Current issue: 53(3)

Under compilation: 53(4)

Impact factor 1.683
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'employment'.

Category: Research article

article id 1384, category Research article
Staffan Berg, Erik Valinger, Torgny Lind, Tommi Suominen, Diana Tuomasjukka. (2016). Comparison of co-existing forestry and reindeer husbandry value chains in northern Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 50 no. 1 article id 1384. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1384
Highlights: Forestry adapted to reindeer husbandry results in: potential economic improvement of reindeer husbandry, potential reduced cuttings in forestry and reduced wood flow to industry, reduced gross value added for forest industry and increased carbon storage in standing forest.

Forestry in Malå, northern Sweden, coexists with other land uses. Reindeer husbandry is in the area for centuries and requires large areas of grazing land. Competing land uses may threaten the Malå Sami village. The aim of the study was to evaluate increased consideration in forest management towards 1) reindeer husbandry, 2) nature and 3) a combination of the two. These scenarios were compared with forest management as it was in 2009. Results indicate that all three scenarios lead to a decrease in annual harvesting volumes of 0.2 to 0.4 million m3. Forest industry dominated the economic viability in the area. Forest management adapted to the needs of reindeer husbandry resulted in less potential for yearly harvest, employment and profits from forest industry. On the other hand, it led to an increase in growing stock and consequently the potential for carbon sequestration over time. Indeed the increased sequestration would compensate for all fossil emissions of carbon from the Forest Wood Chain (FWC). The nature scenario had minor effects on economic result and on the emissions of fossil carbon. The combined scenario gave a reduced economic performance for the FWC. A scenario based on forest management accommodating the needs of reindeer husbandry gave the best economic result for the reindeer chain, due to high survival rate of the reindeer. However the economic importance of reindeer husbandry in the region was small compared to the FWC. Results from scenario analysis could serve as a platform for mutual understanding between stakeholders.

  • Berg, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Skogsmarksgränd, SE-90 183 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: staffan.berg@efi.int (email)
  • Valinger, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Skogsmarksgränd, SE-90 183 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: erik.valinger@slu.se
  • Lind, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Resource Management, Skogsmarksgränd, SE-90 183 Umeå, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: torgny.lind@slu.se
  • Suominen, European Forest Institute, Sustainability and Climate Change Research Programme, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tommi.suominen@efi.int
  • Tuomasjukka, European Forest Institute, Sustainability and Climate Change Research Programme, Yliopistokatu 6, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: diana.tuomasjukka@efi.int

Category: Article

article id 7455, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo. (1955). Maaseudun miestyövoiman arkiajan käyttö. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 2 article id 7455. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7455
English title: Use of rural workforce in Finland.

The article comprises some of the principal results of the labour force material collected in connection with the 1950 census of Finland. It includes the basic tables in which are listed the calculated estimates of total number of rural male forest and floating labour force, their labour input to agriculture, forestry and floating in 1950. In addition, division of the labour force into farmers and not-farmers and by districts are presented. The unemployment time and relief work input of the rural population was also calculated.

Finland’s economic situation in 1950 was characterized by a slow recovery from depression of the previous year. The situation had not yet improved in such measure that would have relieved appreciably the rural unemployment that arose from shortage of work available in the forest.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7455, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo. (1955). Maaseudun miestyövoiman arkiajan käyttö. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 2 article id 7455. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7455
English title: Use of rural workforce in Finland.

The article comprises some of the principal results of the labour force material collected in connection with the 1950 census of Finland. It includes the basic tables in which are listed the calculated estimates of total number of rural male forest and floating labour force, their labour input to agriculture, forestry and floating in 1950. In addition, division of the labour force into farmers and not-farmers and by districts are presented. The unemployment time and relief work input of the rural population was also calculated.

Finland’s economic situation in 1950 was characterized by a slow recovery from depression of the previous year. The situation had not yet improved in such measure that would have relieved appreciably the rural unemployment that arose from shortage of work available in the forest.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7454, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo. (1954). Metsätyövoiman tutkimusmenetelmä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 63 no. 1 article id 7454. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7454
English title: Method of surveying forest labour.

In Finland the general shortage of labour during the Second World War called attention to employment problems in forestry. After the war the scope widened to include sociological and human maters. The Finnish Rural Labour Force Study deals with the whole rural labour force, not only forest work. Due to the scale of the subject, pilot studies were started by the Institute of Forest Economics at the University of Helsinki and the Central Statistical Office and the Board of Agriculture in 1950. This article describes in detail the methods used in the pilot studies the and main survey.

The aim of the survey was to obtain a reliable picture of three subjects. 1) The labour input of the male rural population during the observation year, its distribution and the seasonal fluctuations in the structure of labour input. 2) The unemployment time of the rural population, the periods underemployment and its seasonal variation. 3) The number of male workers engaged for a shorter or longer period during the year in certain occupation. The paper discusses the different data sources and ways to collect the data either from enterprises or workers. One of the obstacles is the large number of enterprises in agriculture and forestry. Consequently, the total number of people employed in a particular industry, its distribution and the duration of the working season can be estimated only from a sample selected from the population.

