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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Articles containing the keyword 'fall'.

Category: Research article

article id 1337, category Research article
Leszek Bujoczek, Małgorzata Bujoczek, Jan Banaś, Stanisław Zięba. (2015). Spruce regeneration on woody microsites in a subalpine forest in the western Carpathians. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 3 article id 1337. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1337
Highlights: The occurrence probability of Picea abies seedlings on fallen deadwood was found to increase with diameter and decay stage of deadwood and with the volume of living trees, and to decrease with the density of living trees, sapling density, and land slope. It was also higher on stumps with greater diameter and in plots with higher sapling density, but decreased with increasing stump height.

The density of Picea abies [L.] Karst. regeneration on different microsites, the quantity and quality of woody microsites, and seedling occurrence probability on stumps and fallen deadwood were studied in a subalpine forest that has been under protection for approximately 30–40 years (Gorce Mountains in the western Carpathians). Thirty percent of seedlings and 29% of saplings grew on stumps and fallen deadwood, while the remaining regeneration occurred on soil surface and mounds created by uprooted trees. The occurrence probability of Picea seedlings on fallen deadwood increased with deadwood diameter and decay stage and with the volume of living trees, and decreased with increased density of living trees, sapling density, and land slope. Furthermore, seedlings were more likely to grow on stumps with a greater diameter and in plots with higher sapling density, but less likely to grow on higher stumps. Stumps and fallen deadwood covered about 4% of the forest floor, but the material that is most important for promoting regeneration (strongly decomposed logs and those of a diameter exceeding 30 cm) took up only about 22 m2 ha-1. We have concluded that in a subalpine forest that has been protected for 30–40 years regeneration processes take place mostly on soil surface and stumps. The role of fallen deadwood increases over time as a greater number of suitable logs (in terms of size and decay stage) become available.

