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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Articles containing the keyword 'export'.

Category: Research article

article id 161, category Research article
Mika Nieminen, Erkki Ahti, Harri Koivusalo, Tuija Mattsson, Sakari Sarkkola, Ari Laurén. (2010). Export of suspended solids and dissolved elements from peatland areas after ditch network maintenance in south-central Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 1 article id 161. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.161
In Finland nearly 6 million hectares of peatlands are drained for forestry purposes. Ditch network maintenance in the drained peatlands, i.e. cleaning old ditches or digging complementary ditches, deteriorates surface water quality by increasing the export of dissolved elements and suspended solids (SS). Effect of ditch network maintenance on the export of SS, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and dissolved nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), iron (Fe), aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) was studied in nine pairs of treated and control (no maintenance) catchments located in southern and central Finland. In this study we extended the paired catchment approach by combining data from several catchments and identifying the treatment effect on SS and element loads from the entire dataset. Following the method of Laurén et al. (2009) we identified how uncertainty in correlation between treatment and control catchments during pre-treatment period is reflected in the estimated treatment effect on SS and element loads. In the experiment, the export of SS increased significantly for the four year study period following the ditch network maintenance and Al export increased for one year. The export of N, P and Fe was not significantly changed and DOC and Mn export decreased after the ditch maintenance operation.
  • Nieminen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mika.nieminen@metla.fi (email)
  • Ahti, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Koivusalo, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Aalto University School of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 15200, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Mattsson, Finnish Environment Institute, P.O. Box 140, FI-00251 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sarkkola, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laurén, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 665, category Research article
Kari Kangas. (1999). Trade of main wild berries in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 33 no. 2 article id 665. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.665
The price trends and markets of the main wild berries, bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.), were analysed in this study, which covered both domestic use of berries, imports and exports. The periods considered were for bilberries from 1988 to 1997 and for lingonberries from 1979 to 1994. The results indicated that both exports and imports have increased and domestic berries have lost their market share to imports in domestic use. One possible explanation for this trend was found in price development. Both export and import prices have decreased, but export price has still been higher than the import price. Simultaneously the domestic price has decreased the fastest. The formation of the price of lingonberries paid to the pickers in the organised domestic markets was studied with a regression model. The results indicated that domestic price was negatively dependent on the amounts of lingonberries demanded in the domestic markets and positively dependent on the export price. Correlation analysis gave evidence on the same kind of relations concerning bilberries.
  • Kangas, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: kari.kangas@forest.joensuu.fi (email)
article id 700, category Research article
Riitta H. Hänninen. (1998). Exchange rate changes and the Finnish sawnwood demand and price in the UK market. Silva Fennica vol. 32 no. 1 article id 700. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.700
This paper examines the long-run influence of exchange rate changes on the Finnish sawnwood price in the United Kingdom (UK) using quarterly data for the period 1978–1994. The degree of influence was measured by a pass-through coefficient (PT) obtained from a markup pricing relation of a system model. The model, which included export demand and price equations, was estimated with the cointegration method of Johansen. The results indicated a large PT, which means that exchange rate changes are reflected almost proportionately in Finnish export price expressed in pounds sterling. Thus, the Finnish price of sawnwood in pounds has lowered as a result of depreciation of the Finnish markka (FIM). This has improved Finnish competitiveness and market share in the UK. Appreciation of the FIM has had the opposite effect. It seems that Finnish exporters have made use of depreciations and devaluations of the FIM to maintain and increase their market shares but not necessarily their markups. For Finland, which is in the process of joining the European economic and monetary union (EMU), knowing the size of the PT is also important in assessing the economic impact of membership.
  • Hänninen, Forest Research Institute, Helsinki Research Centre, Unioninkatu 40 A, 00170 Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: riitta.hanninen@metla.fi (email)

Category: Article

article id 7126, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1960). On the price elasticity of the supply of sawn wood for export. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 73 no. 4 article id 7126. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7126

The present investigation is concerned with the price elasticity of sawn wood, concentrating on the price elasticity of sawn wood supply for export. The supply of sawn wood for export is referred to the joint attitude to price changes of all producers participating in the market.