The data of the survey is based on a systematic sample, collected by interviews, of the annual round of activity in 1950 of 44,667 men of 15-64 years of age living in Finnish rural communes. The interviews were made in connection with the 1950 census of Finland. The results of the survey are presented in the other articles of Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 63.

The PDF includes a comprehensive summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7326, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1936). Metsän hakkuun ja ajon sekä puutavaran uiton työn kysynnästä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 42 no. 9 article id 7326. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7326
English title: The demand of forest work and floating work in Finland.

Forestry has been almost the sole source of employment during winter in the forested areas of Finland. The aim of this study was to investigate the number of men and horses working in logging and haulage in different times of year in 1933‒1934. The felling and haulage of household timber was not included in the study. The amount of work days was calculated using the statistics of wood consumption. The work days in logging was 10.0 million days in 1933 and 11.9 million days in 1934. Accordingly, approximately 3.6 million work days was done in horse-haulage in 1933 and 4.3 million in 1934. The forest companies and Metsähallitus (Forest Service) employed most employees in wood harvesting in January‒March, in average 14,300‒25,700 men and 3,300‒9,300 horses per month. The number of employees was lowest in August.

In floating, 1 million work days was done in 1934 and 1,1 million in 1934. Most employees were hired in April‒June. Floating is an important source of employment for the landless people when the fellings stop in the spring. The farmers working in wood harvesting can move to work in their farms.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7301, category Article
O. J. Lakari. (1934). Valtionmetsien työtarjonnasta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 40 no. 24 article id 7301. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7301
English title: Employment in the state forests of Finland.

The article is a report of the ways the state forests could be used to improve employment, requested by the State Unemployment Council. Production of the state forests of Finland has been insufficient, because the fellings have not taken account silvicultural needs, and forest management has not previously received proper funding. For instance, the production and wood resources in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) dominated forests in Southern Finland were 2/3 of what they could be if the forests were in natural state. More efficient forest management is necessary to ensure the sustainable wood production of the state forests, and that could consequently offer work opportunities. The tasks needed to improve productivity of the state forests, and the work opportunities they can give are listed. Silviculture, drainage of peatlands, wood harvesting and transport, marking timber for fellings, floating, building forest roads and administrative and planning work could increase the supply of work to 8.6 million man-days and 1.6 horse-days in the state forests, mainly in wood harvesting and transport.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Lakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7089, category Article
A. Benj. Helander. (1923). Metsätalouden tarjoamasta ansiotyöstä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 26 no. 1 article id 7089. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7089
English title: Employment in the forestry in Finland.

Work in the forestry, for instance, in logging operation during winter, has been important source of employment for the rural population in Finland. The study is based on statistics of forest work, felling, felled timber, workforce and horses used in the forest work in the state forests, published in the annual reports of Metsähallitus (Forest Service) in 1911-1913. The administrative and silvicultural work, for instance, sowing and planting, clearing of the felling area, building forest roads or work in the nurseries, range from 20% to 22% of all work done in the forestry. Major part of the work time is used in felling. To harvest one cubic meter of timber requires 0.3 man-days and 0.2 horse-days. The work is seasonal; felling work is available for about 90-100 days a year. Forest haulage is possible only in the winter, and for instance sowing and planting in the summer. The employees have secondary jobs in agriculture and in other sectors.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Helander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5359, category Article
Olli Haltia, Markku Simula. (1988). Linkages of forestry and forest industry in the Finnish economy. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 4 article id 5359. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15516

The purpose was to analyse the importance of forestry and forest industry in the Finnish economic development since the 1950’s, and to find out how the sector has contributed to the growth of the national economy through other sectors. Data were derived from the input-output tables of 1959, 1970 and 1980. Information provided by Hirschmanian linkages was expanded by taking into account e.g. induced, consumption, final demand and absorption linkages. The linkages of forestry and forest industry had multiplied during the study period. Both final demand linkages and intermediate product linkages were significant. The sector’s contribution to the development of metal and machinery and equipment industries as well as that of energy/water supply was significant. Integration with most other sectors has increased. Indirect production coefficients of forestry and forest industry were larger than on average in manufacturing. Because of labour productivity growth, production and employment coefficients were different.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Haltia, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Simula, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5039, category Article
Pertti Elovirta. (1979). Forestry as an employer in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 3 article id 5039. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14896

The article describes the significance of forestry as a source of employment in the rural areas of Finland. The historical perspective of the presentation dates from the 1860’s. This period includes all the relevant stages in the development of the theme in question, the preindustrial age up to the 1890’s, the period of the creation of the forest industries to the end of 1920’s, the period of the forest industries’ expansion to the end of 1950’s and the period of mechanization from the beginning of 1960’s. The long perspective is possible because of the existence of time series data.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Elovirta, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4715, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo, Leo Heikurainen, Viljo Holopainen, Matti Keltikangas, Kullervo Kuusela, Tatu Möttölä. (1963). Metsätalouden parannusten työllisyys- ja tulovaikutukset. Silva Fennica no. 114 article id 4715. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14273
English title: Effects of forest improvement on employment and income.

