Current issue: 53(2)

Under compilation: 53(3)

Impact factor 1.683
5-year impact factor 1.950
Silva Fennica 1926-1997
Acta Forestalia Fennica

Articles containing the keyword 'cross-section'.

Category: Research article

article id 924, category Research article
Minna Pulkkinen. (2012). On non-circularity of tree stem cross-sections: effect of diameter selection on cross-section area estimation, Bitterlich sampling and stem volume estimation in Scots pine. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 5B article id 924.
In the common methods of forest mensuration, including stem volume models and Bitterlich sampling, stem cross-sections are assumed to be circular. In nature this assumption is never exactly fulfilled. Errors due to non-circularity have been presumed to be small and unimportant but studied little: theoretical and empirical studies exist on cross-section area estimation, but errors in stem volume estimation have not been investigated at all, and errors in Bitterlich sampling are theoretically known only for stand basal area estimation. In the theoretical part of this study, we developed methods for quantifying the systematic and sampling errors that 22 common ways of selecting diameter within non-circular cross-sections induce (i) in area estimates by the circle area formula, (ii) in stand total estimates by Bitterlich sampling, and (iii) in stem volume estimates by a volume equation, by a cubic-spline-interpolated stem curve, and by a generalised volume estimator. In the empirical part, based on the digital images of 709 discs taken at 6–10 heights in 81 Scots pine stems from different parts of Finland, we investigated the variation in cross-section shape, and demonstrated the magnitude of the errors presented in the theoretical part. We found that non-circularity causes systematic overestimation of area and volume, and inflicts potentially systematic error on stand total estimates by Bitterlich sampling. In our data these effects were small, but the finding is not generalisable due the skewed size distribution and poor geographical representativeness of the data. We recommend using diameter derived from girth for both tree and stand level estimation, as it involves no sampling error and produces clearly the most stable systematic errors.
  • Pulkkinen, ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
article id 511, category Research article
Luis Diego Pérez Cordero, Markku Kanninen. (2003). Heartwood, sapwood and bark content, and wood dry density of young and mature teak (Tectona grandis) trees grown in Costa Rica. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 1 article id 511.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the heartwood, sapwood and bark content, and wood dry density in young and mature teak (Tectona grandis) trees. For this, 17 plantations were selected from 11 sites representing different climatic conditions and plantation densities (156 to 1600 trees ha–1, and line planting). From these plantations, a total of 87 trees with ages between 5 and 47 years were felled for stem analysis. The highest heartwood proportion of stem volume (over bark) was 61% and the lowest 0.4%. The sapwood proportion ranged between 24 and 72%, while bark represented from 14 to 37% of the total volume. Heartwood proportion was significantly different (P < 0.05) among climatic zones: ‘wet’ sites producing less heartwood than ‘dry’ sites. Stem diameter (under bark) and heartwood diameter at different stem heights differed among sample trees, even when plotted in relative values to avoid dependency with stem size. Dry density was statistically different between 8-year-old trees or younger and 47-year-old trees, and between line planting trees and 13-year-old trees or younger, but did not differ statistically between line planting trees and mature trees. No significant differences were found between climatic zones or between different stand densities. Dry density values for T. grandis plantations in Costa Rica are similar to those reported elsewhere.
  • Pérez Cordero, Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), Turrialba, Costa Rica ORCID ID:E-mail: (email)
  • Kanninen, Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7208, category Article
T. Heikkilä. (1927). Über die Ermittelung der Querfläche eines Stammes. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 32 no. 3 article id 7208.
English title: On examining the cross-sectional area of a stem.
Original keywords: Querfläche; Formel; Stamm
English keywords: cross-sectional area; formula; stem

Because the cross-sectional area of a tree stem is ellipsis, it cannot be determined exactly with only the diameter measurement.  The article presents a formula and the calculation of the exact cross-sectional area. If the cross-sectional area is calculated as arithmetic mean of two diameter measurement, varies the error between two limit values. The error becomes smallest by calculating the area based on the biggest and the smallest diameter measurements. 

  • Heikkilä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5351, category Article
Tapani Repo. (1988). Physical and physiological aspects of impedance measurements in plants. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5351.

Electrical impedance characteristics of plant cells are dependent on such physiological factors as physiological condition, developmental stage, cell structure, nutrient status, water balance and temperature acclimation. In the measurements also such technical and physical factors as type of electrodes, frequency, geometry of the object, inter-electrode distance and temperature have an effect. These factors are discussed especially with respect to the impedance method in frost resistance studies of plants.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Repo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5274, category Article
Pertti Hari, Pirkko Heikinheimo, Leo Kaipiainen, Eeva Korpilahti, Annikki Mäkelä, Juha Samela. (1986). Trees as a water transport system. Silva Fennica vol. 20 no. 3 article id 5274.

The structure of 20 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees was analysed as a water transport system. There is a tight linear regression between the cross-sectional area of the stem at the height of its lowest living branch and the cross-sectional area of its coarse roots, between the cross-sectional area of the stem at the height of its lowest living branch and the total cross-sectional area of its branches, and between the cross-sectional area of the base of a branch and the total cross-sectional area of subsidiary branches of that branch. The capacity of successive organs, measured as cross-sectional areas, to transport water was thus found to be regular within a tree.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kaipiainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Korpilahti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mäkelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Samela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4950, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1976). Lisähavaintoja haapatukkien poikkipinta-alan mittaamisesta. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4950.
English title: Auxiliary observations on the measurement of the cross-sectional area of aspen logs.

In this study the area, 8 diameters, and 16 radii were measured of 174 discs representing aspen logs in a mill. The average difference between the largest and smallest diameter was 18 mm, or 7% of the longest diameter. The difference between the largest and smallest radius was 29 mm, or 22% of the longest radius. The diameter was on the average 2.4 mm longer than the two corresponding radii.

The exact area of each disc was measured using a planimeter. In comparison, the area based on the circle formula the diameter being the arithmetic mean of largest and smallest diameters overestimated the area by 1.7%. The results also indicated that the use of random direction in the measurement of diameter overestimated the cross-sectional area on the average by 1.8%.

The study is continuation of the earlier study where the bibliography is presented. As far as the results are comparable, they support each other.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4922, category Article
Matti Kärkkäinen. (1975). Koivu- ja haapatukkien poikkipinta-alan mittaaminen. Silva Fennica vol. 9 no. 3 article id 4922.
English title: Measurement of the cross-sectional area of birch and aspen logs.

The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which the cross section of birch (Betula sp.) and aspen (Populus tremula L.) logs differ from a circle and to test some simple methods for measuring the cross-sectional area which can be used, for instance, for determining the volume of the logs. The material consisted of 420 debarked birch disks and 240 aspen disks which were representative of the logs arriving at two factories.

The convex deficit values for the material were very small, the cross-sectional area error being in general less than 1%. On the other hand, the other parameters deviated from the circular form to quite a large degree. It was also evident that the radii measured from the piths to the surface of the wood varied considerably more in the same disk, as regards length, than the diameters measured in different directions.

It was evident that the shape of the average cross-sectional area was not in general elliptical. It thus appears that any method for measuring the cross-sectional area which is based on elliptical formula is not suitable. The method which gave the best result was that in which the cross-sectional area was taken as the average of the area of the circle calculated from the smallest diameter and that calculated from the diameter passing at right angles to it. This method also appeared to be the best for disks which deviated to quite a large degree from the circular form. The suitability of this method is increased by the fact that the relative error is only slightly dependent on the size of the disk.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kärkkäinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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