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Articles containing the keyword 'foliar analysis'.

Category: Research article

article id 123, category Research article
Staffan Jacobson, Folke Pettersson. (2010). An assessment of different fertilization regimes in three boreal coniferous stands. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 5 article id 123. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.123
In 1981–82 three field experiments were established with the aim of elucidating (i) the growth response of middle-aged coniferous stands at different fertilization intensities and, hence, the economic outcomes; and (ii) the need to add nutrients other than nitrogen (N). Nutrient additions were performed at intervals of two, four, six and eight years. The experiments were established on typical podzolized and N-limited mor-humus sites, two in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands and one in a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand, at three different locations in Sweden. The ages of the stands were 65–70 years at the time of establishment. Growth responses were calculated after a 22-year study period. The growth responses were significant in all treatments. The addition of nutrients other than N did not affect stem growth at any of the sites. The growth response tended to increase with decreasing application interval. The results also revealed that the efficiency of fertilization is reduced as the interval between fertilizations is shortened. Accordingly, the growth effect per kg of added N was negatively correlated to fertilization intensity. The least intensive fertilization regime (an eight-year interval) resulted in an average net increase in C sequestration of 35 kg per kg N added. The profitability, in terms of internal rate of return, the present net value at different interest rates and the cost of production, i.e. the cost to produce one extra m3 under the different N regimes, are presented and discussed.
  • Jacobson, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-75183 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: staffan.jacobson@skogforsk.se (email)
  • Pettersson, Skogforsk, Uppsala Science Park, SE-75183 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 129, category Research article
Mikko Moilanen, Markku Saarinen, Klaus Silfverberg. (2010). Foliar nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations of Scots pine in drained mires in Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 44 no. 4 article id 129. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.129
An imbalanced nutrient status in Scots pine stands on drained mires is primarily a consequence of excess nitrogen (N) in relation to mineral nutrients such as phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). In this study, the variation of foliar N, P, and K concentrations relative to some site and environmental characteristics was examined. Foliar nutrient concentrations were determined on needle samples collected from mires representing different drainage ages, site types, geographical locations and annual weather conditions. In the overall data (n = 971 samples in 333 stands) the foliar N concentration varied between 6.7 and 24.2 mg g-1, the P concentration between 0.83 and 2.32 mg g-1, and the K concentration between 2.22 and 6.23 mg g-1. The original (pre-drainage) mire site type proved to be an important factor in explaining the nutrient status of the trees: on originally forested sites, the nutrient balance (N versus K; N versus P) was mostly adequate, whereas on sparsely forested and treeless sites, K deficiency was common. N deficiency was the most common in forested ‘nitrogen-poor’ sites, while P and K deficiencies were more common in originally treeless or sparsely forested ‘nitrogen rich’ sites, where the nutrient imbalance was also the greatest. Over the whole data, 29% of the cases were diagnosed to be N-deficient, 51% P-deficient, and 25% K-deficient. The foliar N concentration increased with increasing temperature sum. The foliar K concentration decreased with increasing depth of the peat layer. On former treeless or sparsely forested sites, foliar K decreased slightly with increasing drainage age. In contrast, on thin-peated sites the foliar P concentration increased with increasing drainage age. The climate conditions (location), the original site type of the mire and peat thickness should be taken into account when planning silvicultural measures on mires drained for forestry.
  • Moilanen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Muhos and Parkano Research Units, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: mikko.moilanen@metla.fi (email)
  • Saarinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Muhos and Parkano Research Units, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Silfverberg, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Muhos and Parkano Research Units, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 281, category Research article
Florence Renou-Wilson, Edward P. Farrell. (2007). The use of foliage and soil information for managing the nutrition of Sitka and Norway spruce on cutaway peatlands. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 3 article id 281. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.281
This investigation focuses on the development and nutrient status of the first Sitka spruce and Norway spruce stands established on milled cutaway peatlands in Ireland in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Phosphatic fertilization at planting is critical for the establishment of trees on cutaway peatlands but may not be sufficient to see the stands close canopy. Results from this study indicate the likely demand for P and N fertilizer during the rotation of these plantations. During the ten-year-study period (1994–2004), the nutrient status of both Norway and Sitka spruce stands deteriorated with the passage of time. Twenty-seven out of the twenty-eight examined stands became P deficient before 10 years old and half of the plots were N deficient within 13 to 15 years. Sitka spruce stands became N and P deficient earlier than Norway spruce. Regardless of species, tree stands growing on Sphagnum peat entered the critical N deficiency threshold sooner and were all severely deficient by 2004 compared to 22% of the trees growing on Phragmites peat. The effects of aerial re-fertilization were also site specific and although P deficiency was cured, the trees were likely to suffer from nutrient imbalance (N and Cu especially). These results demand a change of standard fertilization practices, which should be related more specifically to peat type and species requirements. Peat type identification and foliar analysis monitoring should become standard management tools while the long-term continuous monitoring of these new forests would be very valuable throughout their first rotation.