The study concludes that producers cannot in the short- and medium-term view use the price parameter to increase total utilization in the sawn wood market. Demand holds a primary position in price formation. The capacity reserve of the sawmills permits great variations in output at the mill level, and thus elasticity in the supply of sawn wood. High timber costs are typical for the industry. Supply of roundwood can easily be adapted even to large variations in demand. The price elasticity of roundwood supply is rather great.

The long process of sawn wood production and the resulting relatively long lead-time of deliveries result in a long adaptation time of supply. Expansion and contraction of sawn wood exports cause, via the effect of exports, on income similar fluctuations in the domestic sales of sawn wood. This weakens the price elasticity of exports in some degree.

The ‘instantaneous elasticity’ upwards of sawn wood supply might be great, but speculation with stocks at the different levels of production often makes it ‘incalculable’. The price elasticity of a medium-long and long period can be expected to be relatively great upwards. The downward elasticity of a period of medium length is probably small. The elasticity of a prolonged period may be influenced by the substitution of other materials for sawn wood.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7125, category Article
L. Runeberg. (1960). European trade in raw wood during the 1950’s and prospects in the days of EEC and EFTA. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 73 no. 3 article id 7125. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7125

This paper concentrates on the roundwood commerce in Western Europe as seen from the point of view of Finland, considering the role of Eastern Europe. The first part analyses exports and imports both quantitatively and qualitatively, and the balance of the trade in the export countries. Second part covers the new market groups in Europe and the opportunities for a common market.

Arter the Second World War, a surprisingly large trade in roundwood reappeared in Europe. The European countries exported in average 11 million m3 of roundwood annually, of which 4.3 million m3 was pulpwood, and 2.8 million m3 pitprops. Finland leads exports during the 1950s with a yearly average of 4.2 million m3, followed by France and Sweden. Western Germany is the largest importing country with a negative balance of 2.8 million m3. It is concluded, from a theoretical point of view, that in Western Europe only Finland can maintain a large roundwood export. From a national point of view, however, it would be more favourable to expand the countries’ own refining industries.

On the whole, it seems as if the European roundwood trade should continue on a rather large scale during the 1960s, partly because the border trade can be expected to increase, with a freer trade, and partly because the European timber deficit needs filling from sources outside Europe. In addition, the pulp industries in the importing countries will compete more and more keenly with the exporting countries for pulpwood supplies.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Runeberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7124, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1960). Central marketing of cellulose, with particular reference to brand policy. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 73 no. 2 article id 7124. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7124

Sales of cellulose have been handled in Finland since 1918 on a central marketing system through the Finnish Cellulose Union (Suomen Selluloosayhdistys), which is a joint sales company formed by the enterprises. First part of the paper constitutes the questions of the channels and functions of marketing. The most focal problem is related to the interests of individual producers. The second part concentrates on the brand policy of central marketing.

The small number of producer companies and – for 40 years ago – the existence of relatively few categories and grades on the market have contributed to the birth of central marketing of cellulose in Finland. Central marketing is probably more advantageous for smaller firms and companies less well placed than the biggest concerns. It levels out the status held by the best and the weakest firm in individual marketing and consequently perhaps does not give a top brand the standing it would have in relation to the other brands in individual marketing. Central marketing may have advantages also in regards of general price level and marketing costs.

The marketing system is dependent on the conditions in which it is to be carried out. An example of this is that Scandinavian cellulose producers have fairly good opportunities under the individual marketing system of using the service factor, owing to the good and far-ranging scheduled shipping facilities of the countries. It is probably the different conditions in this country that have made Finland’s cellulose marketing system essentially different from that of the Scandinavian countries.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7123, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1960). Moitteet ja välimiesmenettelyt Suomen sahatavaran viennissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 73 no. 1 article id 7123. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7123
English title: Claims and arbitration in exports of sawn goods from Finland.

This study concentrates on claims made against Finnish shippers or referred to arbitration by foreign buyers. The material is collected from two inquiries on claims and arbitrations, sent by the Finnish Sawmill Owners’ Association to Finnish sawmills engaged to exportation in 1954 and 1958.

