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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'branchiness'.

Category: Article

article id 7164, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1965). Puiden paksuuden ja nuoruuden kehityksen sekä oksaisuuden ja sahapuulaadun välisistä suhteista männiköissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 80 no. 2 article id 7164. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7164
English title: Relation between the development of the early age and thickness of trees and their branchiness in Scots pine stands in Finland.

The objective of the study was to establish the influence of the founding density of a stand and the intensity of intermediate cutting on the quality of pine saw logs stems, primarily on their branchiness. Measurements were carried out in 68 Myrtillus-type and 32 Vaccinium-type Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands. The quality of 1,982 sample trees was assessed.

According to the results, the branchless part of the stem is longest in the older age classes of trees. In all age classes the percentage of the branchless part is highest in medium sized stems. The relative height of the crown limit is greatest in small diameter classes and continues as the thickness of the tree increases. The crown is longer in the thicker tree. The grade of the butt log is on average highest in medium sized stems. Knottiness of a log made it unsuitable for a saw log only among the thickest stems. The relative share of the u/s grade decreased as the thickness of the trees increased.

From the point of view of early development of the trees it was concluded that in all age classes the branchless part is the shorter the faster the tree has grown in diameter when it was young. Also, branches of the butt log are the bigger the faster the tree has developed when it was young. The grade of the butt log improves as the thickness of the annual rings diminishes.

To produce good quality sawn timber, the pine stands should be established dense, and the first thinnings should be delayed as much as possible. The best time for the thinning would be when the diameter of the dominant trees at stump height is 12–15 cm and when all the branches have died on the length of the butt log. After the first thinning, comparatively intense intermediate thinning may be applied.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7317, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1935). Tutkimuksia metsikön ja kasvupaikan vaikutuksesta kuusen rungon kelpoisuuteen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 41 no. 4 article id 7317. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7317
English title: Studies on the influence of stand and forest site type on the quality of Norway spruce stem.

Healthy, straight, more or less free from branches and slowly tapering stems are good raw material for woodworking industry. The aim of the study was to investigate, from the stand point of forest management, the influence of stand and forest site type on the technical quality of the stems. Sample plots were measured in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands in Eastern Finland. Norway spruce growing in a stand with closed crowns developed thin branches and self-pruned, if the stand was dense in the early stages. The decisive time for the stand is, therefore, when it is at seedling stage and young stand. The stems are more branchy if the stand has been planted. The adequate planting density is discussed based on earlier studies. The sufficient density seems to be achieved when the spacing is at maximum two meters. When the stems are branchless up to four meters, thinning of spruce stand does not affect knottiness or stem form. A sparsely stocked, knotty young stand does not produce good-quality timber even if the stand is later dense. Selective thinning from above can be used to improve the quality of the wood.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5207, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1984). Havaintoja puuston kasvatustiheyden vaikutuksesta mäntyjen oksikkuuteen. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 2 article id 5207. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15386
English title: Observations on the influence of stand density on branchiness of young Scots pines.

The study based on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) of varying density showed that number of living branches per whorl and total number of living branches per tree were negatively correlated with stand density. On the contrary, the number of dead branches increased with increasing stand density. The diameter of living and dead branches decreased with increasing stand density. Consequently, the branchiness, i.e. the share of the branch cross-sectional area from the surface area of the stem, decreased in dense stands compared with the thin stands. At the densest stands the branchiness, however, levelled of indicating a greater decrease of the radial growth at stems than at branches. The 2/3 power law described relatively well the relationship between stand density and mean squared branch diameter of living branches.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4864, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1972). Havaintoja kuusen oksaisuudesta. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 4864. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14667
English title: Observations on the branchiness of Norway spruce.

The material comprised 12 Norway spruces (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) from Central Finland, with 2,118 branches. The exact location of the branches on the stems, their diameter at the thick end, their length, and the green weight of all the branches was measured on two-metre lengths of the stem.

According to the results, the diameter of a branch can be estimated very accurately from its length. The variation of branch diameter along the stem was also very regular, although there were considerable differences from one tree to another. The greatest work requirement for trimming was in the middle and upper parts of the green crown. Branch variables per tree, such as the number and cross-section area o the branches, could be satisfactorily estimated from the volume or breast-height diameter of the stem.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4856, category Article
Pekka Rautiainen. (1971). Ympäristö- ja perintötekijöiden vaikutus männyn ilmiasuun Pohjois-Karjalan piirimetsälautakunnan siemenviljelyksessä Tohmajärvellä. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 4 article id 4856. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14658
English title: The effect of environmental and genetical factors on the phenotype of Scots pine in a seed orchard in North Karelia.

The study material included 600 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grafts from the Tohmajärvi seed orchard in Eastern Finland. Their broad sense heritability for the height growth was 0.92, for the number of branches 0.87 and for the angle of branching 0.84. Grafts from Central Finland had cones more often than the southern ones, the frequencies being 26.3% and 11.2%. It seems that dominance plays a significant role in the genetical variation of this seed orchard and that height growth is probably more rewarding breeding characteristic than quality, the difference being small, however.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Rautiainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4823, category Article
Christel Palmberg. (1970). Heritabiliteetin arvioiminen eräässä männyn (Pinus silvestris L.) jälkeläiskokeessa. Silva Fennica vol. 4 no. 3 article id 4823. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14612
English title: Estimation of heritability in open-pollinated plus tree progenies of Pinus sylvestris L.

Field experiments of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was established by planting seedlings grown from seeds collected from open-pollinated plus trees throughout the country. The 36 progenies represented were planted in 4 blocks as 2+2 transplants in 1960. The main characteristics of the seedlings were measured in 1966 and 1968. Considerable damage had been caused to the stands by moose (Alces alces) and Melampsora pinitorqua Rostr., consequently, therefore, only normally developed seedlings were measured.

Highly significant differences between progenies were found in the number of branches in 1968 and in the ratio of height of tree to the length of the longest branch. In 1968, the differences in height between progenies were not significant, but there were significant differences between blocks both in tree height and length of terminal shoot. Obviously, the edaphic heterogeneity of the site has influenced mainly the juvenile growth of the plants, because in the length of the terminal shoot there could be seen also significant differences between the progenies. There were no significant differences between the progenies in the length of the longest branch, in the angles of the thickest branches, in stem taper and in the diameter of the thickest branch.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Palmberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4516, category Article
M. Lappi-Seppälä. (1937). Karsimisesta arvopuun kasvatusta silmällä pitäen. Silva Fennica no. 42 article id 4516. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14094
English title: Pruning as a means to produce quality timber.

 

 

  • Lappi-Seppälä, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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