3 article id 7165. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7165
English title: Studies on the defects of birch, their influence on the quality and quantity of rotary cut veneer, and their consideration in veneer birch grading.

The objective of this paper was to study the influence of defects of Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh. on the quality, value and quantity of veneer cut produced by rotary cutting, to prepare grading rules for veneer birch and to determine the minimum quality for veneer birch, and to assess the quality and quantity of veneer yield in rotary cutting of bolts of different grades. Data for the study was collected in 1953-1963 from six plywood factories in Finland.

The effect of knot marks, knot bumps, dry and rotten knots, sound knots, sweep and crookedness, upright limbs, heart rot, open and overgrown scars and bark peeling defects in the bolt on the quality and yield of veneer is described. Recommendations for grading rules were defined on the basis of the result. The rules include three grades, for which certain defects are allowed. In the first grade are accepted bolts, which of the veneer yield included at least 30% of veneer of grades A and B when all jointing and end-clipped sheets were taken into account. In the second grade were accepted bolts, which of the main part of the veneer yield still is surface veneer on the basis of the wood quality. Of the third-grade bolts at least one third of the veneer yield ought to be surface veneer.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7165, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1966). Tutkimuksia koivujen vikaisuuksista, niiden vaikutuksesta sorvaustulokseen sekä niiden huomioonottamisesta laatuluokituksessa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 80 no. 3 article id 7165. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7165
English title: Studies on the defects of birch, their influence on the quality and quantity of rotary cut veneer, and their consideration in veneer birch grading.

The objective of this paper was to study the influence of defects of Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh. on the quality, value and quantity of veneer cut produced by rotary cutting, to prepare grading rules for veneer birch and to determine the minimum quality for veneer birch, and to assess the quality and quantity of veneer yield in rotary cutting of bolts of different grades. Data for the study was collected in 1953-1963 from six plywood factories in Finland.

The effect of knot marks, knot bumps, dry and rotten knots, sound knots, sweep and crookedness, upright limbs, heart rot, open and overgrown scars and bark peeling defects in the bolt on the quality and yield of veneer is described. Recommendations for grading rules were defined on the basis of the result. The rules include three grades, for which certain defects are allowed. In the first grade are accepted bolts, which of the veneer yield included at least 30% of veneer of grades A and B when all jointing and end-clipped sheets were taken into account. In the second grade were accepted bolts, which of the main part of the veneer yield still is surface veneer on the basis of the wood quality. Of the third-grade bolts at least one third of the veneer yield ought to be surface veneer.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7163, category Article
Jaakko Meriluoto. (1965). Raaka-ainetekijöiden vaikutus sorvatun koivuviilun määrään ja laatuun. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 80 no. 1 article id 7163. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7163
English title: The influence of raw material factors on the quantity and quality of rotary cut birch veneer.

The objective of the present investigation was to clarify the influence of raw material on the quantity, and especially quality of rotary cut birch veneer by running cutting tests with constant tool setting under factory conditions and with bolts of normal size. The quality of the veneer was mainly examined in laboratory.

The result showed that with an increase in bolt size the yield increases and reaches the maximal value in the diameter range of 251–275 mm and 226–250 mm for 60-inch and 50-inch bolt, respectively. With a decrease in bolt length the yield becomes higher. With the increase in the bolt size the quality of the veneer improves.

Defects in the shape of the bolt, such as crookedness, taper and oval form, decrease the yield. The good quality of the bolts affects most the yield of full-size sheets. Increase of knottiness decreases the yield by 4–5%. Lowering of the bolt temperature below 0 °C causes a sharp decline in the yield. Moisture content of the wood did not markedly affect the yield, but it improved the quality of the veneer. The minimum moisture content was 75%.

For the technical quality of the veneer, bolt temperature was the most decisive raw material factor. Also shape defects, of which crookedness was most serious, decreased the technical quality. Increase in summerwood percentage improved the quality.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Meriluoto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7476, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1958). Sekametsiköiden juuristoista ojitetulla suolla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 2 article id 7476. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7476
English title: Root systems of mixed forest in drained peatlands.

Draining transforms root systems of trees growing in peatlands towards the ones growing on mineral soil. However, even after efficient draining the root systems differ from the root systems of trees growing on mineral soil. This investigation concentrates on root systems of forests of similar mire types growing in similar draining conditions but having different tree species compositions. The peatland, situated in Pieksämäki in Southern Finland, was drained in 1937. Sample plots, measured in 1956, consisted of mixed forest of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and birch (Betula sp.) in different compositions, and were in natural condition.

The sedge pine bog studied in this investigation was shown to have larger total amount of roots and mycorrhiza than in previously studied dwarf shrub pine bogs. This reflects better growth conditions of the better site. The depth of root system was, however, similar. Root systems of birch were deeper than those of the coniferous tree species. Differences between Scots pine and Norway spruce were small. Corresponding differences between the species were found in the density and total number of mycorrhizas. The abundance of mycorrhizas in the roots of birch increased in deeper layers of peat, but decreased especially in spruce roots. In earlier studies the abundance of mycorrhizas decreased in the roots growing in deeper layers in pure Scots pine stands, but no such variation was seen in this study. The result suggest that the deep root system of birch may affect also the root systems of the coniferous trees. On the other hand, birch roots can have advantage over the coniferous trees.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7463, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1955). Koivun vetopuun anatomisesta rakenteesta ja ominaisuuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 64 no. 3 article id 7463. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7463
English title: On the anatomical structure and properties of the tension wood in birch.

The investigation concerns with the strength of the eccentric growth accompanying formation of tension wood in silver birch  (Betula pendula Roth.) and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), behaviour of wood in wood-working machines and its macroscopic characteristics, its microscopic and sub-microscopic structure, chemical composition, resistance against certain chemicals, physical properties, and the strength characteristics of wood.

The most detrimental properties of tension wood used in wood working industry are high longitudinal shrinkage, warping, twisting and checking. The wooliness of the cut is unwanted, for instance, in plywood and furniture. In pulp industry tension wood is better raw material than normal wood because it yields more and purer cellulose than normal wood. However, it has poorer strength properties.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7463, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1955). Koivun vetopuun anatomisesta rakenteesta ja ominaisuuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 64 no. 3 article id 7463. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7463
English title: On the anatomical structure and properties of the tension wood in birch.

The investigation concerns with the strength of the eccentric growth accompanying formation of tension wood in silver birch  (Betula pendula Roth.) and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), behaviour of wood in wood-working machines and its macroscopic characteristics, its microscopic and sub-microscopic structure, chemical composition, resistance against certain chemicals, physical properties, and the strength characteristics of wood.

The most detrimental properties of tension wood used in wood working industry are high longitudinal shrinkage, warping, twisting and checking. The wooliness of the cut is unwanted, for instance, in plywood and furniture. In pulp industry tension wood is better raw material than normal wood because it yields more and purer cellulose than normal wood. However, it has poorer strength properties.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7463, category Article
Paavo J. Ollinmaa. (1955). Koivun vetopuun anatomisesta rakenteesta ja ominaisuuksista. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 64 no. 3 article id 7463. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7463
English title: On the anatomical structure and properties of the tension wood in birch.