  • Bujoczek, University of Agriculture in Krakow, ORCID ID:E-mail: lbujoczek@gmail.com (email)
  • Bujoczek, University of Agriculture in Krakow, ORCID ID:E-mail: bujoczek.m@gmail.com
  • Banaś, University of Agriculture in Krakow, ORCID ID:E-mail: rlbanas@cyf-kr.edu.pl
  • Zięba, University of Agriculture in Krakow, ORCID ID:E-mail: rlzieba@cyf-kr.edu.pl
article id 1239, category Research article
Tomi Kaakkurivaara, Nuutti Vuorimies, Pauli Kolisoja, Jori Uusitalo. (2015). Applicability of portable tools in assessing the bearing capacity of forest roads. Silva Fennica vol. 49 no. 2 article id 1239. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1239
Highlights: The dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) and light falling weight deflectometer (LFWD) are useful tools for measuring bearing capacity; The measurement results are not same as with the falling weight deflectometer (FWD), but comparable.
Forest roads provide access to logging sites and enable transportation of timber from forest to mills. Efficient forest management and forest industry are impossible without a proper forest road network. The bearing capacity of forest roads varies significantly by weather conditions and seasons since they are generally made of poor materials and the constructed layers may be mixed with subgrade. A bearing capacity assessment is valuable information when trafficability is uncertain and rutting is obvious. In this study, bearing capacity measurements were carried out using the light falling weight deflectometer (LFWD), the dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) and the conventional falling weight deflectometer (FWD). The aim was to compare their measurement results in relation to road characteristics and moisture conditions. Data were collected from 35 test road sections in four consecutive springs and during one summer. The test road sections had measurement points both on the wheel path and the centre line. The data show logical correlations between measured quantities, and the study presents reliable regression models between measuring devices. The results indicate that light portable tools, the DCP and the LFWD, can in most cases be used instead of the expensive falling weight deflectometer on forest roads.
  • Kaakkurivaara, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Green technology, Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: tomi.kaakkurivaara@gmail.com (email)
  • Vuorimies, Tampere University of Technology, P.O.Box 600, FI-33101 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: nuutti.vuorimies@tut.fi
  • Kolisoja, Tampere University of Technology, P.O.Box 600, FI-33101 Tampere, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: pauli.kolisoja@tut.fi
  • Uusitalo, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Green technology, Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: jori.uusitalo@luke.fi
article id 45, category Research article
Guolei Li, Yong Liu, Yan Zhu, Qing Mei Li, R. Karsten Dumroese. (2012). Effect of fall-applied nitrogen on growth, nitrogen storage and frost hardiness of bareroot Larix olgensis seedlings. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 3 article id 45. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.45
Nursery response of evergreen trees to fall fertilization has been studied widely, but little attention has been given to deciduous trees. Bareroot Olga Bay larch (Larix olgensis Henry) seedlings were fertilized in the nursery with urea at four rates (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N ha–1), with half of each rate applied on two dates (September 16 and October 1, 2009). The seedlings were excavated for evaluation on October 15. In the unfertilized (control) treatment, root and shoot dry mass increased by 100% and 57% respectively, while N concentration in the roots and shoots increased by 43% and 40% during the 30 day period. This indicated that substantial biomass growth during this period did not lead to internal nutrient dilution. Root dry mass increased when fall fertilization rates were ≥ 60 kg N ha–1. Fall fertilization increased N concentrations in root tissue by 48–73%. Compared with the control, shoot tissues of fall fertilized seedlings had slightly higher N concentration and content and significantly higher frost hardiness.
  • Li, Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100083, China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Liu, Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100083, China ORCID ID:E-mail: lyong@bjfu.edu.cn (email)
  • Zhu, Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100083, China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Li, Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry; Key Laboratory of Forest Silviculture of State Forestry Administration, Beijing 100091, China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Dumroese, US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Moscow, ID, USA ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 260, category Research article
Panagiotis Michopoulos, George Baloutsos, Anastassios Economou. (2008). Nitrogen cycling in a mature mountainous beech forest. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 1 article id 260. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.260
The nitrogen cycle in a mature, mountainous European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest in Greece was examined for two hydrological years, 2001–2002 and 2002–2003. Bulk deposition was 1383 mm in 2001–2002 and 2392 mm in 2002–2003. Winter temperatures were mild in the first year and low in the second year. Despite these climatological differences, the inorganic N inputs to the forest floor, by means of throughfall and stemflow, were quite similar for the two years, i.e. 12.4 and 14.6 kg ha–1 yr–1. Litterfall production was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the second year but the N amounts in litterfall did not differ. The ratio of N/P in foliar tissue did not change significantly in 2003 compared with ratio values in the last years. The N amounts used for the annual stem and branch increments are rather high preventing, in this way, some nitrogen from being recycled in the near future. The total soil N content to a depth of 80 cm amounted to more than 5000 kg ha–1, and the C/N ratio in the Oh horizon was approximately 15 but the beech forest did not appear susceptible to N leaching. The concentrations of ammonium and nitrate N in stream water did not reach high values reported in the literature, and did not differ significantly in the two hydrological years. The fluxes of inorganic N in throughfall plus stemflow were higher than those in stream water indicating N retention in soil. Another reason for N retention in the ecosystem is probably the large difference between N requirements and uptake indicating N deficiency. Despite the maturity of the beech trees, the low C/N ratio in the Oh horizon and the relatively high N content in soil, the forest can be considered to be neither saturated nor having reached a N saturation transition stage.
  • Michopoulos, Forest Research Institute of Athens, Terma Alkmanos, Athens 115 28, Greece ORCID ID:E-mail: mipa@fria.gr (email)
  • Baloutsos, Forest Research Institute of Athens, Terma Alkmanos, Athens 115 28, Greece ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Economou, Forest Research Institute of Athens, Terma Alkmanos, Athens 115 28, Greece ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 260, category Research article
Panagiotis Michopoulos, George Baloutsos, Anastassios Economou. (2008). Nitrogen cycling in a mature mountainous beech forest. Silva Fennica vol. 42 no. 1 article id 260. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.260