On average the claims concerned about 5% of the sawn goods exported from Finland. They affected about 3% of the deliveries from the large sawmills, 10% of the deliveries of medium-sized sawmills and 15–20% of the small sawmills. In large consignments of raw material, variations in quality are not so marked as in smaller ones. Also, the grading of goods is stricter in the larger sawmills, and as they have well-established business relations, they have better opportunities to select goods with a view to demand of the buyer and the marketing areas.

The ratio of goods claimed was least in exports to remote countries, on the Western European markets in exports to Great Britain and the Netherlands. In Belgium, the ratio was high. In 1954 and 1958 approximately 12% of the claims were referred to arbitration. The bigger the sawmills, then on average the smaller the ratio of cases of arbitration in the number of claims. In Belgium, disputes have had to be settled by arbitration most frequently. Over 90% of the claims were made because of defects in quality or condition. About 5% were in respect of the specification of dimensions, and only 5% were related to other reasons than the good themselves. The sums paid for claims connected to the goods in 1958 represented only 54% of those demanded by the buyers. It would perhaps be advisable to consider the formulation of generally acceptable rules of the grading of export timber according to categories of shippers with definition of the minimum standard for each grade.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7484, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1959). Suomen havusahatavaranmyynnin kausi- ja suhdannevaihteluista vuosina 1951-1958. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 68 no. 2 article id 7484. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7484
English title: On the seasonal and business cycle fluctuations of Finnish sawn softwood sales in 1951-1958.

The investigation examines export sales of Finnish sawn softwood sales in 1951-1958, concentrating on the volume of the sales. The material was collected from the archives of Finnish Sawmill Owner’s Association and the Finnish Sawmill Control Organization and the annual reports of the former. Correlation analysis was used in assessing the interdependence of the monthly sales volume and the price, and opening sales and the total sales volume of the year.

A slightly negative correlation was seen between the sale price and the monthly sales volume. Goods sold at under average prices are more abundant than goods sold at over average prices. Generally, with a rising price trend, the annual sales volume increased, but with falling prices the situation was reverse. The sales volume has been dependent on the business cycle development of prices. There was positive correlation between the opening sales and the total sales quantity for the year. The sales volume was at its maximum in the period between November and January, and at the minimum between March and September.

The time of the sales made to different countries differed little judged by quarterly statistics. It seems that the major shippers have generally concluded opening sales first. Northern Finnish shippers and the small shippers of Southern Finland have sold proportionately least during the last quarter. In general, the poorer the qualities in question the smaller on an average the proportion of opening sales but the greater the share of clearance sales.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7480, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1958). Suomesta myydyn havusahatavaran hintasuhteiden muutokset vuosina 1932-38 ja 1951-56. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 67 no. 6 article id 7480. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7480
English title: Changes in the price ratios of sawn softwood sold by Finland in 1932-38 and 1951-56.

The aim of the investigation was to estimate the changes in the price ratios of different tree species of sawn timber, timber sizes and qualities, the ratios of the prices obtained by different shippers and from different countries, and their changes, especially the trends and business cycles. The data can be utilized in the organization of sawing and the drawing up of the price scales. The price ratios were calculated by taking 100 as the basic quantity and calculating the values for the other quantities accordingly, the values are called price indices. The data is collected from the sales reports in the archives of the Finnish Sawmill Owners’ Association.

Comparing the ratios of the basic prices, the prices of unsorted pine goods by shipper B (the leading marks of Northern Finland), were considerably higher than the others. The North Finnish pine goods are of the best quality in Finland. The price differences between the other shippers were small. The prices of unsorted spruce goods differed very little with different shippers. In some years the basic prices obtained for pine from different countries showed considerable differences although, in the overall view, the differences were small.