The investigation concerns with the strength of the eccentric growth accompanying formation of tension wood in silver birch  (Betula pendula Roth.) and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), behaviour of wood in wood-working machines and its macroscopic characteristics, its microscopic and sub-microscopic structure, chemical composition, resistance against certain chemicals, physical properties, and the strength characteristics of wood.

The most detrimental properties of tension wood used in wood working industry are high longitudinal shrinkage, warping, twisting and checking. The wooliness of the cut is unwanted, for instance, in plywood and furniture. In pulp industry tension wood is better raw material than normal wood because it yields more and purer cellulose than normal wood. However, it has poorer strength properties.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ollinmaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7400, category Article
P. S. Tikka. (1949). Perä-Pohjolan koivikoiden laadusta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 57 no. 4 article id 7400. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7400
English title: Quality of birch (Betula sp.) stands in the northernmost Finland.

The quality of birch (Betula sp.) stands in Perä-Pohjola in Northern Finland is low due to the harsh environment, unsuitable sites for the species and unsatisfactory silvicultural state. A total of 236 sample trees were felled and measured in 8 sample plots. The trees were over 80 years old.

Only third of the stand volume of birch in the stands had adequate quality for merchantable timber. This is due to birch growing often in sites unsuitable for the species, the low density of the stands, the small average size of stems, and the low amount of large sized trees. These problems may contribute to the fact that birch seem to be susceptible to decay. The trees have often grown from sprouts, which leads often to poor stem form and decay. The volume and quality of both pure and mixed birch stands was sufficient only in the most fertile sites. Also, decay was more common in poor sites.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Tikka, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7376, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1942). Sateen mittauksia erilaisissa metsiköissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 23 article id 7376. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7376
English title: Measurements of rainfall in different kinds of forests in Finland.

The tree canopy adsorbs part of the rainfall falling on a forest, therefore only part of it reaches the soil. This report presents results concerning interception of precipitation and groundwater level in forests of varying canopy cover. The study belongs to a larger survey on afforestation of drained treeless bogs. The rainfall was measured daily in the open fields and in the adjacent forests. The forests, mainly Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) dominated, were divided by the canopy cover into five classes from over dense to sparsely stocked.

The results show that in a dense, tall Norway spruce stand, light rainfall can almost entirely be adsorbed by the canopy. The heavier the rainfall, the larger proportion of it reaches the ground. Only 30% of a 5 mm rainfall reaches the ground, while 80% of a 20 mm rainfall reaches the ground. Interception of precipitation decreases gradually when the density of the forest decreases. Canopy of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and birch (Betula sp.) stands of corresponding density adsorb less rainfall than Norway spruce canopy. Groundwater level was higher in treeless areas than in areas covered with forest. Widescale clear cuttings should, therefore, be considered carefully in forest areas that are prone to become peaty.

  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7359, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1942). Muutamia kasvukokeita puuntaimilla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 6 article id 7359. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7359
English title: Growth studies on tree seedlings.

The aim of the study was to investigate effect of growth conditions on germination and growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings in greenhouse conditions. Germination of seeds becomes markedly slower as the soil temperature decreases. It seems that low temperatures affect more Norway spruce than Scots pine. When temperature rises, the fresh weight of the seedlings increases more in pine seedlings than in spruce seedlings. Accordingly, lower temperatures affect less the weight growth of spruce seedling than that of pine seedlings.

An experiment testing how root competition affect germination showed that adjacent seedlings decrease germination of seeds more than shading with branches. The effect was strongest on pine and spruce seedlings when the shading tree species was fast growing birch (Betula sp.). On the other hand, shading affected most height growth of birch seedlings. Growing space can vary in relatively large range without it affecting greatly tree growth.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7356, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1942). Koivun vesomisesta ja sen metsänhoidollisesta merkityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 3 article id 7356. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7356
English title: Silvicultural usefulness of sprouting of birch.

Birches’ (Betula sp.) ability to grow sprouts is low. The stump grows root collar and stump shoots, but the stump shoots are not proper stump shoots that will grow from the space between wood and bark. The buds are situated very low in the base, even under the ground. In this study, no actual root shoots could be found. Also the bushy alpine birches seem to be formed from stump and root collar shoots.

In Southern Finland silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) is more common than downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) in dry upland forest sites, while downy birch is common in fresh mineral soil forests and peatlands. In Northern Finland downy birch is the dominant birch species. Of the two species downy birch has markedly better capacity to form stump and root collar shoots both in Northern and Southern Finland. In general, birches grow sprouts much more strongly in Northern Finland.

Growth of the shoots is fastest during the first year after the felling of the parent tree and slows down gradually. The stump shoots may get separated from the stump when the stump decays, and the decay may also spread to the shoots. It is common that the shoots have no own roots, and die along with the stump. The shoots may have own root system or use roots of the parent tree that have stayed alive, in the latter case decay spreads almost always from the stump to the shoot. Whether the tree was felled with axe or saw had no effect on sprouting, probably because the sprouting buds are situated in the base of the tree. The larger stumps had usually fewer sprouts than smaller stumps. The fertility of the site seemed to have little effect on sprouting, but more moist sites formed more sprouts.

Forest regeneration using sprouts may be possible in peatlands for firewood production. on mineral soil sites birch does not suit for coppicing. The proportion of trees originating from sprouts decreases strongly by the time. Consequently, in Southern Finland sprouts have little effect on regeneration of birch. In Northern Finland sprouting is the most important way of regeneration.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7356, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1942). Koivun vesomisesta ja sen metsänhoidollisesta merkityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 3 article id 7356. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7356
English title: Silvicultural usefulness of sprouting of birch.

Birches’ (Betula sp.) ability to grow sprouts is low. The stump grows root collar and stump shoots, but the stump shoots are not proper stump shoots that will grow from the space between wood and bark. The buds are situated very low in the base, even under the ground. In this study, no actual root shoots could be found. Also the bushy alpine birches seem to be formed from stump and root collar shoots.

In Southern Finland silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) is more common than downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) in dry upland forest sites, while downy birch is common in fresh mineral soil forests and peatlands. In Northern Finland downy birch is the dominant birch species. Of the two species downy birch has markedly better capacity to form stump and root collar shoots both in Northern and Southern Finland. In general, birches grow sprouts much more strongly in Northern Finland.

Growth of the shoots is fastest during the first year after the felling of the parent tree and slows down gradually. The stump shoots may get separated from the stump when the stump decays, and the decay may also spread to the shoots. It is common that the shoots have no own roots, and die along with the stump. The shoots may have own root system or use roots of the parent tree that have stayed alive, in the latter case decay spreads almost always from the stump to the shoot. Whether the tree was felled with axe or saw had no effect on sprouting, probably because the sprouting buds are situated in the base of the tree. The larger stumps had usually fewer sprouts than smaller stumps. The fertility of the site seemed to have little effect on sprouting, but more moist sites formed more sprouts.

