Current issue: 53(3)

Under compilation: 53(4)

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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
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Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'forest type'.

Category: Research article

article id 975, category Research article
Renats Trubins, Ola Sallnäs. (2014). Categorical mapping from estimates of continuous forest attributes – classification and accuracy. Silva Fennica vol. 48 no. 2 article id 975. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.975
Highlights: The paper presents an approach to classification and accuracy assessment of ad-hoc categorical maps based on existing spatial datasets with estimates of continuous forest variables; Pixel level class membership probabilities are estimated using a Bayesian network model.
Spatially explicit data on forest attributes is demanded for various research with landscape perspective. Existing datasets with estimates of continuous forest variables are often used as the basis for producing categorical forest type maps. Normally, this type of maps are used without knowing their accuracy. This paper presents a Bayesian network model for estimating pixel level class membership probabilities of thus derived categorical maps. Class membership probabilities can be used as a post-classification measure of map accuracy and in the process of map classification affecting the assignments of class labels. The method is applied in mapping deciduous dominated forests on the basis of the k-NN Sweden 2005 dataset in a study area in southern Sweden. The results indicate rather low accuracy for deciduous class regardless of the map classification method: 0.48 versus 0.50 in the maps classified without and with the use of the class membership probabilities given equal deciduous area. When probability-based classification is applied, the level of accuracy varies with the assumed map class proportions. Thus, when deciduous class area corresponding to the National Forest Inventory estimate was used, the accuracy of only 0.35 was obtained for the deciduous map class.
  • Trubins, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 49, 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: renats.trubins@slu.se (email)
  • Sallnäs, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 49, 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden ORCID ID:E-mail: ola.sallnas@slu.se

Category: Article

article id 7170, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1967). Luonnonnormaalien metsiköiden kehityksestä Kainuussa ja sen lähiympäristössä. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 81 no. 5 article id 7170. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7170
English title: The development of natural normal forest stands in southeastern Northern Finland.

Examination of stands developed under natural conditions can be used to provide basis for comparison for study of the development and yield of stands treated with intermediate fellings. In Finland, the first investigation and the yield and the structure of natural normal stands were published in 1920. This investigation on development and yield of the natural forests of Kainuu in southeastern Northern Finland is based on 92 sample plots on three forest types; Empetrum-Vaccinium type (EVT), Empetrum-Calluna type (ECT) and Vaccinium-Myrtillus type (VMT).

The Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sample plots represented variation of age classes for construction of mean development series. The Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) of the region are so old that development series could be obtained only for dominant trees based on stem analysis.

The average development of Scots pine stand on EMT type within the region is on average more rapid and the yield in cubic volume quantitatively larger and structurally better than that on ECT type. Self-thinning during the early decades of EVT is slower. The pine stands are denser in the age of 70 in Kainuu compared to Central Northern Finland, but the development and yield are similar.

The development, yield and structure of natural Norway spruce stand on VMT proved considerably inferior to the average level of pine stands on EVT, and to a major part on ECT. The mixed pines on spruce sample plots have developed better than spruces of equal age. Spruce stands on VMT in the area developed markedly better than Geranium-Dryopteris-Myrtillus (GDMT) in Central Northern Finland.

It seems that a spruce stand seems to require more fertile site type in north than in the southern part of Finland. These fertile types are relative rare in the north. In the region, the best results are received with pine. As a rule, also the yield of birch (Betula sp.) is poor in the region.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7155, category Article
Bo Högnäs. (1966). Investigations on forest types and stand development in Åland in Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 78 no. 2 article id 7155. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7155

The purpose of this study is to clarify the forest types in pure coniferous stands in Åland in Finland, to study them in a biological light and account for the production of the stands on respective sites. The flora of the forest types in Åland has been described in an earlier study, but as the plant associations have not been described it has often been difficult to determine the correct types in field work. Sample plots were chosen in coniferous forests with maximum 20% of other species. The vegetation analysis was limited to determine composition of species, projected coverage and the frequency of species. In addition, cubic volume and growth of the growing stock was calculated for the stands.

The results of the study showed that site type and fertility correspond to each other nearly without exception only on normal moraines, if only the ground vegetation is used as a criterion for the type. The general occurense of soils of different qualities makes it necessary to determine, besides forest type, other characteristics in the stands, preferably the dominant height. The total production of coniferous forests with great probability is smaller in Åland than in mainland Finland. The results can be applied also to Åboland’s archipelago, where the milieu of the coniferous forests is similar.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Högnäs, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7470, category Article
Juhani Sarasto. (1957). Metsän kasvattamiseksi ojitettujen soiden aluskasvillisuudenrakenteesta ja kehityksestä Suomen eteläpuoliskossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 65 no. 7 article id 7470. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7470
English title: Understorey vegetation and its development in drained peatlands in the southern half of Finland.