The agricultural committee appointed by the Finnish Government in 1958 pointed out a problem that the rural population needed to be ensured employment and earnings from forestry. A forestry study group was called to investigate the effects of forest improvement on employment and income, on four fields: a) forest drainage, b) afforestation, c) thinning of young stands, and d) construction of forest roads. Items a, b and c increase output, and d creates outlets for timber and increases stumpage value.

The study outlined three alternative silvicultural programmes. The Basic Programme corresponds average forest management in Finland in 1953–1959. The Medium Programme can be seen conditional to the realization of the felling plan worked out in a study group Heikurainen-Kuusela-Linnamies-Nyysönen in 1961 in a committee report of Forestry Planning Committee. Finally, according to an Intensive Programme to which forest management, especially afforestation and forest drainage, will be raised to the highest possible level.

The costs of different silvicultural measures of the three programmes were estimated. The allowable cuts were calculated corresponding to the silvicultural programmes for the period 1961–1970 and 2001–2010. After calculating labour input and costs, could the increase in employment and income be estimated for the whole economy, and separately in forestry, communications and industry. When calculating the labour input required for the forest management work and road construction, the probable rise in productivity following mechanization and rationalization has been taken into account.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kuusela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Möttölä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4599, category Article
Polttoainekomitea. (1950). Polttoainekysymys vuonna 1949 : polttoainekomitean mietintö. Silva Fennica no. 67 article id 4599. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9090
English title: The fuel question in 1949.

Fuel shortage during and after the Second World War compelled the Government of Finland to improve the fuel supply. In 1948 the Government appointed a Committee to draft a proposal on use of domestic and imported fuels. Special attention was placed on how to develop use of peat as fuel.

In rural districts, firewood billets and waste wood accounted for 45% of fuel consumption. For other users than the rural population, coal and coke consisted 25%, industrial waste wood 11% and billets 18% of the total consumption in 1938. After the war the use of coal and coke increased and the use of billets decreased.

Due to the decreased demand of billets, their price in the towns fell lower than the production and transport costs from the most remote areas where the wood was harvested. The demand for small sized timber is important for silvicultural reasons, and wood harvesting creates jobs for the rural population, therefore, the Committee proposes that the state supports the production of billets. This could be done by improving the effectiveness of firewood loggings, and by building truck roads and railways.

Small-sized birch is used predominantly as fuel. The Committee considers the growing stock of birch to be the largest unutilized wood reserve. Supported by technological research, it may become a new raw material for sulphate cellulose industry. Use of industrial waste wood as fuel and improvement of heating equipment would improve the competitiveness of fuelwood and peat against other fuels. For the possible interruptions in imports, stocks of foreign fuels should be maintained.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Polttoainekomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4518, category Article
Eljas Kahra. (1937). Työttömyyskysymyksestä. Silva Fennica no. 42 article id 4518. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14096
English title: Unemployment problem.

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation discusses unemployment in Finland, and means to solve the problem. One of the sources of employment could be forest work.

  • Kahra, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4518, category Article
Eljas Kahra. (1937). Työttömyyskysymyksestä. Silva Fennica no. 42 article id 4518. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14096
English title: Unemployment problem.

Silva Fennica issue 42 includes presentations held in professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in public administration in 1936. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service

This presentation discusses unemployment in Finland, and means to solve the problem. One of the sources of employment could be forest work.

  • Kahra, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4476, category Article
P. J. Pelttari. (1935). Yksityismetsien työtarjonnasta. Silva Fennica no. 35 article id 4476. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9062
English title: Supply of work in private forests in Finland.

A review on the availability of forest work in the private forests in Finland was compiled on the request of the Unemployment Council. Private forests, and forests of municipalities and parishes covered 52.7% of the forest lands in Finland, according to the forest inventory made in 1922-1924. The proportion of private lands were estimated to increase in the future when state lands were parceled out to private land owners. Shifting cultivation, forest fires and selective fellings have influenced condition of the private forests. The interest to improve productivity of the forests has, however increased in 1920s and 1930s, which increases work opportunities.

The work opportunities in private forests is estimated to be 27.6 million man-days and 5.4 million horse-days annually.  Wood harvesting and hauling are the main source of employment with 20.3 million man-days. The workforce is estimated to be 75,920 men and 16,200 horses, but more intensive forest management could increase the numbers to 91,900 and 18,100, respectively. To improve the condition of private forests, it should be obligatory to mark the trees for cutting before the fellings. One means to improve forest management would be cooperation between the forest owners.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pelttari, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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