Forest regeneration using sprouts may be possible in peatlands for firewood production. on mineral soil sites birch does not suit for coppicing. The proportion of trees originating from sprouts decreases strongly by the time. Consequently, in Southern Finland sprouts have little effect on regeneration of birch. In Northern Finland sprouting is the most important way of regeneration.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7356, category Article
Peitsa Mikola. (1942). Koivun vesomisesta ja sen metsänhoidollisesta merkityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 3 article id 7356. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7356
English title: Silvicultural usefulness of sprouting of birch.

Birches’ (Betula sp.) ability to grow sprouts is low. The stump grows root collar and stump shoots, but the stump shoots are not proper stump shoots that will grow from the space between wood and bark. The buds are situated very low in the base, even under the ground. In this study, no actual root shoots could be found. Also the bushy alpine birches seem to be formed from stump and root collar shoots.

In Southern Finland silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) is more common than downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) in dry upland forest sites, while downy birch is common in fresh mineral soil forests and peatlands. In Northern Finland downy birch is the dominant birch species. Of the two species downy birch has markedly better capacity to form stump and root collar shoots both in Northern and Southern Finland. In general, birches grow sprouts much more strongly in Northern Finland.

Growth of the shoots is fastest during the first year after the felling of the parent tree and slows down gradually. The stump shoots may get separated from the stump when the stump decays, and the decay may also spread to the shoots. It is common that the shoots have no own roots, and die along with the stump. The shoots may have own root system or use roots of the parent tree that have stayed alive, in the latter case decay spreads almost always from the stump to the shoot. Whether the tree was felled with axe or saw had no effect on sprouting, probably because the sprouting buds are situated in the base of the tree. The larger stumps had usually fewer sprouts than smaller stumps. The fertility of the site seemed to have little effect on sprouting, but more moist sites formed more sprouts.

Forest regeneration using sprouts may be possible in peatlands for firewood production. on mineral soil sites birch does not suit for coppicing. The proportion of trees originating from sprouts decreases strongly by the time. Consequently, in Southern Finland sprouts have little effect on regeneration of birch. In Northern Finland sprouting is the most important way of regeneration.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Mikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7336, category Article
R. Sarvas. (1937). Kuloalojen luontaisesta metsittymisestä : Pohjois-Suomen kuivilla kankailla suoritettu metsäbiologinen tutkielma. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 46 no. 1 article id 7336. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7336
English title: Natural regeneration of burned areas. Forest biological study in dry mineral soil sites in Northern Finland.

Natural regeneration has been common in Northern Finland, where forest fires have been usual, and the large areas make artificial regeneration expensive. The regeneration, and for instance tree species composition and density of the stand, cannot been controlled. In Northern Finland there is little demand for Betula sp. which is often abundant in the burnt areas. The unburned forests are generally Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) or Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) dominated mixed forests with single Betula sp. trees.

The fire destroys birch for the most part in the Vaccinium site type, but the surviving trees produce enough seeds to regenerate the areas. The largest trees of Scots pine usually survive the fires. Pine has good seed years in the north only every 8th or 10th year. Spruce is totally destroyed in the forest fire and the seedlings grow poorly as primary species. The seedling stands are usually dominated by Scots pine and birch, but birch seedlings grow in batches, and do not hinder growth of pine. The drier Calluna site type stands are dominated by Scots pine. Birch seedlings may be abundant in the beginning, but most of them do not survive. Abundant emergent pine trees prevent the growth of seedlings especially in the dry site types, and they should be thinned to guarantee regeneration. Sowing results are better few years after the fire. The birch seedling should be removed from the seedling stands.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Sarvas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7291, category Article
Paul Wallden. (1934). Tutkimuksia koivupuun anatoomisen rakenteen ja teknillisten ominaisuuksien keskinäisestä riippuvuudesta solumittauksien perusteella. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 14 article id 7291. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7291
English title: Studies on relationship between anatomical structure and technical properties of birch wood.

Birch wood is used widely in wooden structures where mechanical strength is needed. The aim of the research was to study the influence of the relative share of mechanically weak tracheids, and length of the wood fibers on specific gravity and bending strength of downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) wood. According to the results, the strength of wood is strongly dependent on the relative share of tracheids, and length of the libriform cells. The strength of the wood increases when the share of tracheids decreases and the length of libriform cells increases. The specific gravity can be used as an indication of the strength of wood, especially if it is possible to analyze the structure of the wood.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Wallden, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7290, category Article
K. J. Valle. (1934). Fennoskandian koivuvyöhykkeen eläinmaantieteellisestä merkityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 13 article id 7290. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7290
English title: The zoogeographical significance of the birch zone in Fennoscandia.

The subarctic-subalpine mountain birch forest zone discerns Fennoscandia from other northern regions. The zone offers protection against wind to animal life, protects soil from evaporation and increases humidity. The article reviews distribution of vertebrate and butterfly species in the birch forest zone. There are no vertebrates that occur solely in the birch forest zone, and only few live mostly in the zone. Many species live either both on the birch forest zone and the treeless fell area above it, or in the birch forest zone and coniferous zone below it. Similarly, no butterflies occur only in the birch forest zone, but the zone is the main habitat for some species. Consequently, the subarctic-subalpine birch forest zone cannot be considered to be an independent ecozone but a transitional zone between regio silvatica and regio arctica that is nearer to the northern coniferous zone than the fell region

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Valle, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7290, category Article
K. J. Valle. (1934). Fennoskandian koivuvyöhykkeen eläinmaantieteellisestä merkityksestä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 13 article id 7290. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7290
English title: The zoogeographical significance of the birch zone in Fennoscandia.

The subarctic-subalpine mountain birch forest zone discerns Fennoscandia from other northern regions. The zone offers protection against wind to animal life, protects soil from evaporation and increases humidity. The article reviews distribution of vertebrate and butterfly species in the birch forest zone. There are no vertebrates that occur solely in the birch forest zone, and only few live mostly in the zone. Many species live either both on the birch forest zone and the treeless fell area above it, or in the birch forest zone and coniferous zone below it. Similarly, no butterflies occur only in the birch forest zone, but the zone is the main habitat for some species. Consequently, the subarctic-subalpine birch forest zone cannot be considered to be an independent ecozone but a transitional zone between regio silvatica and regio arctica that is nearer to the northern coniferous zone than the fell region

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Valle, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7287, category Article
Erkki K. Cajander. (1934). Havaintoja eräällä myrskytuhoalueella. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 10 article id 7287. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7287
English title: Observations in a storm damage area.

A big storm hit Finland in 12.10.1933, and caused forest damages especially in the coasts of the Gulf of Finland and Baltic Sea, and in the eastern part of the country. In these areas the wind felled about 75,000‒85,000 m3 timber trees in the state lands. The extent of the wind damage was measured in forest area of 1,500 hectares in Lapinjärvi in Southern Finland. The wind had felled 42% of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), 70% of the Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and 44% of the Betula sp. trees. Thus, Norway spruce had been most susceptible for wind damage. That extensive damages in Norway spruce seed tree stands risk the regeneration in the area. Natural regeneration of Norway spruce using seed trees may, therefore, be questioned. The seed tree areas on hills, and especially hollows next to the hills were susceptible for wind damage. A denser border stand protects sparsely stocked seed tree area. The damages were also smaller in older seed tree areas, where the trees and ground vegetation had had time to recover after the felling. The felled spruce and birch trees had often stem rot.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7226, category Article
W. Sukatschew. (1929). Betula Cajanderii sp.n. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 13 article id 7226. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7226
English title: Betula Cajanderii sp.n. (Cajander birch).
Original keywords: Betula Cajanderii; Birke
English keywords: Betula Cajanderii; birch

Different birch species hybridize very easily with each other and identifying the species of an individual tree is difficult. The article gives the description of one variant from Russia and the author suggests naming it after Prof. Cajander.