The nitrogen cycle in a mature, mountainous European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest in Greece was examined for two hydrological years, 2001–2002 and 2002–2003. Bulk deposition was 1383 mm in 2001–2002 and 2392 mm in 2002–2003. Winter temperatures were mild in the first year and low in the second year. Despite these climatological differences, the inorganic N inputs to the forest floor, by means of throughfall and stemflow, were quite similar for the two years, i.e. 12.4 and 14.6 kg ha–1 yr–1. Litterfall production was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the second year but the N amounts in litterfall did not differ. The ratio of N/P in foliar tissue did not change significantly in 2003 compared with ratio values in the last years. The N amounts used for the annual stem and branch increments are rather high preventing, in this way, some nitrogen from being recycled in the near future. The total soil N content to a depth of 80 cm amounted to more than 5000 kg ha–1, and the C/N ratio in the Oh horizon was approximately 15 but the beech forest did not appear susceptible to N leaching. The concentrations of ammonium and nitrate N in stream water did not reach high values reported in the literature, and did not differ significantly in the two hydrological years. The fluxes of inorganic N in throughfall plus stemflow were higher than those in stream water indicating N retention in soil. Another reason for N retention in the ecosystem is probably the large difference between N requirements and uptake indicating N deficiency. Despite the maturity of the beech trees, the low C/N ratio in the Oh horizon and the relatively high N content in soil, the forest can be considered to be neither saturated nor having reached a N saturation transition stage.
  • Michopoulos, Forest Research Institute of Athens, Terma Alkmanos, Athens 115 28, Greece ORCID ID:E-mail: mipa@fria.gr (email)
  • Baloutsos, Forest Research Institute of Athens, Terma Alkmanos, Athens 115 28, Greece ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Economou, Forest Research Institute of Athens, Terma Alkmanos, Athens 115 28, Greece ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 327, category Research article
Gong Zhang, Guang-ming Zeng, Yi-min Jiang, Chun-yan Du, Guo-he Huang, Jia-mei Yao, Mei Zeng, Xi-lin Zhang, Wei Tan. (2006). Seasonal dry deposition and canopy leaching of base cations in a subtropical evergreen mixed forest, China. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 327. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.327
We evaluated the dry deposition and canopy leaching fluxes of base cations in the growing and the dormant seasons using the Na-ratio method based on the 4-year (2000–2003) monitoring data in Shaoshan subtropical evergreen mixed forest, China. The dry deposition of base cations in the growing seasons was lower than that in the dormant seasons, while the canopy leaching of base cations was higher in the growing seasons than that in the dormant seasons. The precipitation quantity and H+ significantly impacted the canopy leaching processes. The annual canopy leaching of K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ accounted for 88, 46 and 38% of net throughfall flux, respectively. The canopy retention of proton (H+ and NH4+) is close to the canopy leaching of base cations calibrated by weak acids, indicating that the canopy cations leaching is neutralizing acid precipitation.
  • Zhang, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, P.R. China; Hunan Environmental Protection Bureau, Hunan Province, Changsha, 410076, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Zeng, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: zgming@hnu.cn (email)
  • Jiang, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, P.R. China; Hunan Environmental Protection Bureau, Hunan Province, Changsha, 410076, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Du, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Huang, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Yao, Xiangya Hospital, Central-south University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410008, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Zeng, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Zhang, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Tan, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan Province, Changsha 410082, P.R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 518, category Research article
Mats Hannerz, Curt Almqvist, Roland Hörnfeldt. (2002). Timing of seed dispersal in Pinus sylvestris stands in central Sweden. Silva Fennica vol. 36 no. 4 article id 518. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.518
The objective of the study presented here was to describe the variation in timing of seed dispersal from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seed trees in central Sweden. Seeds were collected in traps at two sites, for three years at one, and four years at the other . The traps were emptied from March to August each year at 1–2 week intervals during the main period of seed dispersal. The annual seed fall varied between 200 000 and 1.6 million seeds per hectare. The seed fall started in mid to late April, shortly after the heat sum had started to accumulate. The most intensive seed fall took place in early to mid May. The peak period, when 50% of the total seed dispersal occurred, lasted for 18–28 days at the different sites and years. The variation in timing among years seemed to be mainly due to climatic factors – high temperatures promoted seed dispersal, for instance. The results may be useful for planning the time of scarification to optimise the natural regeneration of Scots pine. The data suggest that scarification in the spring, no later than mid-May, would generally create a good seed-bed for most of the current year’s seeds, whereas scarification in late May or June would bury a large proportion of this cohort.
  • Hannerz, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (SkogForsk) Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: mats.hannerz@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Almqvist, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (SkogForsk) Uppsala Science Park, SE-751 83 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hörnfeldt, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Forest Products and Markets, P.O. Box 7060, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 599, category Research article
Chun-Jiang Liu, Carl J. Westman, Hannu Ilvesniemi. (2001). Matter and nutrient dynamics of pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) and oak (Quercus variabilis) litter in North China. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 1 article id 599. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.599
In the mountainous area of North China, a distinguishing feature of climate is the serious drought of spring and the humidity and high temperature of summer by which the litter production and decomposition of forest litter were strongly characterized. We investigated the dynamic and nutrient characteristics of litter in a 30-year-old mixed stand of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) and deciduous orient oak (Quercus variabilis Bl.) and two comparable pure stands. Oak litterfall peaked in November and pine litterfall in December. The oak stand had the largest annual litterfall (347 g m–2) and the forest floor mass (950 g m–2), the mixed stand the second (236 g m–2 and 634 g m–2), and the pine stand the least (217 g m–2 and 615 g m–2). The nutrient return through litterfall and the storage in forest floor followed corresponding order between three stands. The weight loss of pine and oak foliage litter in first year was 25% and 20%. For senesced pine and oak leaves, the translocation rates of N, P and K were 56–83%. Nutrient concentrations were higher in oak leaf litter than pine needle litter, and the concentration of N and Ca appeared to rise while K concentration decreased in both decomposing litter.
  • Liu, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: cliu@silvia.helsinki.fi (email)
  • Westman, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ilvesniemi, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Research note