In the leading marks of Northern Finland, the differences between pine and spruce prices was greater than the other price differences. The quality of pine logs in Northern Finland is extremely high. During the periods of prosperity, the price difference between pine and spruce was relatively smaller than during depression. With spruce goods, the relative price difference for the qualities is smaller than with pine goods. For the both species the relative price differences diminished with the increase in the basic price. In the broadest sizes of unsorted pine goods, the price difference of the inch class is much bigger than in the small sizes. This is true especially for boards. The relative price difference between boards and battens increased distinctly with the advance in the basic price. A similar, though not as clear change took place in the price ratio of board and 7” sizes. The price differences between battens and boards are much smaller for spruce than for pine. The trends of the price indices of the different sizes show from the middle of 1920s and as far as the 9” u/s pine sizes very gentle, and in regards of the corresponding spruce sizes, a fairly sharp rising tendency.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7462, category Article
Seppo Ervasti. (1955). Suomesta Pohjanmeren maihin vuosina 1920-1952 viety havusahatavara : koostumuksen muutokset. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 64 no. 2 article id 7462. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7462
English title: Export of sawn softwood from Finland to the North Sea Countries in 1920-1952.

The objective of the investigation was to study the trends and fluctuations in the composition of sawn goods, changes due to business cycles, and casual fluctuations. The subject is confined to sawn softwood export to Great Britain, the Netherlands, Belgium and France (The North Sea countries) in 1920-1952. The data was based mainly on statistics of the Board of Customs, Series of Foreign Trade, Finnish Sawmill Owner’s Association and the Finnish Official Statistics.

The North Sea countries took 75-85% of the sawn softwood exported from Finland before World War II, and 50-70% of the quantity exported since the war. Sawn softwood export from Finland is almost exclusively long and small-dimension timber. The composition of the export from Finland to the North Sea countries was defined already during the 1900th century, and no big chances were observed even during the period of 1920-1952. The only definite trend was decrease in the proportion of u/s grade.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ervasti, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7448, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1954). Suomen havusahatavaran viennin kausimaisuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 36 article id 7448. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7448
English title: The seasonal fluctuations in the Finnish exports of sawn softwood.

The purpose of the investigation was to examine the seasonal pattern in Finnish export shipments and export sales of sawn softwood in 1927-1953. Statistics concerning shipments have been obtained from the Board of Customs, and material relating to sales has been provided by the Finnish Sawmill Owner’s Association (now Finnish Sawmills Association). On the basis of original monthly statistics, 13-month moving averages were computed. Finally, a seasonal index was calculated.

According to the results, the export shipments have a fairly apparent seasonal pattern with very low figures from January to April, a peak from June to August, and thereafter a gradual decline up to the end of the year. There are also considerable variations from year to year but in general the exports follow this rhythm. In contrast to export shipments the seasonal pattern of export sales is characterised by significant irregularity. Market developments and speculation play a far greater role than the seasonal factors. Indeed, a seasonal character in export sales can scarcely be discerned.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7435, category Article
Esko Kangas. (1954). On the possibility of pests being conveyed in export timber : survey of biological requirements. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 23 article id 7435. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7435

Many countries have enacted plant protection laws or statutes that consist timber imported into a country, both raw wood and processed timber. This has caused some inconvenience to the international timber trade. Necessary protection against the spread of pests via export is fully acceptable, but the protection should be based on actual need.
When considering processed or barked raw timber, the problem concerns only species that pass their development in the wood. The four most important biological requirements affecting the risk are 1) the tree species of the importing country and affinity of the pest, 2) climatic conditions of the importing country and the pest’s range and adaptability to the climate, 3) biological factors regulating the population, and 4) suitability of the individual development of the pest for transmission. These risks are discussed in the article.

It is concluded that it is possible largely to eliminate the species that might be conveyed via export timber. It is often possible to decide in advance what danger threatens the importing country from species that might be conveyed via export timber. This would make it possible to adapt plant protection regulations to suit the relation between the exporting and importing countries.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.

  • Kangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7431, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo. (1954). Sahatavaran vientitulon jakaantumisesta vuosina 1913-1953. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 19 article id 7431. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7431
English title: On the distribution of income from Finnish sawn timber exports in 1913-1953.

The investigation studies the development of a logger’s daily earnings, a sawmill worker’s hourly earnings, saw timber stumpage prices and saw timber export prices, expressed in marks in Finland in 1913-1953, concentrating upon the trends of real value.

