Current issue: 55(4)
Under compilation: 55(5)
The effect of species mixture was studied in a mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by simulating around 100 different treatment schedules during the rotation in a naturally regenerated even-aged stand located on a site of medium fertility in North Karelia, Finland. Both thinning from below and thinning from above were applied. Optimum rotations were determined by maximising the net present value calculated to infinity and different treatment schedules were compared with the net present value over one rotation as per rotation applied. In the optimum treatment programme, the proportion of pines was decreased by half of the basal area in the first thinning stage and by the end of the rotation to about one third. In thinning from above, the proportion of pines can be maintained at a slightly higher level. It is economically profitable to maintain the growing stock capital at approximately the level recommended by Forest Centre Tapio, a semi-governmental forestry authority. With non-optimum species composition, the loss in net present value over one rotation can be about 10 % in thinning from below and about 20 % in thinning from above.
Forest management practices have deployed during the centuries very differently in different regions. The geographical as well as other nature related factors influence them heavily. During the first half of 19th century was shelterwood felling much used practice especially in Prussia. Meanwhile the clearcutting with planting the seedlings became also more popular. The method is still widely used in many countries. Becoming more popular the clear cut and planting practice changed the modus operandi of forestry from close-to-nature to economically-oriented.The article discusses based on literature the most important developments of the forest management practices, especially regarding felling and regeneration methods. The article concludes with the view that usage of boarder selection felling as well as continuous forest management system are not suitable for small-scale forestry (on small private estates) on in Finland common barren sites. On more fertile soils the boarder selection felling would give good results and could be recommended also for more use. However, the bad market conditions make the more intensive forest management impossible in most parts of Finland. More research is needed in order to find best felling methods for fertile small-scale private forests.
Silva Fennica Issue 80 includes presentations held in 1952 in the 7th professional development courses, arranged for foresters working in the Forest Service. The presentations focus on practical issues in forest management and administration, especially in regional level. The education was arranged by Forest Service.
This presentation describes history of wood harvesting and logging methods used in the state forests in Finland. The article discusses the problems caused by, for instance, of light sellection fellings to the silvicultural state of the forests. The silvicultural state of the forest could be improved by introducing silvicultural logging methods, and selection of seed trees to improve the genetic quality of seeds used in regeneration.
The article gives a review on the history of forest management in the Northern countries. The article concludes that in the Northern Countries with their immense supplies of forest and small demand, because of sparse population, there was no hurry for developing the study of forest economics, as was the case in Central Europe. It was only when the modern wood using industry had revolutionized the marketing conditions, that the opportunity was provided for forest economics to develop. The paper introduces the book ’Om skogarnas skötsel in Norden’ (Silviculture in the Northern Countries) written by a Finn C.C. Böcker. That paper was compiled in behalf of a request of the king of Sweden, King Carl XIV Johan, who offered a price to a person who would draw a scheme for organizing forestry in Sweden, where Finland at that time belonged to. The prize was divided by Böcker and a swede, af Ström.
The PDF includes a summary in Finnish and English and the original text in Swedish.