article id 1024, category Research note
Petter Nilsen, Line Tau Strand. (2013). Carbon stores and fluxes in even- and uneven-aged Norway spruce stands. Silva Fennica vol. 47 no. 4 article id 1024. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1024
Highlights: Long term (81 years) C sequestration is slightly higher in an even-aged compared to an uneven-aged spruce stand; The even-aged stand has at 81 years age a slightly lower soil C content than the uneven-aged stand; Present C fluxes indicate that the difference in long term C sequestration will increase in favour the even-aged stand if final felling is postponed.
This investigation compares present C stores, fluxes and historic tree C sequestration in an uneven-aged and an even-aged Norway spruce stand under similar high productive soil conditions in south-eastern Norway. A selection cutting system has been performed in the uneven-aged forest stand for 81 years and the even-aged stand was established after clear-cutting 81 years ago. Timber productivity has been measured in the uneven stand for 81 years and in the even-aged stand for 52 years. C storage was determined based on tree measurements, tree biomass functions, soil samples and C analyses from trees and soil. Litter fall was sampled during one year and CO2 efflux from the soil was measured during one growing season. The present tree C storage (including roots) was 210 Mg C ha-1 in the even-aged stand and 76 Mg C ha-1 in the uneven-aged stand, while the corresponding figures for C in the soil was 178 and 199 Mg C ha-1. The long term timber production in the uneven-aged stand was measured to be 95% of the even-aged stand and the difference in net C sequestration was 37 Mg ha-1 in an 81 year period in favour the even-aged stand. The highest present CO2 efflux from soil was measured in the even-aged stand. The total net C sequestered in trees during 81 years minus the present soil C-stock accounts to 16 Mg ha-1 in favour the even-aged system
  • Nilsen, The Research Council of Norway, P.O. Box 2700, St. Hanshaugen, N-0131 Oslo, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: pn@rcn.no (email)
  • Strand, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås, Norway ORCID ID:E-mail: line.strand@umb.no

