Current issue: 53(3)
Under compilation: 53(4)
This study was aimed at determining the maximum cost level of artificial drying required for cost-efficient operation. This was done using a system analysis approach, in which the harvesting potential and procurement cost of alternative fuel chip production systems were compared at the stand and regional level. The accumulation and procurement cost of chipped delimbed stems from young forests were estimated within a 100 km transport distance from a hypothetical end use facility located in northern Finland. Logging and transportation costs, stumpage prices, tied up capital, dry matter losses and moisture content of harvested timber were considered in the study. Moisture content of artificially dried fuel chips made of fresh timber (55%) was set to 20%, 30% and 40% in the comparisons. Moisture content of fuel chips based on natural drying during storing was 40%. Transporting costs were calculated according to new higher permissible dimensions and weight limits for truck-trailers. The procurement cost calculations indicated that with artificial drying and by avoiding dry material losses of timber, it could be possible to reduce current costs of the prevailing procurement system based on natural drying of timber at roadside landings. The maximum cost level of artificial drying ranged between 1.2–3.2 € MWh–1 depending on the supply chain, moisture content and procurement volume of fuel chips. This cost margin corresponds to, e.g., organization, forwarding and transportation costs or stumpage price of delimbed stems.
Change in dry matter partitioning, 14C-incorporation, and sink 14C-activity of 1.5-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings grown in growth chamber conditions were studied during a 91-day experiment. On five sampling dates, seedlings were labelled with 14CO2 and whole-plant allocation patterns were determined. Intensively growing shoots modified the dry matter partitioning: during shoot growth the proportion of roots decreased but after that it increased. Based on their large proportion of dry matter, the needles (excluding current needles) were the strongest sink of carbon containing 40% of the incorporated 14C. Despite their small initial sink size, the elongating shoots (current main shoot + current branch) and their needles were the second strongest sink (30–40% of the total 14C) which reflects their high physiological activity. The proportion of 14C in the current year’s main shoot increased during shoot growth but decreased as the growth began to decline after 70 days. 10–20% of the total assimilated 14C was translocated to the roots. Laterals above 2nd order were the strongest sink in the root system, containing twice as much 14C as the other roots together. Alternation between shoot and root growth can be seen clearly: carbon allocation to roots was relatively high before and after the period of intensive shoot growth. Changes in root sink strength resulted primarily from changes in root sink activity rather than sink size.
The experiment was performed in 1982–85 at the forest tree nursery in Suonenjoki, Central Finland. There were four to five transplanting dates ranging from the beginning of August to the end of September. The dry matter content, root regeneration and needle retention value of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were examined. Development of the needle retention value in autumn was followed in nurseries at Suonenjoki, Rantasalmi, Mäntyharju and Taavetti in 1982.
Root regeneration was usually the worse, the later the seedlings were transplanted in the autumn. The dry matter content was generally lowest in the seedlings transplanted later in the autumn, and also to some extent in the seedlings transplanted at the beginning of August. The needle retention value increased as autumn advanced. Early transplanting in autumn had an adverse effect on the development of needle retention, and the values were highest in the seedlings transplanted later in the autumn.
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The distribution of the dry matter and nutrients in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tree stock growing on a Vaccinium type site, ground vegetation, and humus were determined in the study. The greatest part of the dry matter in the tree was found in the stemwood. The living branches, roots, bark, needles and dead branches decreasing order of magnitude made up the rest of the biomass. The trees contained over 90%, the field layer vegetation 3% and the bottom layer vegetation 2% of the dry matter in the tree stand. The tree stock contained 86–95% of the total amount nutrients in the stand. The field layer vegetation contained less nutrients than the bottom layer vegetation. Nitrogen, however, was an exception, the amount being approximately the same in both vegetation layers.
The PDF includes a summary in English.
The possibilities of using results of coverage analyses for estimating the dry matter content of the ground vegetation has been examined in this study. The material covers 150 sample areas, 400 m2 large, which represent ground vegetation of Myrtillus type in the final succession stage. When the material was subjected to linear regression analysis, the amount of dry matter in the field and ground layer has been used as dependant variables and the results of the coverage analysis as the independent variable.
The study shows that it is possible to predict satisfactorily the dry matter content of the ground vegetation by grouping the coverage, according to the coverage weight, into parts of equal size and the using them as independent explaining variables. In particular, the value of the prediction equation for the dry matter content of the field layer could be improved by using the height and density characteristics of the vegetation as explaining variables in addition to the coverage figures. Thus, slightly over 80% of the total variation of the dry matter content of the field layer could be predicted. In the case of the ground layer vegetation, the explaining power rose slightly above 70%.
The PDF includes a summary in English.