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Articles containing the keyword 'deposition'.

Category: Research article

article id 207, category Research article
Mats T. Olsson, Maria Erlandsson, Lars Lundin, Torbjörn Nilsson, Åke Nilsson, Johan Stendahl. (2009). Organic carbon stocks in Swedish Podzol soils in relation to soil hydrology and other site characteristics. Silva Fennica vol. 43 no. 2 article id 207. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.207
Site characteristics influence soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. In Podzols under Swedish forest land, SOC stocks were related to latitude, altitude, soil hydrological class categorized by mean groundwater level, mean annual precipitation, temperature sum during the growing season, total annual nitrogen (N) deposition and site capacity. SOC stocks were determined for the O-horizon and for total soil (O-horizon + mineral soil to a depth of 50 cm). Data from the Swedish National Forest Soil Inventory 1993–2001 were used (1477 field plots). The O-horizon was sampled with a core sampler and carbon (C) stocks were determined. For the mineral soil layers the SOC stock was calculated based on the SOC concentrations, bulk density and content of rock fragments. The results showed that the overall mean SOC stock was 2.8 and 8.2 kg C m–2 for O-horizon and total soil, respectively. Soil hydrological class strongly affected SOC stocks, which increased from on average 6.7 kg C m–2 at dry sites to 9.7 kg C m–2 at slightly moist sites. Corresponding values for the O-horizon were 2.0 to 4.4 kg C m–2. The correlation coefficients for the linear relationship between SOC stock and site characteristics were highest for N deposition, which explained up to 25% of variation, and latitude, which explained up to 20% of variation. Altitude had the lowest degree of explanation.
  • Olsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Erlandsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lundin, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Nilsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: torbjorn.nilsson@mark.slu.se (email)
  • Nilsson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Stendahl, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 260, category Research article
Panagiotis Michopoulos, George Baloutsos, Anastassios Economou. (2008). Nitrogen cycling in a mature mountainous beech forest. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 1 article id 260. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.260
The nitrogen cycle in a mature, mountainous European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest in Greece was examined for two hydrological years, 2001–2002 and 2002–2003. Bulk deposition was 1383 mm in 2001–2002 and 2392 mm in 2002–2003. Winter temperatures were mild in the first year and low in the second year. Despite these climatological differences, the inorganic N inputs to the forest floor, by means of throughfall and stemflow, were quite similar for the two years, i.e. 12.4 and 14.6 kg ha–1 yr–1. Litterfall production was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the second year but the N amounts in litterfall did not differ. The ratio of N/P in foliar tissue did not change significantly in 2003 compared with ratio values in the last years. The N amounts used for the annual stem and branch increments are rather high preventing, in this way, some nitrogen from being recycled in the near future. The total soil N content to a depth of 80 cm amounted to more than 5000 kg ha–1, and the C/N ratio in the Oh horizon was approximately 15 but the beech forest did not appear susceptible to N leaching. The concentrations of ammonium and nitrate N in stream water did not reach high values reported in the literature, and did not differ significantly in the two hydrological years. The fluxes of inorganic N in throughfall plus stemflow were higher than those in stream water indicating N retention in soil. Another reason for N retention in the ecosystem is probably the large difference between N requirements and uptake indicating N deficiency. Despite the maturity of the beech trees, the low C/N ratio in the Oh horizon and the relatively high N content in soil, the forest can be considered to be neither saturated nor having reached a N saturation transition stage.
  • Michopoulos, Forest Research Institute of Athens, Terma Alkmanos, Athens 115 28, Greece ORCID ID:E-mail: mipa@fria.gr (email)
  • Baloutsos, Forest Research Institute of Athens, Terma Alkmanos, Athens 115 28, Greece ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Economou, Forest Research Institute of Athens, Terma Alkmanos, Athens 115 28, Greece ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 327, category Research article
Gong Zhang, Guang-ming Zeng, Yi-min Jiang, Chun-yan Du, Guo-he Huang, Jia-mei Yao, Mei Zeng, Xi-lin Zhang, Wei Tan. (2006). Seasonal dry deposition and canopy leaching of base cations in a subtropical evergreen mixed forest, China. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 327. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.327
We evaluated the dry deposition and canopy leaching fluxes of base cations in the growing and the dormant seasons using the Na-ratio method based on the 4-year (2000–2003) monitoring data in Shaoshan subtropical evergreen mixed forest, China. The dry deposition of base cations in the growing seasons was lower than that in the dormant seasons, while the canopy leaching of base cations was higher in the growing seasons than that in the dormant seasons. The precipitation quantity and H+ significantly impacted the canopy leaching processes. The annual canopy leaching of K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ accounted for 88, 46 and 38% of net throughfall flux, respectively. The canopy retention of proton (H+ and NH4+) is close to the canopy leaching of base cations calibrated by weak acids, indicating that the canopy cations leaching is neutralizing acid precipitation.
  • Zhang, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, P.R. China; Hunan Environmental Protection Bureau, Hunan Province, Changsha, 410076, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Zeng, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: zgming@hnu.cn (email)
  • Jiang, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, P.R. China; Hunan Environmental Protection Bureau, Hunan Province, Changsha, 410076, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Du, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Huang, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Yao, Xiangya Hospital, Central-south University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410008, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Zeng, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Zhang, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tan, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5578, category Article
Mika Aurela, Tuomas Laurila, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen. (1996). Measurements of O3, CO2 and H2O fluxes over a Scots pine stand in eastern Finland by the micrometeorological eddy covariance method. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5578. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9223

The eddy covariance technique is a novel micrometeorological method that enables the determination of the atmosphere-biosphere exchange rate of gases such as ozone and carbon dioxide on an ecosystem scale. This paper describes the technique and presents results from the first direct measurements of turbulent fluxes of O3, CO2 and H2O above a forest in Finland. The measurements were performed during 15 July-5 August 1994 above a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand near the Mekrijärvi research station in Eastern Finland.