Category: Article

article id 7148, category Article
Maunu Seppänen. (1964). Vesisateen jakautumisesta männiköissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 8 article id 7148. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7148
English title: Distribution of rainfall in the Scots pine stand in Central Finland.

Distribution of rainfall in in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand and in an open place in Alajärvi in Central Finland was studies in 1959–1960. Density of the about 80 years old stand was 0.36 and the height of the trees 8–14 m. The dependence of throughfall and dependence of stemflow on 24-hour precipitation, and dependence of the distribution of 24-hour precipitation on the amount and nature of precipitation was calculated.

The precipitation of the crown of the forest depended on the rainfall. When the rainfall in the open place was over 7 mm, the rainfall within the forest was in average 89% of the rainfall in the open place, but if the rainfall in the open place was less than 1 mm, the rainfall within the forest was only 64% of that in the open place. Total stemflow in the pine stand was only 0.4%, and interception loss was 13.6%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Seppänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7148, category Article
Maunu Seppänen. (1964). Vesisateen jakautumisesta männiköissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 76 no. 8 article id 7148. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7148
English title: Distribution of rainfall in the Scots pine stand in Central Finland.

Distribution of rainfall in in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand and in an open place in Alajärvi in Central Finland was studies in 1959–1960. Density of the about 80 years old stand was 0.36 and the height of the trees 8–14 m. The dependence of throughfall and dependence of stemflow on 24-hour precipitation, and dependence of the distribution of 24-hour precipitation on the amount and nature of precipitation was calculated.

The precipitation of the crown of the forest depended on the rainfall. When the rainfall in the open place was over 7 mm, the rainfall within the forest was in average 89% of the rainfall in the open place, but if the rainfall in the open place was less than 1 mm, the rainfall within the forest was only 64% of that in the open place. Total stemflow in the pine stand was only 0.4%, and interception loss was 13.6%.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Seppänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7376, category Article
O. J. Lukkala. (1942). Sateen mittauksia erilaisissa metsiköissä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 50 no. 23 article id 7376. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7376
English title: Measurements of rainfall in different kinds of forests in Finland.

The tree canopy adsorbs part of the rainfall falling on a forest, therefore only part of it reaches the soil. This report presents results concerning interception of precipitation and groundwater level in forests of varying canopy cover. The study belongs to a larger survey on afforestation of drained treeless bogs. The rainfall was measured daily in the open fields and in the adjacent forests. The forests, mainly Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) dominated, were divided by the canopy cover into five classes from over dense to sparsely stocked.

The results show that in a dense, tall Norway spruce stand, light rainfall can almost entirely be adsorbed by the canopy. The heavier the rainfall, the larger proportion of it reaches the ground. Only 30% of a 5 mm rainfall reaches the ground, while 80% of a 20 mm rainfall reaches the ground. Interception of precipitation decreases gradually when the density of the forest decreases. Canopy of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and birch (Betula sp.) stands of corresponding density adsorb less rainfall than Norway spruce canopy. Groundwater level was higher in treeless areas than in areas covered with forest. Widescale clear cuttings should, therefore, be considered carefully in forest areas that are prone to become peaty.

  • Lukkala, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7247, category Article
Erkki Laitakari. (1929). Über die Fähigkeit der Bäume sich gegen Sturmgefahr zu schützen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 34 article id 7247. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7247
English title: The capability of trees to protect themselves against storms.

The article discusses the adaptation mechanisms of the trees against storms or stormy winds. Two main aspects are revealed: the adjustments of stem and crone and the adjustments of the root system.

The shorter the stem the lower the danger of windfall or windbreak. The wind load of a tree depends on where it is situated; on the open field the wind is much stronger than in closed stand. The tree adjusts its height on the situation: where the wind load is high the trees remain smaller. A tree adjusts its crone also depending on the wind. The branches of spruce are relatively thin and very flexible. An alone standing trees have a flat or umbrella-like crone. Trees with a deep-going main root (tap root) are best protected against windfalls. When there is no tap root, the horizontal roots need to strengthen to offer the needed support.

The protection from windfalls is an important question in the practical forestry. Knowing the factors affecting the wind tolerance of a tree the forest management can be planned to support them.  

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Laitakari, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5618, category Article
Marja-Leena Nykänen, Marianne Broadgate, Seppo Kellomäki, Heli Peltola, Christopher Quine. (1997). Factors affecting snow damage of trees with particular reference to European conditions. Silva Fennica vol. 31 no. 2 article id 5618. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8519

Within the European Community snow damage affects an estimated 4 million m3 of timber every year, causing significant economic losses to forest owners. In Northern Europe, for example, the occurrence of snow damage has increased over the last few decades mainly due to the increase in total growing stock. The most common form of damage is stem breakage, but trees can also be bent or uprooted. Trees suffering snow damage are also more prone to consequential damage through insect or fungal attacks.