  • Renou-Wilson, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Farrell, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 483, category Research article
Staffan Jacobson. (2003). Addition of stabilized wood ashes to Swedish coniferous stands on mineral soils - effects on stem growth and needle nutrient concentrations. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 4 article id 483. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.483
Increasing use of forest fuels for energy production is generating increasing quantities of wood ash. A common understanding is that this ash should be spread in forests to counteract soil acidification and potential future nutrient deficiencies, and thus help sustain long-term forest productivity. A series of seven field experiments was established in Sweden in 1988–1995 to study the stem growth and needle nutrient concentrations of 30–60-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands on mineral soil after additions of wood ash in different doses or a combination of wood ash and N. The results showed that the most pronounced growth responses occurred when N was added, either alone or in combination with wood ash. The stem growth responses to additions of wood ash without N were small and variable, and not statistically significant at any of the studied experimental sites. However, there were indications that the addition of wood ash may increase stem-wood growth on fertile sites and decrease it on less fertile sites. In the short term, the addition of wood ash tended to increase the needle nutrient concentrations of most analyzed elements, except for N, but this could not be correlated to responses in stem growth.
  • Jacobson, The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala Science Park, SE-75183 Uppsala, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: staffan.jacobson@skogforsk.se (email)
article id 492, category Research article
Seppo Kaunisto, Tytti Sarjala. (2003). Foliar potassium concentrations of bilberry, bog bilberry and downy birch as indicators of potassium nutrition of Scots pine on a drained peatland. Silva Fennica vol. 37 no. 3 article id 492. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.492
Leaves of bilberry (V. myrtillus), bog bilberry (V. uliginosum) and downy birch (B. pubescens) were collected five times during a growing season from 18 plots in a drainage area, and needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) once during the following winter from the same plots at Parkano, southern Finland. The aim was to study the potassium nutrition of the test plants and relationships between the foliar potassium concentrations of Scots pine and of the test plants. The estimation of the potassium nutrition of test plants was based on the accumulation of putrescine in foliage. Apart from single observations, elevated putrescine concentrations were found when the potassium concentrations were < 5 mg g–1 in bilberry, < 4 mg g–1 in bog bilberry and < 6 mg g–1 in downy birch, and the highest concentrations below the potassium levels of 3.0–3.5 mg g–1. At the concentrations of 2–3 mg g–1 the accumulation increased pronouncedly in bog bilberry but less in downy birch and only slightly in bilberry. The foliar potassium concentrations in test plants correlated closely with the concentrations in pine needles. The concentrations of all species in August were quite stable at the levels of the severe and slight potassium deficiency of pine (3.5 and 4.5 mg g–1 respectively) indicating that August would be suitable for collecting foliage. The concentrations in bog bilberry were very close to the concentrations in pine at the severe and those in bilberry at the slight deficiency level of pine. All test plants could be used for predicting the potassium nutrition of Scots pine, but additional research is needed for the practical application of the method.
  • Kaunisto, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Station, Kaironiementie 54, FIN-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail: seppo.kaunisto@metla.fi (email)
  • Sarjala, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Station, Kaironiementie 54, FIN-39700 Parkano, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 7653, category Article
Ladawan Atipanumpai. (1989). Acacia mangium : Studies on the genetic variation in ecological and physiological characteristics of a fastgrowing plantation tree species. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 206 article id 7653. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7653

Genetic variation in the physiological characteristics and biomass accumulation of Acacia mangium Willd. was studied in both field and laboratory conditions. Variation in the growth characteristics, foliar nutrient concentration, phyllode anatomy and stomatal frequency was analysed in 16 different origins under field conditions in Central Thailand. Family variation and heritability of growth and flowering frequency were calculated using 20 open-pollinated families at the age of 28 months. The effect of environmental factors on diameter growth in different provenances is also discussed.

Under laboratory conditions, such physiological characteristics as transpiration rate, leaf conductance and leaf water potential were measured at varying soil moisture conditions. The responses of photosynthesis, photorespiration and dark respiration as well as the CO2 compensation point to temperature and irradiance were also investigated. All physiological characteristics indicated differences among provenances. An attempt was made to relate the results obtained in the laboratory to the growth performance in the field. Recommendations on provenance selection for the planting of A. mangium in Thailand are also given.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Atipanumpai, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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