Current issue: 54(5)
Under compilation: 55(1)
The objective of the present investigation was to clarify the profitability of pruning silver birch (Betula verrucosa, now Betula pendula Roth) in the growing of raw material for veneer industry. Calculations were made on the grade, value, and price of pruned and untreated butt logs as well as on costs of pruning and the development of pruned trees.
The grade distribution of unpruned veneer butt logs, the grade distribution of the veneer yield, and consequently, the value of veneer yield and log prices at the plant are considerably better than those of average logs. The grade, value and price increased with increasing diameter. The value and price of pruned butt logs depended primarily on the difference between the turning pruning diameters, and their increase with decreasing pruning diameter and increasing turning diameter. The value of pruned butt logs is always considerably higher than that of unpruned logs. The increase in the value correlates to the pruning and turning diameters, and is, for example, in rotary-cut logs which have been pruned when 10 cm in diameter 80–130%.
Pruning increases the stumpage in naturally regenerated silver birch stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus site by 2,000–3,000 Fmk/ha when employed at 20 years of stand age and rotary cutting at 60–80 years of age respectively. The average pruning costs on Oxalis-Myrtillus site are 51–57 Fmk/ha.
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The objective of this paper was to study the influence of defects of Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh. on the quality, value and quantity of veneer cut produced by rotary cutting, to prepare grading rules for veneer birch and to determine the minimum quality for veneer birch, and to assess the quality and quantity of veneer yield in rotary cutting of bolts of different grades. Data for the study was collected in 1953-1963 from six plywood factories in Finland.
The effect of knot marks, knot bumps, dry and rotten knots, sound knots, sweep and crookedness, upright limbs, heart rot, open and overgrown scars and bark peeling defects in the bolt on the quality and yield of veneer is described. Recommendations for grading rules were defined on the basis of the result. The rules include three grades, for which certain defects are allowed. In the first grade are accepted bolts, which of the veneer yield included at least 30% of veneer of grades A and B when all jointing and end-clipped sheets were taken into account. In the second grade were accepted bolts, which of the main part of the veneer yield still is surface veneer on the basis of the wood quality. Of the third-grade bolts at least one third of the veneer yield ought to be surface veneer.
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The objective of the present investigation was to clarify the influence of raw material on the quantity, and especially quality of rotary cut birch veneer by running cutting tests with constant tool setting under factory conditions and with bolts of normal size. The quality of the veneer was mainly examined in laboratory.
The result showed that with an increase in bolt size the yield increases and reaches the maximal value in the diameter range of 251–275 mm and 226–250 mm for 60-inch and 50-inch bolt, respectively. With a decrease in bolt length the yield becomes higher. With the increase in the bolt size the quality of the veneer improves.
Defects in the shape of the bolt, such as crookedness, taper and oval form, decrease the yield. The good quality of the bolts affects most the yield of full-size sheets. Increase of knottiness decreases the yield by 4–5%. Lowering of the bolt temperature below 0 °C causes a sharp decline in the yield. Moisture content of the wood did not markedly affect the yield, but it improved the quality of the veneer. The minimum moisture content was 75%.
For the technical quality of the veneer, bolt temperature was the most decisive raw material factor. Also shape defects, of which crookedness was most serious, decreased the technical quality. Increase in summerwood percentage improved the quality.
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A model was developed in order to describe the peeling of veneer for determining value relationship for birch veneer logs and stems. The model was based on selling prices of veneer and other products as well as processing costs. The model was utilized for determining the effect of various input variables on the log value.
According to the results, the effect of tree size was important for the value of raw material. Even knottiness had an effect although only in the higher manufacturing costs of knotty veneer were taken into account. Pruning was a method to increase substantially the proportion of knotless veneer.
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