Snow accumulation on trees is strongly dependent upon weather and climatological conditions. Temperature influences the moisture content of snow and therefore the degree to which it can accumulate on branches. Wind can cause snow to be shed, but can also lead to large accumulations of wet snow, rime or freezing rain. Wet snow is most likely in late autumn or early spring. Geographic location and topography influence the occurrence of damaging forms of snow, and coastal locations and moderate to high elevations experience large accumulations. Slope plays a less important role and the evidence on the role of aspect is contradictory. The occurrence of damaging events can vary from every winter to once every 10 years or so depending upon regional climatology. In the future, assuming global warming in northern latitudes, the risk of snow damage could increase, because the relative occurrence of snowfall near temperatures of zero could increase.

The severity of snow damage is related to tree characteristics. Stem taper and crown characteristics are the most important factors controlling the stability of trees. Slightly tapering stems, asymmetric crowns, and rigid horizontal branching are all associated with high risk. However, the evidence on species differences is less clear due to the interaction with location. Management of forests can alter risk through choice of regeneration, tending, thinning and rotation. However, quantification and comparison of the absolute effect of these measures is not yet possible. An integrated risk model is required to allow the various locational and silvicultural factors to be assessed. Plans are presented to construct such a model, and gaps in knowledge are highlighted.

  • Nykänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Broadgate, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Peltola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Quine, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7082, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1923). Zur Kenntnis der Ausfällung des Eisens im Boden. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 7 article id 7082. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7082
English title: Knowledge on precipitation of iron in soil.

This is a working paper. It presents the laboratory experiments with soil samples from northern Finland, in which the precipitation of iron (Fe) was tested with limewater (Ca). There was no clear difference between samples with limewater and samples without limewater. However, the lime prevented the infiltration of iron almost totally.

The mineral content of soil effects the forest growth and yield and hence it is of interest for forestry. More research is needed both as field experiments and in the laboratory. 

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5015, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1979). On geoclimatic variation in basic density of Scots pine wood. Silva Fennica vol. 13 no. 1 article id 5015. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14869

The effect of temperature and water supply in the basic density of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood was studied on the basis of material obtained from the literature. On a monthly basis, the basic density increased with increasing mean temperature for June, July and August. The rainfall in these months had no detectable effect on the basic density except through the difference between rainfall and evaporation in July. On a yearly basis, the basic density increased with increasing mean temperature, temperature sum and length of growth period. The effect of water supply on the basic density was evident, and a linear relationship between basic density and annual rainfall was detected. The variation in basic density was, however, explained only partly by the chosen factors. Possible reasons for the poor explanatory power have been discussed.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4975, category Article
Irja Lehtonen. (1977). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4975. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14826
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand. III Variation in nutrient content of soil, vegetation and precipitation.

The study is part of a project designed to elucidate the nutrient budget of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand. Results of variation in the nutrient contents were compared with those obtained for the previous growing season.

The potassium and calcium contents varied the greatest in the humus layer. However, in the bottom and field layer vegetation and needles the variation in the nitrogen content was the greatest. The nutrient contents of the needles were affected by the physiological stage of development, needle age and the position in the crown of the tree. The nutrient content of the rainfall increased in the order: free rainfall, throughfall, and stem flow.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Lehtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4952, category Article
Irja Lehtonen, Seppo Kellomäki, Carl Johan Westman. (1976). Ravinteiden kierto eräässä männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 4 article id 4952. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14798
English title: Nutrient cycle in a Scots pine stand. II. Amount and quality of precipitation in a Scots pine stand at the pole stage.

This study forms part of a project designed to elucidate the total nutrient budget of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Central Finland during the 1974 growing period. Precipitation has been divided up into precipitation, throughfall and stemflow.

The acidity of the rainwater was found to increase in the order – Precipitation, throughfall and stemflow. The electrolyte content of the rain water from throughfall and stemflow was higher than that of precipitation. The nutrient contents of precipitation were rather low. Throughfall and stemflow were found to leach some nutrient from the trees. This was most clear in the case of potassium. The total amounts of nutrients reaching the ground in throughfall were found to be smaller than those in precipitation. On the other hand, the amounts of potassium, calcium and magnesium in stemflow were clearly greater than those in precipitation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Lehtonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Westman, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4941, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Pirkko Pohjapelto. (1976). Metsikkösadannan määrä ja vaihtelu eräässä luonnontilaisessa kuusikossa. Silva Fennica vol. 10 no. 2 article id 4941. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14787
English title: The distribution of throughfall in a virgin spruce stand.
Original keywords: kuusi; metsikkösadanta; sademäärä

The aim of the paper was to study the amount and distribution of rainfall in a virgin Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stand. Special attention has been paid to the dependence of throughfall on the characteristics of the precipitation falling on an open area and the stand.