The expected diurnal cycles were observed in the atmospheric fluxes of O3, CO2 and H2O. The data analysis includes interpretation of the O3 flux in terms of the dry deposition velocity and evaluation the dependency of the net CO2 flux on radiation. The eddy covariance method and the established measurement system has proved suitable for providing high-resolution data for studying ozone deposition to a forest as well as the net carbon balance and related physiological processes of an ecosystem.

  • Aurela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laurila, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tuovinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5399, category Article
Raisa Mäkipää. (1994). Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the humus layer and ground vegetation under closed canopy in boreal coniferous stands. Silva Fennica vol. 28 no. 2 article id 5399. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9164

Forest ecosystems may accumulate large amounts of nitrogen in the biomass and in the soil organic matter. However, there is increasing concern that deposition of inorganic nitrogen compounds from the atmosphere will lead to nitrogen saturation; excess nitrogen input does not increase production. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term changes caused by nitrogen input on accumulation of nitrogen in forest soils and in ground vegetation.

The fertilization experiments used in this study were established during 1958–1962. They were situated on 36- to 63-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands of different levels of fertility. The experiments received nitrogen fertilization 5–7 times over a 30-year period, and the total input of nitrogen was 596–926 kg/ha.

Nitrogen input increased the amount of organic matter in the humus layer and the nitrogen concentration in the organic matter. Furthermore, the total amount of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) bound by the humus layer increased due to the increase in the amount of organic matter. However, nitrogen input decreased the biomass of ground vegetation. The nitrogen concentration of the plant material on the nitrogen-fertilized plots was higher than on the control plots, but the amount of nutrients bound by ground vegetation decreased owing to the drastic decrease in the biomass of mosses. Ground vegetation does not have the potential to accumulate nitrogen, because vegetation is dominated by slow-growing mosses and dwarf shrubs which do not benefit from nitrogen input.

  • Mäkipää, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5481, category Article
Pekka Nygren, Pertti Hari. (1992). Effect of foliar application with acid mist on the photosynthesis of potassium-deficient Scots pine seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 26 no. 3 article id 5481. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15642

The interactive effects of potassium deficit and foliar application with acid water (pH 5.5, 4.5, 4.0 and 3.0 given consecutively) on CO2 exchange rate of Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings was investigated in field conditions. No reduction of the CO2 exchange rate was observed in the seedlings supplied with sufficient potassium. Only the seedlings having the lowest needle K concentration (2.4 mgg-1) had an apparently low CO2 exchange rate before the applications with acid water. The CO2 exchange rate of most of the seedlings with low needle K concentration (3.9–6.0 mgg-1) decreased after the acid water application. The threshold acidity for the reduction varied between pH 4,0 and 3.0 depending on the needle K concentration. The reduction was more apparent at high irradiance. It was concluded that acid precipitation disturbs the CO2 exchange only in conditions of mineral nutrient deficit.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Nygren, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5153, category Article
T. Raunemaa, R. Erkinjuntti, M. Gerlander, A. Hautojärvi, K. Kaisla, H.-S. Katainen. (1981). Multielement analysis of treated pine seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5153. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15380

A comparison study concerning the effects of acid rain on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings has been performed. Two different X-ray fluorescence methods, PIXE and IXRF, were employed to produce multielement analyses of the samples. Seedlings were treated for 3 months with watering of pH=7 or pH=3 liquids on the needles and on the roots. One year and two years old needles of the seedlings were inspected for changes in photosynthetic rate as well as for changes in elemental concentrations.

Twelve elements from Si to Zn were compared in the samples. The PIXE results show that the amounts of most of these elements in the needles of the seedlings grown in sand increase, when treated with acid water. This growth is clearer when the roots are treated with acid water. The elemental concentrations of the needles in the seedlings grown in soil on the other hand decrease slightly.

  • Raunemaa, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Erkinjuntti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Gerlander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hautojärvi, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kaisla, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Katainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5143, category Article
Ib Johnsen. (1981). Heavy metal deposition on plants in relation to immission and bulk precipitation. Silva Fennica vol. 15 no. 4 article id 5143. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15370

Monitoring of heavy metal accumulation in plants has been used to reflect the deposition of heavy metals in terrestrial ecosystems. In some cases, the accumulation rates in plants are linearly correlated to deposition measured as bulk precipitation collected in funnel samplers. It is uncertain, however, how large the contribution due to adsorption/impaction of small particles is to this relationship. The need for design of enlightening experiments on deposition rates in different vegetation types and their relation to immission and bulk precipitation data is discussed.

  • Johnsen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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