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Sukatschew, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7207, category Article
N. A. Hildén. (1926). Koivun kuutioimisesta massataulukoiden avulla Pohjois-Karjalasta kootun aineiston nojalla. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 32 no. 2 article id 7207. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7207
English title: Preparation of volume table of birch, based on data collected in North Karelia.

Sample trees of Betula sp. were felled in North Karelia in different forest site types. The stands, both mixed and pure stands, had been regenerated in areas where shifting cultivation had been practiced. Sample trees represented breast height diameters up to 43 cm. Diameter was measured in distances of 1/10 of the height of the tree to calculate the stem form. The form factor was higher for the good forest site types than the poor sites. The volume tables were calculated based on the assumption that diameter does not affect the form factor. Comparing the volume table to the original data, it was found that the table seems to form a successful fitting of the data. Control data proved that the method seems to give a good fitting to the used data. Thus, the volume table can be used to measure volume of birch stands in North Karelia.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Hildén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5611, category Article
Arja Lilja, Timo Kurkela, Sakari Lilja, Risto Rikala.. (1997). Nursery practices and management of fungal diseases in forest nurseries in Finland. A review. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 5611. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8512

The purpose of this article was to collate the literature on fungal diseases that occur on seedlings in forest nurseries. It describes the symptoms of the diseases, the infection pattern of each fungus and the possibilities of controlling the diseases. As background a short introduction is given on forests and nursery practices in Finland.

  • Lilja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kurkela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lilja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rikala., ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5611, category Article
Arja Lilja, Timo Kurkela, Sakari Lilja, Risto Rikala.. (1997). Nursery practices and management of fungal diseases in forest nurseries in Finland. A review. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 5611. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8512

The purpose of this article was to collate the literature on fungal diseases that occur on seedlings in forest nurseries. It describes the symptoms of the diseases, the infection pattern of each fungus and the possibilities of controlling the diseases. As background a short introduction is given on forests and nursery practices in Finland.

  • Lilja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kurkela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lilja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rikala., ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5611, category Article
Arja Lilja, Timo Kurkela, Sakari Lilja, Risto Rikala.. (1997). Nursery practices and management of fungal diseases in forest nurseries in Finland. A review. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 1 article id 5611. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8512

The purpose of this article was to collate the literature on fungal diseases that occur on seedlings in forest nurseries. It describes the symptoms of the diseases, the infection pattern of each fungus and the possibilities of controlling the diseases. As background a short introduction is given on forests and nursery practices in Finland.

  • Lilja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kurkela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lilja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Rikala., ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5542, category Article
Leena Ryynänen, Anneli Viherä-Aarnio. (1995). Growth, crown structure and seed production of birch seedlings, grafts and micropropagated plants. Silva Fennica vol. 29 no. 1 article id 5542. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9193

Growth, crown structure, flowering and seed production of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) seedlings, grafts and micropropagated plants was compared during four years in a polythene greenhouse experiment. The growth of the seedlings was clearly the most vigorous and that of the grafts the weakest, the micropropagated plants being intermediate. The seedlings had the highest and the grafts the lowest number of branches before cutting the tops of the plants, but the differences between the material types were no more significant after cutting the tops. The grafts had significantly shorter and thinner branches than the seedlings and the micropropagated plants, whereas the differences in branch length and branch thickness between the latter two groups were not significant. The grafts started flowering at the age of two years, one year earlier than the other two types of material. At the age of four years the micropropagated plants had abundant seed production, about 75% of that of the seedlings and about two times higher than that of the grafts. Thus, the micropropagated plants can be used instead of grafts when establishing polythene greenhouse seed orchards of birch.

  • Ryynänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Viherä-Aarnio, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5478, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Marja Kolström. (1992). Computations on the management of seedling stands of Scots pine under the influence of changing climate in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 2 article id 5478. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15639

Model computations on the management of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at the seedling stage showed that a rising temperature due to the suggested climate change could increase the competition capacity of birch species (Betula pendula) more than Scots pine, whose growth could even decline during the course of a rise in temperature. A temperature rise could, thus, bring the time of removal of birches forward when aiming at Scots pine timber stands composed of these tree species. The increasing proportion of birches makes the removal of birches even more urgent and emphasizes the need for careful management of Scots pine stands under rising temperatures. The first thinning of Scots pine is generally brought forward; this is particularly the case when wide spacing is applied in planting. A furthrer rise in temperature magnifies the above patterns by reducing further the competitive capacity of Scots pine in relation to birches.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kolström, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5344, category Article
Ilari Lumme. (1988). Early effects of peat ash on growth and mineral nutrition of the silver birch (Betula pendula) on a mined peatland. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 2 article id 5344. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15501

Two-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) seedlings were fertilized with three peat ash dosages (10, 50 and 150 metric t/ha) and planted at three densities (2,000, 10,000 and 25,000 seedlings/ha). The peat and mineral soil were mixed together by deep ploughing before peat ash application. The results indicate that the 10 t/ha of peat ash may be too low a dosage and 150 t/ha too high for the silver birch seedlings. The 50 t/ha ash dosage increased growth markedly, obviously due to an enhancement in soil and foliar P, Mg and Ca content, soil pH, microbial activity and mobilization of soil organic nitrogen. Both foliar and soil P were already enhanced with the 10 t/ha peat ash dosage. The K content of the peat ash was low, however, and it may be that fertilizer K should be applied later.

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  • Lumme, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5266, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1986). Malli männyn, kuusen ja koivun puuaineen oksaisuudesta. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 2 article id 5266. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15445
English title: Model of knottiness of wood material in pine, spruce and birch.

A computer model was developed for predicting knottiness of wood material of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and birch (Betula sp). The prediction included location of knots, their size and quality, i.e. if they are dead or living knots. The model suits best for tree species where branches are born at the base of shoots, in Finland such tree species is Scots pine.

The usefulness of the model was tested in the prediction of knots in wooden elements of joinery industry. According to the results, the shape of cross section affects the surface quality of elements. Especially useful is a quadratic cross section as it increases the probability to get a knotless surface.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5261, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1986). Koivuvaneritukkien ja -runkojen arvosuhteet. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 5261. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15440
English title: Value relations of birch veneer logs and stems in Finland.

A model was developed in order to describe the peeling of veneer for determining value relationship for birch veneer logs and stems. The model was based on selling prices of veneer and other products as well as processing costs. The model was utilized for determining the effect of various input variables on the log value.