Although worker’s earnings in forestry and sawmilling have developed differently especially in the 1920s, the late 1930s and the early 1940s, their general long-time development has been very similar. On the other hand, the stumpage prices increased in real value much sharply than wages before the World War II. The real value of stumpage prices dropped because of economic regulation measures in the 1940s until regulation was abolished and the Korean War boom raised them in 1951, to fall after that. The development depends partly of the development of export prices for sawn timber.

Without changing the distribution of income from exports the real value of labour earnings, measured by export prices, may rise at most at a pace corresponding to the productivity of work. In logging there has been no actual increase in the productivity in the 20th century. As the increase in the productivity in timber transportation has probably been absorbed in increased wages and capital costs in the branch, a rise in forest labour’s real earnings and stumpage is possible only by means of a rise in the productivity of sawmilling or a change in the distribution of export income. It seems that from the end of World War I up to the middle of 1920s this increase of productivity and in export prices of sawn timber was shared only by capital and possibly mill labour. After that up to World War II stumpage prices rose so steeply that they swallowed the entire increase in productivity and reduced capital’s share of the export price. In the 40s the level of earnings followed the trend of productivity in industry, made possible by a sharp reduction in stumpage.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7431, category Article
Lauri Heikinheimo. (1954). Sahatavaran vientitulon jakaantumisesta vuosina 1913-1953. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 19 article id 7431. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7431
English title: On the distribution of income from Finnish sawn timber exports in 1913-1953.

The investigation studies the development of a logger’s daily earnings, a sawmill worker’s hourly earnings, saw timber stumpage prices and saw timber export prices, expressed in marks in Finland in 1913-1953, concentrating upon the trends of real value.

Although worker’s earnings in forestry and sawmilling have developed differently especially in the 1920s, the late 1930s and the early 1940s, their general long-time development has been very similar. On the other hand, the stumpage prices increased in real value much sharply than wages before the World War II. The real value of stumpage prices dropped because of economic regulation measures in the 1940s until regulation was abolished and the Korean War boom raised them in 1951, to fall after that. The development depends partly of the development of export prices for sawn timber.

Without changing the distribution of income from exports the real value of labour earnings, measured by export prices, may rise at most at a pace corresponding to the productivity of work. In logging there has been no actual increase in the productivity in the 20th century. As the increase in the productivity in timber transportation has probably been absorbed in increased wages and capital costs in the branch, a rise in forest labour’s real earnings and stumpage is possible only by means of a rise in the productivity of sawmilling or a change in the distribution of export income. It seems that from the end of World War I up to the middle of 1920s this increase of productivity and in export prices of sawn timber was shared only by capital and possibly mill labour. After that up to World War II stumpage prices rose so steeply that they swallowed the entire increase in productivity and reduced capital’s share of the export price. In the 40s the level of earnings followed the trend of productivity in industry, made possible by a sharp reduction in stumpage.

The Acta Forestalia Fennica issue 61 was published in honour of professor Eino Saari’s 60th birthday.
The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heikinheimo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7419, category Article
Paavo Aro. (1954). Über die Ursachen der Massunterschiede beim Ausfuhrpapierholz. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 7 article id 7419. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7419
English title: On the reasons for differences in the measurements of exported pulpwood.
Original keywords: Papierholz; Export; Ausfuhr; Abmessung; Messen
English keywords: pulpwood; paper wood; export; measurement

Exported wood is measured at the port in Finland by certified measurers. Wood is paid according to these measuring certificates. However, in many cases the buyer measures the wood again in the country of destination, and gets smaller amounts. This sometimes causes awkward situations.

To examine the phenomenon one lot of pulpwood was measured both in Finland and in the destination country Germany. Several differences were found for the amounts of wood, and the author discussed the possible reasons for these differences.

However, because of the possible scattering in the measurements, several reductions are always made to the measurements. Hence it was proved that the buyer got the amount of wood they paid for. It is clear that the current practices and tools used to measure the amount of wood do not allow for any more accurate measures.     