The throughfall was 62% of the precipitation in the open. The best independent variable as regards the throughfall was the amount of precipitation falling in the open. The heaviness of precipitation in the open gave no meaningful correlation. Horizontal layout of the stand was found to have some effect on the throughfall. The throughfall was also influenced by the tree species composition of the stand. Only 52% of the total variance of the amount of water caught by the rain gauges could be predicted with the characteristics of the precipitation in the open and the stand.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pohjapelto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4842, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1971). Metsikkösadannan määrä eräässä hoidetussa männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4842. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14644
English title: Throughfall in a managed Scots pine stand in Southern Finland.

The purpose of the study was to measure the throughfall in a managed Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Southern Finland (61°47’, 24°18’). Totally 20 summer rain gauges (collecting area 100 cm2) were placed randomly in form of a lattice of 100 squares, each 2x2 m. Six rain throughs, 15 cm x 150 cm, were placed in the experimental stand. Auxiliary precipitation measurement was done in an opening, by using four summer rain gauges, two rain throughs and one recording rain gauge. The throughfall was followed in May–September 1967.

In comparison with summer rain gauges, the rain throughs gave too low values when the precipitation was below 3 mm/rain shower. Accordingly, only the results of rain gauges were used. The rate of throughfall was determined by the amount of precipitation and the rate of heaviness of the rain shower. When trying to describe the relative amount of throughfall by using various characteristics of the stand, the equitation proposed by Seppänen (1964) proved the best. When the rate of throughfall was depicted with the distance between the summer gauge and the nearest tree, there was negative correlation between these. The correlation was negative under heavy rains, but positive in small rains.

Various factors of uncertainty are discussed. During long periods the areas under Scots pine canopies reach more rain water than those between the canopies, which may be important when analysing the spatial distribution of ground vegetation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4842, category Article
Matti Leikola. (1971). Metsikkösadannan määrä eräässä hoidetussa männikössä. Silva Fennica vol. 5 no. 2 article id 4842. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14644
English title: Throughfall in a managed Scots pine stand in Southern Finland.

The purpose of the study was to measure the throughfall in a managed Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in Southern Finland (61°47’, 24°18’). Totally 20 summer rain gauges (collecting area 100 cm2) were placed randomly in form of a lattice of 100 squares, each 2x2 m. Six rain throughs, 15 cm x 150 cm, were placed in the experimental stand. Auxiliary precipitation measurement was done in an opening, by using four summer rain gauges, two rain throughs and one recording rain gauge. The throughfall was followed in May–September 1967.

In comparison with summer rain gauges, the rain throughs gave too low values when the precipitation was below 3 mm/rain shower. Accordingly, only the results of rain gauges were used. The rate of throughfall was determined by the amount of precipitation and the rate of heaviness of the rain shower. When trying to describe the relative amount of throughfall by using various characteristics of the stand, the equitation proposed by Seppänen (1964) proved the best. When the rate of throughfall was depicted with the distance between the summer gauge and the nearest tree, there was negative correlation between these. The correlation was negative under heavy rains, but positive in small rains.

Various factors of uncertainty are discussed. During long periods the areas under Scots pine canopies reach more rain water than those between the canopies, which may be important when analysing the spatial distribution of ground vegetation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Leikola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7669, category Article
Leena Finér. (1991). Effect of fertilization on dry mass accumulation and nutrient cycling in Scots pine on an ombrotrophic bog. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 223 article id 7669. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7669

The first three-year effects of PK(MgB) and NPK(MgB) fertilization on the dry mass accumulation and nutrient cycling were studied in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand growing on a drained low-shrub pine bog in Eastern Finland. The total dry mass of the tree stand before fertilization was 78 tn/ha, of which the above-ground compartments accounted for 69%. The annual above-ground dry mass production was 6.3 tn/ha, 51% of it accumulating in the tree stand.