According to the results, the effect of tree size was important for the value of raw material. Even knottiness had an effect although only in the higher manufacturing costs of knotty veneer were taken into account. Pruning was a method to increase substantially the proportion of knotless veneer.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5221, category Article
Aleksandr P. Jevdokimov. (1984). Visakoivun kasvatus Neuvostoliiton luoteisosissa. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 5221. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15400
English title: Experiences of curly birch growing in north-western Russia.

Curly birch (Betula pendula var. carelica (Merklin) Hejtmanek) is widely distributed over north-western part or Russia, including the Baltic Soviet Republics and Belorussia. Experiences of growing this decorative species in Soviet Karelia and Leningrad region are presented. Commonly used classifications of the species are described, and recommendations for management of curly birch cultures and production of planting stock in greenhouses are given.

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  • Jevdokimov, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5202, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1983). Flight periods of some birch timber insects. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5202. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15185

Flight periods of insects breeding on birch (Betula sp.) timber were observed by means of window flight traps baited with freshly cut birch logs in five locations in Finland from 1972 to 1976. Only few species were caught during the study. In general, these species were on the wing during midsummer, although flight periods of some of them were relatively long. Scolytus ratzeburgi Jans. caused harmful staining of wood within a month from attack, but the damage by the wood-boring pests remained negligible throughout the first storage summer.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5202, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1983). Flight periods of some birch timber insects. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5202. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15185

Flight periods of insects breeding on birch (Betula sp.) timber were observed by means of window flight traps baited with freshly cut birch logs in five locations in Finland from 1972 to 1976. Only few species were caught during the study. In general, these species were on the wing during midsummer, although flight periods of some of them were relatively long. Scolytus ratzeburgi Jans. caused harmful staining of wood within a month from attack, but the damage by the wood-boring pests remained negligible throughout the first storage summer.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5188, category Article
Eljas Pohtila, Tapani Pohjola. (1983). Vuosina 1970-1972 Lappiin perustetun aurattujen alueiden viljelykokeen tulokset. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5188. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15171
English title: Results from the reforestation experiment on ploughed sites established in Finnish Lapland during 1970–1972.

The objective of the study was to compare different reforestation methods on ploughed areas in Finnish Lapland. Four species were compared: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.). The experiments were established in different parts of Lapland on different types of sites in 1970–72.

In Scots pine there was a difference of 15 percentage points in survival of seedlings between the best and worst methods of regeneration. Containerized seedlings and paper pot seedlings had the best survival rates. In Norway spruce the respective difference between sowing and planting was about 20 percentage points. In favour of planting. The survival rate can be increased by about 20 percentage points by selecting the right tree species. The average height varied from 25 cm (the sowed Norway spruce) to 179 cm (the planted silver birch) after 10 growing seasons. The birch was planted at the most fertile sites only. The longer time passed from the afforestation the clearer was the effect of the local growing conditions on the development of the seedlings. The elevation of the site was one factor seemed to influence the success of the seedlings.

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  • Pohtila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7044, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1920). Lehdeksien tekotapa Lounais-Suomessa ja sen metsähoidollinen merkitys. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 16 no. 2 article id 7044. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7044
English title: The silvicultural influences of collecting leaf fodder in South-West Finland.

In South-West Finland the usual method to make leaf fodder for cattle has been to cut the branches and collect the new sprouts again next year. According to this review, the most common tree species to be topped is Betula sp. Downy Birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) grows shoots easier than silver birch (B. pendula Roth). The topped forests are usually small and situated near the settlements, next to the fields and meadows. The birch trees are typically cut when they are 15-20 years old. Regularly topped birch rots easily and seldom exceeds 50 years. The capacity to grow shoots depends on the age of the tree, site and time of the cutting. The risk for rotting can be decreased by removing only part of the shoots and cutting the shoots a short distance from the base of the shoot. Collecting leaf fodder decreased in Finland, and was common only in the South-West Finland and Åland.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7044, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1920). Lehdeksien tekotapa Lounais-Suomessa ja sen metsähoidollinen merkitys. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 16 no. 2 article id 7044. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7044
English title: The silvicultural influences of collecting leaf fodder in South-West Finland.

In South-West Finland the usual method to make leaf fodder for cattle has been to cut the branches and collect the new sprouts again next year. According to this review, the most common tree species to be topped is Betula sp. Downy Birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) grows shoots easier than silver birch (B. pendula Roth). The topped forests are usually small and situated near the settlements, next to the fields and meadows. The birch trees are typically cut when they are 15-20 years old. Regularly topped birch rots easily and seldom exceeds 50 years. The capacity to grow shoots depends on the age of the tree, site and time of the cutting. The risk for rotting can be decreased by removing only part of the shoots and cutting the shoots a short distance from the base of the shoot. Collecting leaf fodder decreased in Finland, and was common only in the South-West Finland and Åland.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5095, category Article
K. M. Bhat, Matti Kärkkäinen. (1981).  . Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 1 article id 5095. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15036
English title: Variation in structure and selected properties of Finnish birch wood. III.

Variation of cellular proportion within the same growth rings counted from the pith of the stems and branches in four trees of Betula pendula Roth was studied. The fibre percentage decreased from breast height to the crown and then increased in the branches. The reverse trend was found in the percentage of vessels and parenchyma, although the latter varied relatively little. No statistically significant differences were found in the percentages of fibres, vessels and rays within the same growth rings counted from the pith between the stems and branches. In both the stem and the branches, the proportion of fibres increased and that of vessels and rays decreased from the pith to the surface. Even crown formed wood differed from that of stem formed. 

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish. 

  • Bhat, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5091, category Article
K. M. Bhat. (1980). Variation in structure and selected properties of Finnish birch wood. I. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 4 article id 5091. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15032

Variation of wood characteristics was studied in two mature trees of Betula pendula Roth and two of B. pubescens Ehrh. by stressing the interrelationships of some of the structural features, basic density and shrinkage. Correlation analysis revealed that basic density was related to some of the variables studied, viz: number of rings (age) and distance from pith, height from the ground, ring width, fibre length and double wall thickness. Multiple regression equation showed that age from pith and height from the ground explained 80% of variation of basic density in B. pendula. Two structural variables, viz: fibre wall thickness and ring width accounted for only 28% of variation of basic density in B. pubescens. No significant relations could be found between shrinkage and any of the wood parameters measured in B. pendula while some of the relationships were significant in B. pubescens. However, only 55% of variation of volumetric shrinkage was explained by two related factors, viz: basic density and moisture content while only 35% of variation of tangential shrinkage was explained by ring width and fibre width. Increase in fibre length was highly associated with the increase in fibre width, double wall thickness and vessel length in either species.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Bhat, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5083, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1980). Havaintoja koivutukkien epäpyöreydestä ja pituusmittaeroista. Silva Fennica vol. 14 no. 3 article id 5083. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15024
English title: Observations on the out-of-roundness and deviations from nominal lengths of birch logs.
English keywords: Betula; birch; logs; roundness; diameter

A material of 478 birch logs were measured. The horizontal diameter was on average larger than the vertical one, the difference increasing with the increasing diameter. The reason was supposed to be the effect of sweep and out-of-roundness of logs. The difference between the actual and nominal length increased with the increasing lengths, but decreased with increasing diameter.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5034, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1979). Pinotilavuusmääräinen kuorintahäviö koneellisesti ladotuissa pinoissa. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 2 article id 5034. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14891
English title: Barking loss of mechanically loaded piles.

