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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
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Articles containing the keyword 'ecological restoration'.

Category: Research article

article id 1462, category Research article
Pekka Punttila, Olli Autio, Janne S. Kotiaho, D. Johan Kotze, Olli J. Loukola, Norbertas Noreika, Anna Vuori, Kari Vepsäläinen. (2016). The effects of drainage and restoration of pine mires on habitat structure, vegetation and ants. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 2 article id 1462. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1462
Highlights: Mire drainage shifted floristic composition and ant assemblages towards forest communities; Raising the water-table level by ditch filling and the thinning of trees affected mire communities positively already 1–3 years after the start of restoration; The extent of tree cover, the coverage of Sphagnum mosses and the water-table level were major determinants of ant assemblage structure.

Habitat loss and degradation are the main threats to biodiversity worldwide. For example, nearly 80% of peatlands in southern Finland have been drained. There is thus a need to safeguard the remaining pristine mires and to restore degraded ones. Ants play a pivotal role in many ecosystems and like many keystone plant species, shape ecosystem conditions for other biota. The effects of mire restoration and subsequent vegetation succession on ants, however, are poorly understood. We inventoried tree stands, vegetation, water-table level, and ants (with pitfall traps) in nine mires in southern Finland to explore differences in habitats, vegetation and ant assemblages among pristine, drained (30–40 years ago) and recently restored (1–3 years ago) pine mires. We expected that restoring the water-table level by ditch filling and reconstructing sparse tree stands by cuttings will recover mire vegetation and ants. We found predictable responses in habitat structure, floristic composition and ant assemblage structure both to drainage and restoration. However, for mire-specialist ants the results were variable and longer-term monitoring is needed to confirm the success of restoration since these social insects establish perennial colonies with long colony cycles. We conclude that restoring the water-table level and tree stand structure seem to recover the characteristic vegetation and ant assemblages in the short term. This recovery was likely enhanced because drained mires still had both acrotelm and catotelm, and connectedness was still reasonable for mire organisms to recolonize the restored mires either from local refugia or from populations of nearby mires.

  • Punttila, Finnish Environment Institute, P.O. Box 140, FI-00251 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pekka.punttila@ymparisto.fi (email)
  • Autio, Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment in South Ostrobothnia, P.O. Box 252, FI-65101 Vaasa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: olli.autio@ely-keskus.fi
  • Kotiaho, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biology & Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: janne.kotiaho@jyu.fi
  • Kotze, University of Helsinki, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, FI-00014, University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: johan.kotze@helsinki.fi
  • Loukola, University of Oulu, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: olli.loukola@gmail.com
  • Noreika, University of Helsinki, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, FI-00014, University of Helsinki, Finland; University of Helsinki, Department of Biosciences, P.O. Box 65, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: norbertas.noreika@gmail.com
  • Vuori, University of Jyväskylä, Department of Biology & Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: anna@kureniemi.fi
  • Vepsäläinen, University of Helsinki, Department of Biosciences, P.O. Box 65, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kari.vepsalainen@helsinki.fi
article id 980, category Research article
Atte Komonen, Panu Halme, Mari Jäntti, Tuuli Koskela, Janne S. Kotiaho, Tero Toivanen. (2014). Created substrates do not fully mimic natural substrates in restoration: the occurrence of polypores on spruce logs. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 1 article id 980. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.980
Highlights: Polypore communities were more homogeneous among created than among natural logs; The old-growth forest indicator Phellinus ferrugineofuscus occurred frequently on natural logs, but occupied only a few created logs; Results show that created logs do not fully mimic natural logs.
Many protected areas have been under intensive forest management prior to protection and thus lack natural ecosystem structures and dynamics. Dead wood is a key structure in forests harboring hundreds of threatened species. We investigated the ecological success of dead wood creation as a boreal forest restoration measure. We analysed whether the polypore communities of chain-saw felled and girdled (subsequently fallen) Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) logs differ from naturally formed spruce logs of similar decay stage and size. The study was conducted in Leivonmäki National Park in central Finland 8 years after the restoration measures. The average number of polypore species was highest on the chain-saw felled logs and most of the common polypore species were most frequent on this substrate. However, among the natural logs, number of species increased more steeply with increasing number of logs, suggesting greater variation in community composition on this substrate. The old-growth forest indicator Phellinus ferrugineofuscus occurred frequently on natural logs, occupied a few girdled logs but was absent from chain-saw felled logs. Our results show that from the polypore perspective created logs do not fully mimic natural logs, suggesting that creating substrates for species may pose a challenge for restoration.
  • Komonen, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: atte.komonen@jyu.fi (email)
  • Halme, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: panu.halme@jyu.fi
  • Jäntti, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mari.j.jantti@student.jyu.fi
  • Koskela, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tuuli.e.koskela@student.jyu.fi
  • Kotiaho, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, University of Jyväskylä, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: janne.kotiaho@jyu.fi
  • Toivanen, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, University of Jyväskylä, Finland; Current: Birdlife Finland, Annankatu 29 A 16, FI-00100 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tero.toivanen@birdlife.fi

Category: Review article

article id 74, category Review article
Philip J. Burton, S. Ellen Macdonald. (2011). The restorative imperative: challenges, objectives and approaches to restoring naturalness in forests. Silva Fennica vol. 45 no. 5 article id 74. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.74
Many of the world’s forests are not primeval; forest restoration aims to reverse alterations caused by human use. Forest restoration (including reforestation and forest rehabilitation) is widely researched and practiced around the globe. A review of recent literature reveals some common themes concerning forest restoration motivations and methods. In some parts of the world, forest restoration aims mainly to re-establish trees required for timber or fuelwood; such work emphasizes the propagation, establishment and growth of trees, and equates with the traditional discipline of silviculture. Elsewhere, a recent focus on biocentric values adopts the goal of supporting full complements of indigenous trees and other species. Such ecosystem-based restoration approaches consider natural templates and a wide array of attributes and processes, but there remains an emphasis on trees and plant species composition. Efforts to restore natural processes such as nutrient cycling, succession, and natural disturbances seem limited, except for the use of fire, which has seen widespread adoption in some regions. The inherent challenges in restoring “naturalness” include high temporal and spatial heterogeneity in forest conditions and natural disturbances, the long history of human influence on forests in many regions of the world, and uncertainty about future climate and disturbance regimes. Although fixed templates may be inappropriate, we still have a reasonably clear idea of the incremental steps required to make forests more natural. Because most locations can support many alternative configurations of natural vegetation, the restoration of forest naturalness necessarily involves the setting of priorities and strategic directions in the context of human values and objectives, as informed by our best understanding of ecosystem structure and function now and in the future.
  • Burton, Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada, 3333 University Way, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada V2N 4Z9 ORCID ID:E-mail: Phil.Burton@NRCan-RNCan.gc.ca (email)
  • Macdonald, Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada ORCID ID:E-mail:

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