Current issue: 54(2)
The effect of root exposure on the shoot and root development of Pinus sylvestris (L.) seedlings was studied at two soil temperatures. Roots of bare-rooted three-year-old seedlings were exposed to the temperature of 32°C at relative humidity of 50–40% for 85, 155 and 270 minutes which corresponds to accumulated water pressure deficit of 24, 47 and 91 mbar·h, respectively. Thereafter, seedlings were grown for 65 days at the soil temperatures of 12 and 23°C. Drought exposures inhibited new root initiation, delayed shoot elongation, and reduced shoot and needle growth. The stronger the exposure the larger the proportion of needles from the lower part of current shoot that remained undeveloped. Low soil temperature increased the effect of exposures so that needle elongation and initiation of new root tips of seedlings in cold soil with the longest exposure were inhibited totally. Root growth assessments made in warm soil may overestimate the acclimation potential of planted seedlings.
The PDF includes an abstract in English.
Visible frost damage to forest trees in Sweden seldom occurs in winter but is frequent in late spring, summer and early autumn. Frosts are frequent in all seasons in various parts of Sweden, even in the southernmost part (lat. 56°, N) and temperatures may be as low as -10°C even around mid-summer. Ice crystal formation within the tissues, which in most seedlings takes place at around -2°C, causes injury, not the sub-zero temperatures themselves.
The apical meristem, the elongated zone, and the needles of seedlings of Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. in a growing phase were damaged at about -3°C and those of Pinus sylvestris L. at about -6°C. Other species of the genus Pinus were tested and most were found to be damaged at about -6°C, with some variations. Picea species tested were damaged at about -3°C to -4°C.
A method has been designed to compare the response of different species to winter desiccation, which occurs under conditions of (1) low night temperature, (2) very high irradiation and increase in needle temperature during the photoperiod, (3) frozen soil, and (4) low wind speed. There were differences in response to winter desiccation between pine and spruce species. Seedlings of Pinus contorta tolerated these winter desiccation conditions much better than those of P. sylvestris or Picea abies. Picea mariana was the least tolerant of the species tested.
The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.
This paper is the final report of a study on the damage of tree transplants induced before the trees are planted in the field. The injury development is viewed as a transient rather than a ”step-like” process. The main objective of the study is to develop concepts and methods for recognizing and analysing the dynamic aspects of that process. The report consists of three parts: i) characterization of the environments to which the plants are exposed, ii) theoretical part of model development, and iii) experiments with bare-rooted Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) transplants in which the model was applied.
The results of the first part indicate fast temporal variation of the environmental stress factors, and a slow response of the plant in terms of visible injury symptoms. A model is developed in the second part of the paper for analysing the relationship between the fast stress variables and the slow injury variables. The model is employed in the third part of the study for developing experiments in which the transplants were subjected to different stress conditions. The conclusions emphasize the hazardous role of root desiccation. Similar injury development was observed over a range of different planting sites. Controlling high temperatures during the transportation and storage of the plants was introduced as an indirect method for avoiding the risk of root desiccation.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.