In this study the loose volume of 58 piles of pulpwood were measured before and after barking by rotary ring barker. The volume was 2,121 m3. A recommendation is made, based on the results of the study, concerning the barking loss from piled wood: for green Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) pulpwood, 8.8% of the stacked volume; for seasoned pine pulpwood, 6.1% of the stacked volume; and 8.0% for birch (Betula sp.) pulpwood, green and seasoned. The amount of bark left on bolts was small for pine bolts, namely 0.33%, but quite large for birch bolts, 2.84% of the green weight.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5011, category Article
Kullervo Etholén. (1978). Kokemuksia visakoivun kasvatuksesta Lapissa. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 4 article id 5011. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14865
English title: Experimental growing of curly birch in Finnish Lapland.
Original keywords: visakoivu; Lappi; puunkasvatus

The aim of the present study was to register the curly birch (Betula pendula f. carelica Sok.) plantations established in Lapland and to determine their location and present condition. The information was obtained by means of interviews and visual observations.

In Lapland, the growing of curly birch started in 1950’s and the early 1960’s. During this period, in the different supervisory areas of Lapland, the National Board of Forestry established curly birch stands totalling approximately 30 ha, including about 34,000 seedlings. The bulk of the plantations have been destroyed by animals. On the other hand, the curly birch experimental stands established by the Finnish Forest Research Institute have thrived. The private sector of Forest Management has been engaged in the production of seedlings on a large scale and, as a result of this, curly birch trees are frequently seen as ornamentals in Rovaniemi and in other localities in Lapland. When taken care of, curly birch thrives in Lapland and produces I-class curly wood.

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  • Etholén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5008, category Article
Jyrki Raulo, Gustaf Sirén. (1978). Neljän visakoivikon päätehakkuun tuotos ja tuotto. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 4 article id 5008. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14862
English title: Yield in volume and money of final cutting in four curly birch stands.
Original keywords: visakoivu; tuotos; laatu

Curly birch (Betula pendula f. carelica Sok.) is characterized by large variations in stem form and the internal structure of the wood, and is generally divided in to four types on the basis of visible external stem characteristics. First plantation experiments in Finland in the 1920’s in experimental areas of the Finnish Forest Institute, had become ripe for cutting and were felled. The study material of this study consists of one 52-year old and three 42–43 -year old stands of curly birch.

The yield suitable for plywood manufacture from the oldest stand was 34,777 kg/ha and that of curly grained branch wood 39,452 kg/ha. The corresponding figures of the other stands were, on average 24,219 and 57,271 kg/ha. The yield from the stands were sold at the present-day price. The result was economically better than from any other forest tree species grown in Finland. The younger stands were obviously cut too early. It was concluded that the genetic quality of the seedlings used in the plantations in the 1920’s and 1930’s was not very high.

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  • Raulo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sirén, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5007, category Article
Olavi Huuri. (1978). Visaseura. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 4 article id 5007. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14861
English title: Curly Birch Society.
Original keywords: Visaseura; visakoivu; järjestöt

Curly birch, a curly grained variety of birch (Betula pendula f. carelica Sok.), has fetched a higher price than any other Finnish tree species on account of its rarity and decorativeness. Curly graininess has been found in Finland in addition to silver birch, also in Alnus glutinosa and Sorbus aucuparia.

The Curly Birch Society was founded in Finland in 1956. Its purpose is to promote the cultivation and use of curly birch, and to coordinate the activities of curly birch cultivators, forest industry and research. The society has made excursions and held informative meetings every year. Furthermore, the society has arranged exhibitions and participated in more extensive agricultural and forestry fairs.

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  • Huuri, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4984, category Article
Jyrki Raulo. (1978). Forestation chain for birch (Betula pendula Roth) in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 12 no. 1 article id 4984. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14838

During the 1970’s an average of 4 million Betula pendula (Roth) seedlings have been planted annually in Finland. The activities connected with the planting of this tree species, the selection of forestation sites, site preparation, planting out the seedlings and follow-up work on the forestation sites are briefly reviewed in the article. The manuscript is based on the studies into the breeding, seedling production and planting techniques of B. pendula started by the Finnish Forest Research Institute already in 1960’s, as well as on practical observations made at the planting sites. A list of some of the Finnish studies concerning B. pendula which have been published in English and studies with a summary in English is included.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Raulo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4970, category Article
Markku Mäkelä. (1977). Metsähakkeen tiheyden laskeminen. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 2 article id 4970. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14821
English title: Calculating the basic density of whole tree- and logging residue chips.

A method is presented in this study for calculating the basic density of whole tree- and logging residue chips and the results of trial measurements on some commonly used chip sorts. The basic density of Scots pine whole tree chips was found to be 1–18 kg/m3 smaller than that of pine pulpwood of the same age. The basic density of Norway spruce whole tree chips was 4–22 kg/m3 greater than that of similar aged pulpwood. The basic density of birch whole tree chips was 4–16 kg/m3 and grey alder whole tree chips 7–24 kg/m3 greater than pulpwood of the same age. The basic density of conifer logging residue chips was considerably greater than that of pine and spruce whole tree ships.

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  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4962, category Article
Matti Keltikangas, Kustaa Seppälä. (1977). Ojitusalueiden hieskoivikoiden kasvatus taloudellisena vaihtoehtona. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 1 article id 4962. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14813
English title: The economics of growing downy birch stands on drained peatlands in Finland.

The aim of this study was to determine under what conditions and with what premises the growing of Betula pubescens Ehrh. is an economically competitive alternative to the growing of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in drained peatlands. The basic material consisted of all drainage projects in Ostrobothnia in Western Finland in 1937–38 and 1957–59, according to the archives of the Central Board of Forestry Tapio, including such areas that were at least moderately fertile and had birch dominated young stands or no tree cover. A total of 202 sample plots were measured.

According to the results, the discounted timber yield of the thinned B. pubescens stands is about 10% greater than that of untreated stands. The removing of birch seedlings and the subsequent growing of fully stocked Scots pine is more profitable than growing B. pubescens stands only if the establishment and subsequent development of the pine stand involve no costs. If the site in question is a fertile open drained peatland, establishment of a pine stand is obviously a better financial proposition than a naturally regenerated birch stand. However, if there is already a fully stocked young birch stand on the site, it is more economical to let it grow using a shortish rotation time.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4948, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1976). Puun ja kuoren tiheys ja kosteus sekä kuoren osuus koivun, kuusen ja männyn oksissa. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 3 article id 4948. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14794
English title: Density and moisture content of wood and bark, and bark percentage in the branches of birch, Norway spruce and Scots pine.

In the study the proportion of branch samples of various diameter were studied. The branches were taken from small trees to be harvested by total tree chipping method. The material consisted of 1,056 branch samples of birch (Betula verrucosa, now B. pendula Roth, and Betula pubescens Erhr.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at intervals of 20 cm along each branch.