The study period was too short for detecting any fertilization response in the stems. The total dry mass accumulation was not affected, because the increase in foliar and cone dry masses after both fertilization treatments, and that of the living branches after NPK fertilization, were compensated by the decrease in the dry mass of dead branches.

The nutrients studied accounted for 392 kg/ha (0.49%) of the total dry mass of the tree stand before fertilization. The amounts were as follows; N 173 kg/ha (44%), Ca 90 kg (23%), K 58 kg/ha (15%). The rest (18%) consisted of P, Mg, S and micronutrients combined. The unfertilized trees took up the following amounts of nutrients of the soil: N 15.6, Ca 12.8, K 4.1, P 1.3, MG 1.7, and S and Mn 1.5 kg/ha. The uptake of Fe and Zn was 510 and 130 g/ha and that of B and Cu less than 100 g/ha. More than 50% of the nutrient uptake, except for that of K and Fe, was released in litterfall. The results indicated very efficient cycling of K, Mn and B between the soil and trees.

The fertilized stands accumulated more N, P, K and B than the unfertilized ones during the tree-year study period. The increased accumulation corresponded to 35% (52 kg/ha) of the N applied on the NPK fertilized plots, 10% of the P, 25% of the K and 10% of the B on the PK and NPK fertilized plots. The increased amount of B released in litterfall after fertilization was equivalent to 4% of the applied B. Fertilization inhibited the uptake of Mn and Ca.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Finér, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7538, category Article
Leo Heikurainen. (1970). The effect of thinning, clear cutting, and fertilization on the hydrology of peatland drained for forestry. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 104 article id 7538. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7538

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cutting of different intensities on the hydrology of drained peatland. The study concerned with measuring changes in the ground water level, throughfall, and snow cover, and specially runoff. This study focused on the phenomena that occur during the growing season. Seven sample plots were measured in an area in Central Finland which had been drained about 50 years earlier and had Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand of uniform age.

To survey the hydrological effects of cuttings, 20%, 40% and 60% of the stand volume was removed in thinnings. In addition, one sample plot was clear-cut. During the first two years after cutting the interception diminished, and throughfall increased by 7% for the 20% thinning, by 8% for the 40% thinning and by 12% for the 60% thinning. Clear cutting increased the throughfall by 29%. The thinnings increased the depth of the snow cover the more the heavier the thinning.

Even the lightest thinning raised the ground water table, but the difference between 20% and 40% thinning was not marked. Cuttings increased runoff the greater the heavier the cutting. The hydrological changes of fellings were detrimental for the site. However, there was a marked change only between the 40% and 60% thinnings. Fertilization had a favourable effect on the hydrology of the peatland by increasing the depth of ground water table, and decreasing the throughfall.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4732, category Article
Juhani Päivänen. (1966). Sateen jakaantuminen erilaisissa metsiköissä. Silva Fennica no. 119 article id 4732. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14290
English title: Distribution of rainfall in different types of forest stands.

Stand precipitation and stemflow studies became necessary in connection with hydrologic studies, for instance, to explain the deviations resulting from rains in the ratios between the water content of peat and the groundwater level, throughfall during rains of variable heaviness, and effect of stand treatment on soil moisture level. In this project the distribution of rainfall in stands differing in species composition and density was studied in Central Finland in 1963–1965 in fifteen stand precipitation sample plots. In addition, rain gauges were situated under individual Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and birch (Betula sp.) trees.

The average precipitation in the open was 4.8 mm, the corresponding precipitation in the stand was 77% for birch, 71% for pine and 62% for spruce. Measurements of stemflow from individual sample trees showed that less than ¼ mm (about 1.5%) during a 15 mm rain in a pine stand. In the spruce stands stemflow is negligible. A part of the sample plots was in drained peatlands with a dense vegetation of small shrubs. The shrub layer retention was about 10% even during heavy rain. In a small forest clearing, the bordering effect of the forest was seen up to the distance of 5 metres from the edge of the forest. During the period of study, on an average 3% more precipitation was recorded in the clearing than in the open, the difference being probably due to the stronger wind effect in the open.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Päivänen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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