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Aro, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7419, category Article
Paavo Aro. (1954). Über die Ursachen der Massunterschiede beim Ausfuhrpapierholz. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 61 no. 7 article id 7419. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7419
English title: On the reasons for differences in the measurements of exported pulpwood.
Original keywords: Papierholz; Export; Ausfuhr; Abmessung; Messen
English keywords: pulpwood; paper wood; export; measurement

Exported wood is measured at the port in Finland by certified measurers. Wood is paid according to these measuring certificates. However, in many cases the buyer measures the wood again in the country of destination, and gets smaller amounts. This sometimes causes awkward situations.

To examine the phenomenon one lot of pulpwood was measured both in Finland and in the destination country Germany. Several differences were found for the amounts of wood, and the author discussed the possible reasons for these differences.

However, because of the possible scattering in the measurements, several reductions are always made to the measurements. Hence it was proved that the buyer got the amount of wood they paid for. It is clear that the current practices and tools used to measure the amount of wood do not allow for any more accurate measures.     

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Aro, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7403, category Article
L. Runeberg. (1950). The activities of timber agents and timber associations. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 58 no. 3 article id 7403. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7403

Selling through agencies became common Finland in the end of 1800s in timber sales and export. No joint marketing organization has been established in the sawmilling industry, as has been done in pulp and paper industry. The aim of this report was to discuss need for the agencies in the post-war situation.

The paper concludes that the timber agents fill their post even at present under the changed conditions of the timber trade. The Finnish sawmilling industry is based on a majority of small sawmills, which have difficulties in keeping up foreign connections themselves. Even to the somewhat larger sawmills, which have a salesman of their own, the services of a domestic agent can be recommended. The number of agencies has markedly decreased during the war. With 120 agencies active in Finland it is evident that a considerable part of them will disappear. In Sweden the Association of timber agents has only 33 members. In comparison to other countries, the Finnish agency firms have the greatest number of joint-stock companies. The companies are concentrated in Helsinki. A good solution for co-operation in the sector could be to found an independent timber agent’s association.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Runeberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7387, category Article
L. Runeberg. (1946). Trade in forest products between Finland and the United States of America. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 54 no. 1 article id 7387. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7387

The purpose of the analysis presented in the article was to form an estimate as to future Finnish-American trade in forest products. The Finnish-American trade, that had its beginning in 1919, has been steadily growing and at the outbreak of the Second World War occupied third place in Finland’s total foreign trade. Over 90% of the Finnish exports consisted of forest industry products, pulp and newsprint being the most important items. The sales associations of the pulp and paper industries made it possible for the industries to gain a footing in the American market.

The production of pulp and most kinds of paper has increased in the USA up to 1942, but production of newsprint has tended to decrease. The timber resources of the country are large, but there is a considerable timber deficit in the northeastern states, therefore, these regions must be the principal aim for a campaign to build up the future market. According to the survey of future need of imports to the USA, more than two million tons of pulp and 2-3 million tons of paper products are needed in the immediate post-war period. The Canadian and Swedish competition will remain at about the same level, but one Finnish advantage, the quality, has disappeared on account of the progress made by research in the USA during the war.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Runeberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7364, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1942). Suomen metsätalouden ja metsäteollisuuden toimintamahdollisuuksista Manner-Euroopan markkinoiden varassa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 11 article id 7364. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7364
English title: Opportunities of Finnish forestry and forest industry in the market of Continental Europe.

The article summarizes import and export of timber and manufactured wood products in Europe before the Second World War, and outlines which are the opportunities of import and export after the war. The evaluation is based on statistics of 1936 and 1937. The export balance of Europe was positive; when all the timber assortments were included, Europe exported almost 10 million m3 more timber than it imported. Export and import of round timber were almost in balance, whereas export of paper products was about 12 million m3 larger than import. Consequently, European forest industry reached its magnitude before the war through export overseas. Foreign markets have been important especially for countries like Finland and other Nordic countries.