With exception of the basic density of bark, there was a relation between all the other properties which were studied and the diameter. Even when the effect of diameter was eliminated, in many cases the effect of the distance of the samples from the stem became apparent.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4924, category Article
Teklé Kapustinskaité. (1975). Puuston kasvu ja turpeen tuhkapitoisuus ojitetuilla soilla. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4924. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14766
English title: Ash content of peatland soils and stand growth in connection with drainage.

The ash content has been found to correlate with the fertility of peatlands. Relationship between height of 80-year-old stands and ash content of peat in topmost 30 cm layer was examined in Lithuanian conditions. On drained peatlands with ash content of peat from 3% to 8% pine stands increase in height. Ash content of peat being about 7% Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands on drained sites are found to be of equal height. Ash content of peat more than 8–9% has no significant effect on growth of pine or spruce stands. Birch (Betula verrucosa (B. Pendula Roth.) and Betula pubescens Erhrh.), stands are less sensitive to ash content of peat compared with other species. Black alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn.) stands occurred in sites with ash content of peat more than 8–10%. The height of the stands become equal both in drained and undrained sites in the cases where ash content of peat is about 16–18%. Ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.) stands attain high productivity on drained sites with ash content of peat about 20%.

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  • Kapustinskaité, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4922, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1975). Koivu- ja haapatukkien poikkipinta-alan mittaaminen. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4922. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14764
English title: Measurement of the cross-sectional area of birch and aspen logs.

The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which the cross section of birch (Betula sp.) and aspen (Populus tremula L.) logs differ from a circle and to test some simple methods for measuring the cross-sectional area which can be used, for instance, for determining the volume of the logs. The material consisted of 420 debarked birch disks and 240 aspen disks which were representative of the logs arriving at two factories.

The convex deficit values for the material were very small, the cross-sectional area error being in general less than 1%. On the other hand, the other parameters deviated from the circular form to quite a large degree. It was also evident that the radii measured from the piths to the surface of the wood varied considerably more in the same disk, as regards length, than the diameters measured in different directions.

It was evident that the shape of the average cross-sectional area was not in general elliptical. It thus appears that any method for measuring the cross-sectional area which is based on elliptical formula is not suitable. The method which gave the best result was that in which the cross-sectional area was taken as the average of the area of the circle calculated from the smallest diameter and that calculated from the diameter passing at right angles to it. This method also appeared to be the best for disks which deviated to quite a large degree from the circular form. The suitability of this method is increased by the fact that the relative error is only slightly dependent on the size of the disk.

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  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4784, category Article
Matti Leikola, Pentti Pylkkö. (1969). Verhopuuston tiheyden vaikutus metsikön minimilämpötiloihin hallaöinä. Silva Fennica vol. 3 no. 1 article id 4784. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14570
English title: Influence of stand density on the minimum temperatures during frost nights.

The objective of this investigation was to study the influence of stand density of white birch (Betula pubescens Ehrl.) on the minimum temperatures in the stand during the growing season, and the actual minimum temperatures of the leading shoot of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seedlings growing in the open. The 40-year-old uniform white birch stand was situated in 142 m above the sea level in Southern Finland. The stand was treated with thinnings of three different densities in 1961.

Air temperature was recorded in four sample plots at heights of 0.1 m, 0.5 m, 1.0 m, 2 m and 4 m. In the stand of moderate density, temperatures were measured at heights of 6.0 m, and in the stand of full density at 6.0 m, 8.0 m and 10.0 m.

The temperature differences between stands of various densities proved to be rather small. Especially the thinnest stand differed very little from the open area. The soil surface has in all cases been warm compared with the higher air layers indicating meadow-fog-type by Geier (1965). On cloudy or windy weather all the temperature profiles in the various stands resembled each other. The difference between the air temperature and temperature of the spruce shoot was greatest at midnight and decreased steadily thereafter.

The problem in using shelter stands for spruce regeneration areas is that optimum shelter stand density is difficult to define. Already a thin shelter stand causes drawbacks to the young seedlings, but in order to be effective enough against early frosts, the shelter stand should be comparatively dense.

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  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pylkkö, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7579, category Article
Pekka Kilkki, Markku Siitonen. (1975). Metsikön puuston simulointimenetelmä ja simuloituun aineistoon perustuvien puustotunnusmallien laskenta. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 145 article id 7579. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7579
English title: Simulation of artificial stands and derivation of growing stock models from this material.

The purpose of this study was that of providing a long-term timber production model (Kilkki and Pökkälä 1975) with growing stock models. The paper is divided into two parts; the first is concerned with generation of the stand data through Monte-Carlo simulation. The growing stock of each stand was described by a DBH-height distribution. The necessary information on the relationships between the stand characteristics was derived from sample plots measured in the national forest inventory of Finland. A total of 1,500 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst), and birch (Betula sp.) stands, each comprising 100 trees were provided by simulation.

In the second part, models predicting the form factor, timber assortment distribution, and value of the growing stock were derived through regression analysis for each species of tree. The predicting variables included the form factor of the basal area median tree, basal area median diameter, and height in the form factor models. In the timber assortment and value models, the only predicting variable was the volume of the basal area median tree. The Matchcurve-technique (Jensen 1973) was employed in derivation of the regression models.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kilkki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Siitonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4701, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1960). Tutkimuksia koivuhalkojen painosta ja kosteudesta. Silva Fennica no. 108 article id 4701. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9136
English title: Studies on the weight and moisture of split birch fuel wood.

The purpose of this investigation is to examine the weight and moisture of split birch fuel wood and to calculate its heat values. The weight was measured of 255 truck loads in six different locations during the winter 1959–1960. Moisture analysis was made of sample specimens collected from the loads.

The dry matter weight of the birch fuel wood was in an average 333 kg/m3 piled measure. The lowest measured weight was 319 and the highest 341 kg/m3 piled measure. The moisture content in the different parts of the pile varies distinctly. Driest wood is found in the middle of the pile. Wood in the top and bottom of the pile have about similar moisture content.

The manner of storage influences the drying process. The moisture content of open piles is 20.5%, of paper-covered piles 19.9% and roofed multiple-piles of split fuel wood 19.3%. The 2-year-old piles were dryer than 1-year-old ones. Higher percentages (25% and 20 %, respectively) than those measured in the study, are recommended for practical use. The heat value of the wood stored in a pile was in average 1,435 Mcal/m3 piled measure, and 1,455 Mcal/m3 piled measure sampled from a truck load.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7610, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1969). The influence of environmental factors on the diameter growth of forest trees : Auxanometric study. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 92 article id 7610. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7610

The influence of various environmental factors on the diameter growth of trees has been studied based on data collected by following daily increment of trees and various environmental factors during the growing season in 1964–1967. The field work was carried out in two experimental stands, a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand and a mixed stands growing birch (Betula sp.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine, in Southern Finland.

The results show that the temperature sums preceding the beginning of diameter growth were of the same magnitude in the years studied, which indicates dependence in the relationship. Formation of new xylem cells took place in the pine stem ca. every third day when the diameter growth was most active. No summer growth inhibition was detected in diameter growth.

