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Articles containing the keyword 'buds'.

Category: Article

article id 5536, category Article
Roar Skuterud, Jon Dietrichson. (1994). Budburst in detached birch shoots (Betula pendula) of different varieties winter-stored in darkness at three different temperatures. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 4 article id 5536. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9176

Budburst timing and the relationship to storage temperature and duration were investigated in four varieties (entries) of 1–2 metres tall silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) trees. A total of 2,160 shoots were sampled, and the material stores in darkness at 0, 3 or 6 °C from November 29, 1993. When the shoots were placed in storage, they had been through a period of 29 days with temperatures below 0°C (since October 15). By that time the autumn dormancy was assumed already broken, and the trees were expected to respond to increased temperature by bud development. On January 4, 1994, and on four subsequent dates, January 19, February 1, March 4 and March 17, shoots were taken out of storage and set in growth chambers at 9, 12 or 15°C. The time to budburst was recorded.

Duration of storage, storage temperatures and varieties were all highly significant for budburst. The interaction terms were of less statistical importance. Based on the contrast between the three different growth chamber environments, three different methods were used to calculate the threshold temperatures for each entry. In spite of the pre-selection of variable budburst performers, the threshold values, varying between 0°C to -2°C, could not be shown to be statistically different. According to the results, the time of budburst changes in accordance with both winter and spring temperatures, being extremely early after a mild winter and warm spring, given sufficient autumn chilling. The similarities in the threshold temperatures indicate that the ranking in earliness between varieties will most likely be the same from year to year without regard to climate change.

  • Skuterud, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Dietrichson, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5452, category Article
Riitta Höyhtyä, Heikki Hänninen. (1991). Effect of photon flux density on bud dormancy release in Norway spruce seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 25 no. 3 article id 5452. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15610

The effect of photon flux density on bud dormancy release in two-year-old seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) was examined. The seedlings were first chilled for 0–21 weeks under natural conditions and then forced in a warm greenhouse either in low (15 μEm-2s-1) or in high (300 μEm-2s-1) photon flux density. Occurrence of bud burst was observed in the forcing conditions, and the observations were used for estimating the cumulative frequency distribution of the chilling requirement for growth competence. The estimated distribution had greater variance in the low photon flux density than in the high photon flux density forcing. This finding suggests that unnaturally low photon flux densities during forcing may yield overestimates of the genetic within-population variation in the chilling requirement for growth competence.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Höyhtyä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hänninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5356, category Article
Pekka Lähdesmäki, Pekka Pietiläinen. (1988). Seasonal variation in the nitrogen metabolism of young Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5356. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15513

Seasonal changed in total nitrogen, protein, amino acid, ammonia, nitrate and nitrite concentrations, and nitrate reductase and γ-glutamyltransferase activities in the needles, buds and shoots of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied. A relationship between the variation in the nitrogen metabolism and both winter dormancy and its breaking was proposed. Pine tissues stored soluble nitrogen over the winter largely in the form of arginine which, in addition to a high nitrogen content, can neutralize acidic cytoplasmic constituents such as nitrates and nitrites. Specific nitrate reductase and γ-glutamyltransferase activities were highest in late summer or autumn, and is apparently connected to the mobilization of nitrogen reserves for the winter.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Lähdesmäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pietiläinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4904, category Article
Sirkka Kupila-Ahvenniemi, Sirkka Hankonen, Seppo Sivonen. (1974). Kokeita röntgenmikroanalyysimenetelmän käyttökelpoisuudesta eräiden alkuaineiden määrityksessä männyn silmuissa. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4904. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14748
English title: Experiments on the determination of certain elements in the buds of Scots pine by means of the electron probe x-ray microanalysis.

An electron probe X-ray microanalyser was used to study the occurrence of phosphorus, sulphur and calcium in the bud apices of dormant Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The material was collected during the winter months (November–February), fixed in Carnoy’s fluid, dehydrated, and mounted in paraffin wax. Of the 10 μm longitudinal section, the ones containing the middle portion of the apices were glued to the specimen supports and vacuum coated with aluminium. Three parallel line analysis were run over the corpus and the uppermost portion of the pith. Results obtained so far suggest that no marked changes occur in the position and level of the three elements during the study period.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kupila-Ahvenniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hankonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sivonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4778, category Article
Kari Löyttyniemi. (1968). Teeri (Lyrurus tetrix L.) männyn taimien tuholaisena taimitarhassa. Silva Fennica vol. 2 no. 4 article id 4778. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14563
English title: Feeding of terminal shoots of Scots pine seedlings by the black grouse (Lyrurus tetrix) in nursery.
Original keywords: taimitarha; taimituhot; mänty; versot; teeri

In early spring 1968 it was noticed that the black grouses (Lyrurus tetris L.) was eating terminal shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in a tree nursery in Luumäki, Southern Finland. The terminal shoots were picked 1–4 cm from the top of the seedlings. In total some thousands of two-year-old seedlings were damaged. The depth of the snow was 10–15 cm deep and only the tops of the seedlings could be seen above the surface of the snow.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Löyttyniemi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4727, category Article
Erkki Pulliainen, Kalervo Salonen. (1965). Orava männyn siemen- ja silmutuholaisena. Silva Fennica no. 117 article id 4727. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14285
English title: Damage caused by squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) to pine-buds.
Original keywords: taimituhot; orava; silmut; kasvutappiot; mänty

When the seed harvest of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) are low, pine and spruce buds are among the secondary food items of squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris L.) in Finland. In this study, conducted in Nokia in Southern Finland in 1962-1963, eating of pine buds by squirrel is described. The eaten buds in 15-years old Scots pine seedlings were recorded in two seedling stands.

According to the results, the squirrels selected the largest buds of the best seedlings in the studied stands. In over 50% of the cases the squirrels chose only the buds of the leading shoot, especially the terminal bud. In half of the trees, a side bud of the leading shoot continued the growth, which causes form defects in the trees. In 35% of the damaged trees, a lateral branch continued the growth. Well-growing seedling stands may be especially susceptible for damages caused by, for instance, squirrels.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Pulliainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Salonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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