The war has disturbed the markets. In a scenario where Europe remains a closed sub-area in the global market, there is 10 million m3 excess of timber and wood products. Within Europe, United Kingdom is the greatest importer of timber and manufactured wood products. If UK was excluded from the European market, it would mean a big change in the export and import balance within the area. In 1936 and 1937 the import would have been only 45% and 55%, respectively, of the export if UK is not included in European numbers. If also Russia is excluded from the European sub-area, it would affect especially the export of round wood, sawn timber and plywood. Nordic countries have accounted for about 80% of European paper products export before the war. According to the article, Finnish wood resources do not allow big increase in sawn industry. However, there is potential in increasing demand of pulp in continental Europe in future. In general, Finnish forest industry would have to decrease the production, if the markets would be limited to the European sub-area.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7267, category Article
V. Pöntynen. (1932). Jalostamattoman puutavaran vienti Suomesta vuosina 1911-1931. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 38 no. 1 article id 7267. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7267
English title: Export of roundwood from Finland in 1911‒1931.
Original keywords: puun vienti; raakapuu; vienti; sahatukki; parru

The export of roundwood from Finland was studied based on the official statistics of foreign trade. The volumes were converted to solid volumes under bark. Roundwood (logs and masts) or raw timber trade consisted mainly of saw logs. The main tree species was Scots pine (Pinus sylvestrs L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). The annual volumes varied from 29,200 m3 in the war year 1918 to 657,200 m3 in 1924. Before the World War I the roundwood was exported mainly to Sweden and Russia, after the war the trade to Russia ceased. Also split spillet was a significant export item before the war. The export peaked in 1916 to 3 million m3, but decreased after the war to 30,000‒40,000 m3. The most important export item in the group of hewn timber has been Egyptian rafters, with annual export of 15,000‒284,600 m3 with the exception of the time of war. The export of spars exported to other countries than Egypt was highest before the war with 125,000 m3. The export of sleepers varied strongly, peaking in 1922. The total export of roundwood varied from 131,000 m3 in 1918 to 4.3 million m3 in 1927. Roundwood has mainly been exported to the European countries. Before the war, the main trading partners were United Kingdom and Russia. After the war the share of United Kingdom was nearly half of the volume, and Russia was replaced with Sweden.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Pöntynen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7235, category Article
Andr. Teikmanis. (1929). Lettlands Wälder und Holzexport. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 22 article id 7235. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7235
English title: Forests and timber exports of Latvia.
Original keywords: Lettland; Wald; Forstindustrie; Holzexport

After the world war one new states were built and they created their own economies and started foreign trade with different products. Timber is one of the traded articles, and not without meaning. New states, Latvia as one of them, have achieved great interest on international timber market, thanks to its favorable transport conditions.

The article presents the main characters of Latvian forests, ownership structure, and the governance related to felling and timber production. Also the most important branches of forest industry are presented. The most important aspects of the Latvian forestry are summarized in the end of article.       

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Teikmanis, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7235, category Article
Andr. Teikmanis. (1929). Lettlands Wälder und Holzexport. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 22 article id 7235. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7235
English title: Forests and timber exports of Latvia.
Original keywords: Lettland; Wald; Forstindustrie; Holzexport

After the world war one new states were built and they created their own economies and started foreign trade with different products. Timber is one of the traded articles, and not without meaning. New states, Latvia as one of them, have achieved great interest on international timber market, thanks to its favorable transport conditions.

The article presents the main characters of Latvian forests, ownership structure, and the governance related to felling and timber production. Also the most important branches of forest industry are presented. The most important aspects of the Latvian forestry are summarized in the end of article.       

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Teikmanis, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5570, category Article
Anne Toppinen, Riitta Hänninen, Susanna Laaksonen. (1996). A dynamic forecasting model for the Finnish pulp export price. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 4 article id 5570. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8505

This study investigates the relationship between Finnish sulphate pulp export prices and international pulp inventories using the Johansen cointegration method. Long-run equilibrium is found to exist between pulp price and NORSCAN inventory for the study period, 1980-94. Granger causality is found to exist from inventory to price but not vice versa. A simple short-run forecasting model for the Finnish pulp export price is formed. In preliminary analysis, the explanatory power of model is found to be acceptable but only under stable market conditions.

  • Toppinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hänninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Laaksonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5422, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1990). Suomen pyöreän puun vienti 1921-1986. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5422. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15576
English title: Finnish exports of roundwood in 1921–1986.

When Finland attained independence in 1917–1918, about 65% of her population made their linving from agriculture and only 17% from industry. Despite the fact that most sectors of the modern forest industry, i.e. sawmilling, pulp and paper making as well as plywood industry were then in existence a considerable proportion of timber was exported as roundwood.

It was reasonable to assume, however, that further economic development would reduce the roundwood exports to provide raw material for industry. The present paper investigates the Finnish roundwood exports in 1921–1986 largely from the point of view of this hypothesis. Examination of statistics is focused on the change of volume of exports in the major categories of wood, changes in the trade policies of consumer countries, changes in competition between exporting countries and changes in Finnish export policy.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5422, category Article
Viljo Holopainen. (1990). Suomen pyöreän puun vienti 1921-1986. Silva Fennica vol. 24 no. 2 article id 5422. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15576
English title: Finnish exports of roundwood in 1921–1986.

When Finland attained independence in 1917–1918, about 65% of her population made their linving from agriculture and only 17% from industry. Despite the fact that most sectors of the modern forest industry, i.e. sawmilling, pulp and paper making as well as plywood industry were then in existence a considerable proportion of timber was exported as roundwood.

It was reasonable to assume, however, that further economic development would reduce the roundwood exports to provide raw material for industry. The present paper investigates the Finnish roundwood exports in 1921–1986 largely from the point of view of this hypothesis. Examination of statistics is focused on the change of volume of exports in the major categories of wood, changes in the trade policies of consumer countries, changes in competition between exporting countries and changes in Finnish export policy.

The PDF includes an abstract in English.

  • Holopainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4469, category Article
Paperipuun-vientikomitea. (1933). Paperipuukysymys. Silva Fennica no. 28 article id 4469. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9041
English title: The pulpwood question.

A Commission was appointed to examine the significance of pulpwood exports from the political-economic and social point of view. A survey was made of the development of woodworking industry in Finland. The article includes a detailed review on paper industry in Finland and abroad, pulpwood resources in Finland and outlook of the industry. The export of pulpwood was significant in 1925-1927, the most important country being Germany. The commission notes that It would be more profitable to refine the wood into more expensive products. It does, however, not see it necessary to restrict export of pulpwood. If restrictions are considered necessary, prohibition of export is a better way than export duties.

The best way to promote domestic paper industry is to increase the supply of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). Measures are suggested to increase the productivity of the forests through forest improvement. The annual increment of spruce is calculated to cover the consumption in near future, provided the export of pulpwood does not amount to 600,000 m3, and the local demand of pulpwood does not exceed 7.8 million m3 annually. The Commission proposes that state ownership of forests is increased, forest management is intensified, and restrictions of forest industry to acquire forest land are removed.

It suggests also reliefs in taxation and import duties on fields related to transport, and equipment and raw materials needed by the paper industry.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Paperipuun-vientikomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4462, category Article
E. E. Kaila. (1932). Tervanpolton leviäminen Suomessa 1700-luvun puolimaissa. Silva Fennica no. 21 article id 4462. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9018
English title: Tar burning in Finland in the middle of the 18th century.

Tar was an important export article in Finland, then a part of Sweden, in the 18th century. For instance, in 1640 half of Finnish trade consisted of tar. In other countries, like Norway, Poland, Archangel in Russia, and North Sweden, burning of tar was minor compared to Finland. In Finland, tar was produced of young pine trees. Tar production concentrated in more remote locations of the country, where it would be too difficult and expensive to transport timber and wood products. The cheapest products, such as wood, boards and planks, were produced on a coastal zone at farthest 30 km from the coast. Tar was produced in the zone beyond the coastal district. The inland parts of Southern Finland were, however, hilly which made even the transport of tar difficult. Tar production ended by the middle of the 19th century when wooden ships were abandoned, and the value of forests and other wood products increased.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kaila, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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