None of the cumulative temperature sums tried determined the time of cessation of diameter growth. In several cases, positive correlation was found between the length of the growing season and the width of the annual ring formed. When studying the relationships between the diameter increment and the environmental factors, it was found that diameter increment was totally masked in the records by the hydrostatic changes in the stem. Relationships between the diameter increment and the environmental factors of the second day preceding growth were found to be poor. In studying the deviations of the recorded daily increments from the regression surface, no clear general trend was seen for pine and spruce, but clear diminishing trend toward the end og the growing season could be seen for birch in 1967.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4732, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1966). Sateen jakaantuminen erilaisissa metsiköissä. Silva Fennica no. 119 article id 4732. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14290
English title: Distribution of rainfall in different types of forest stands.

Stand precipitation and stemflow studies became necessary in connection with hydrologic studies, for instance, to explain the deviations resulting from rains in the ratios between the water content of peat and the groundwater level, throughfall during rains of variable heaviness, and effect of stand treatment on soil moisture level. In this project the distribution of rainfall in stands differing in species composition and density was studied in Central Finland in 1963–1965 in fifteen stand precipitation sample plots. In addition, rain gauges were situated under individual Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and birch (Betula sp.) trees.

The average precipitation in the open was 4.8 mm, the corresponding precipitation in the stand was 77% for birch, 71% for pine and 62% for spruce. Measurements of stemflow from individual sample trees showed that less than ¼ mm (about 1.5%) during a 15 mm rain in a pine stand. In the spruce stands stemflow is negligible. A part of the sample plots was in drained peatlands with a dense vegetation of small shrubs. The shrub layer retention was about 10% even during heavy rain. In a small forest clearing, the bordering effect of the forest was seen up to the distance of 5 metres from the edge of the forest. During the period of study, on an average 3% more precipitation was recorded in the clearing than in the open, the difference being probably due to the stronger wind effect in the open.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4730, category Article
Erkki Lähde. (1966). Kokeita selluloosan hajaantumisnopeudesta erilaisissa metsiköissä. Silva Fennica no. 119 article id 4730. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14288
English title: Experiments on the decomposition rate of cellulose in different stands.

The aim of this project was to investigate the cellulose decomposition rate in the soil on the ecological conditions created by different tree species, particularly birch (Betula sp.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Therefore, comparable sample plots were established in adjoining birch and spruce stands. Data on the stands, the vegetation, and the soil in the sample plots were collected. The experiment was carried out in the Ruotsinkylä Experimental Forest near Helsinki in Southern Finland.

Five pieces (3x5x0.15 cm) of cellulose (bleached sulphite pulp) were dried, weighed, and fastened in a row into a nylon bag. The bags were placed into the soil at a slant so that the upmost piece of cellulose was in the depth of 0–1.5 cm and the bottom one 6–7.5 cm. The weight losses of the pieces were measured after periods ranging from 6 to 12 months.

The results show that even within the same forest type, decomposition is much more rapid in birch stands than in spruce stands. In all the stands the decomposition rate decreased rapidly with increasing depth. The difference between birch and spruce stand, as well as the decrease with increasing depth, was probably mainly due to different thermal conditions.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lähde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4726, category Article
H. Lyr, G. Hoffmann. (1965). Untersuchungen über das Wurzel- und Sprosswachstum einiger Gehölze. Silva Fennica no. 117 article id 4726. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14284
English title: Studies on growth of roots and shoots of certain tree species.
Original keywords: Wachstum; Baumarten; Versuche; Kiefer; Birke; Lärche

Understanding the growth of trees is the prerequisite for meaningful forest management. Hence the studies on the ways the trees grow is important. The growth of roots and sprouts was studied by Larix leptolesis, Pinus silvestris, Betula pendula, Robinia pseudoacasia, Populus euramericana, Pseudotsuga taxifolia, Quercus borealis and some other species. The results of still ongoing experiments on pine, birch and larch are presented for root and shoot growth.

The results indicate that the amount of light or shade the tree is having plays an important role in the growth. Hence some tree species are better adapted to shade than others, there are differences in their growth depending whether they are in light or in shade. 

  • Lyr, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hoffmann, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4652, category Article
Kullervo Kuusela. (1956). Hakkuilla käsiteltyjen koivikoiden rakenteesta ja kasvusta. Silva Fennica no. 90 article id 4652. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9115
English title: On the structure and growth of birch stands treated with cutting.

The study is continuation of the earlier structure and growth studies of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) in Forest Research Institute. The material represents birch stands (Betula verrucosa, now B. pendula, and B. Pubescens L.) in Southern Finland. The stands were treated with different fellings, and in regard to their silvicultural condition classified as good, satisfactory and unsatisfactory. Height of the trees, height of living crown, volume, increment and volume increment and development of stem diameter series was measured.

The most characteristic difference between the silviculturally good and poor stands was that the the annual increment of the good stands concentrated into large size trees, and the increment of unsatisfactory stands into small and inferior trees.

It is concluded that if the aim of stand treatment is to produce large and high quality volume increment, the most favourable stand volume of  birch stands, compared with naturally normal stand volume, seems to be 90-85% at the age of 41-55 years, and 80-70% at the age of 56-65 years. If growth of large size trees is aimed at, the maximum number of the dominant trees per hectares cannot be more than 400 at the age of 50-60 years.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4579, category Article
Reino Kalliola. (1942). Pyhätunturin kansallispuiston kasvillisuudesta ja kasvistosta. Silva Fennica no. 59 article id 4579. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9083
English title: Vegetation and flora in the Pyhätunturi National Park.

The article is based on the writer’s visits in the area in 1933 and 1939. Pyhätunturi national park was established in 1938. The fell of Pyhätunturi rises up to 540 meters above the sea level, and 357 meters above the surrounding area. The soil is predominantly stony, and the rock is quartzite. The climate is continental with low rainfall. This results in a barren area, where array of plant species is limited with the exception of few gorges with fertile river valleys. The forests have remained mostly in natural state.

Vegetation is arranged in three zones: forested area, subalpine fell birch area and alpine bare top of the fell. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forms timberline more often than Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Coniferous forests rise up to 365 meters on the northern slopes and up to about 385 on the southern slopes of the fell. It is followed by fell birch zone (Betula tortuosa, now Betula pubescens subsp. Czerepanovii) up to about 450-475 meters on the eastern and northern slopes, and 475-490 meters on the western slopes. The most common forest site type is Empetrum-Myrtillus site type. Herb-rich spruce swamps along the rivers have highest diversity of species. The article describes the plant species found in forests, peatlands, fell birch zone and top of the fell in detail. In all 162 different vascular plant species and 16 non-indigenous species were found in the area.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Kalliola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4569, category Article
Martti Tertti. (1939). Näkökohtia kuusimetsän hoidosta. Silva Fennica no. 52 article id 4569. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13976
English title: Forest management of Norway spruce forests.

Silva Fennica issue 52 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1938. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.

This presentation describes different types of fellings in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) forests in different forest site types. The use of thinning from below and above, clear cutting of Norway spruce stands, and thinning of mixed forests with birch (Betula sp.) are discussed.

  • Tertti, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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