According to studies following the development of vegetation of drained peatlands, it seems that they have transformed to a relatively stable plant communities during the succession. In earlier studies it was assumed that after drainage a mire type would develop to a corresponding forest site. This investigation studies what kinds of plant communities are formed during succession of different mire types on peatlands drained for forestry in the southern half of Finland. Understorey vegetation was studied in 18 sample plots established by Forest Research Institute on drained peatlands. In addition, sample plots were studied on peatlands in natural state.

The results suggest that understorey vegetation on peatlands drained for forestry have developed into plant communities, the most advanced of which are the so-called dry plant communities. They represent transformed site types, which are the following: drained peatlands with upland herb-rich vegetation, drained peatlands with upland grass-herb vegetation, drained peatlands with upland Myrtillus site type vegetation, drained peatlands with upland Vaccinium site type vegetation, and drained peatlands with upland Calluna site type vegetation. Drained peatlands with upland Cladonia site type vegetation seem to be a temporary type caused by incomplete drainage. The transition between Myrtillus and Vaccinium dominated dry plant communities is not clear, but especially the pure Vaccinium vitis-ideae communities justify its place as an independent plant community. The dry drwarf shrub plant communities are also stable.

The PDF includes a summary in German.

  • Sarasto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7451, category Article
Helge Gyllenberg, Pauli Hanioja, Unto Vartiovaara. (1954). Havaintoja eräiden viljelemättömien maatyyppien mikrobiston koostumuksesta. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 62 no. 2 article id 7451. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7451
English title: Observations on the composition of the microbial population in some virgin soils.

The purpose of this investigation was to obtain a preliminary picture of the composition of the microbial population in some virgin soils on forest land in Finland. Four different forest types were studied, Oxalis-Myrtillus type birch (Betula sp.) stand, Oxalis-Myrtillus type Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand, Vaccinium type Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand, and drained pine bog. In addition, a flood meadow was selected as a comparison.

The methods used captured only part of the fungi growing in the soil. Rapidly growing types, especially Mucor and Penicillium species, were mainly isolated. In addition, fungi showing activity of decomposition, such as Fusarium, Monosporium and Spicaria, as well as an ascomycete of the genius Ascobolus, were isolated. Autochthonous bacteria were most abundant in the soils of Oxalis-Myrtillus type forests and in the flood meadow. In the birch stand 90% of the autochthonous bacterial flora were gram-negative bacteria, in the Oxallis-Myrtillus spruce and Vaccinium type pine stand 60% were gram-negative, while the share was only 25% in the pine bog. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the type Clostridium pasteurianum were found in all soils. Actinomycetes were found in all sites. The numbers of protozoa were highest in the soils of Oxalis-Myrtillus type forests.

There were no big differences between the forest soils and the flood meadow. Some groups of micro-organisms seem to be absent from the forest soils, which is probably due to the more favourable pH in the meadow. The occurrence of myxobacteria is interesting since no earlier data exist of this organism in Finnish soils.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Gyllenberg, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hanioja, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vartiovaara, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7396, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1949). Forest types and their significance. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 56 no. 5 article id 7396. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7396

This special volume of Acta Forestalia Fennica is published in memory of professor A.K. Cajander (1879-1943), who was one of the founders of the Finnish Society of Forest Science. It contains a short biography, a complete list of his literary works and one of the papers on forest types he has written.

This article contains professor A.K. Cajander’s paper on the theory of forest types in English. The article can be found in Finnish in separate PDF (article id 7695).

The idea of forest types was developed by professor Cajander first in 1904-1909, when he was working as a student in the Evo Forestry Institute. The first publication in 1909 was followed by intensive research and the findings of the investigations were published in 1929 in Acta Forestalia Fennica 29 (Metsätyyppiteoria, The theory of forest types).

When classifying forest growing sites, the purpose is to combine those having the same or approximately same yield capacity, and to separate into different classes those whose yield capacity is widely different. The article states that site quality classification is a necessity in organized forest management as it gives a basis for all forest calculations concerning with yield and profit. The principles of site classification and its meaning in forest management is discussed.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7396, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1949). Forest types and their significance. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 56 no. 5 article id 7396. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7396

This special volume of Acta Forestalia Fennica is published in memory of professor A.K. Cajander (1879-1943), who was one of the founders of the Finnish Society of Forest Science. It contains a short biography, a complete list of his literary works and one of the papers on forest types he has written.

This article contains professor A.K. Cajander’s paper on the theory of forest types in English. The article can be found in Finnish in separate PDF (article id 7695).

The idea of forest types was developed by professor Cajander first in 1904-1909, when he was working as a student in the Evo Forestry Institute. The first publication in 1909 was followed by intensive research and the findings of the investigations were published in 1929 in Acta Forestalia Fennica 29 (Metsätyyppiteoria, The theory of forest types).

When classifying forest growing sites, the purpose is to combine those having the same or approximately same yield capacity, and to separate into different classes those whose yield capacity is widely different. The article states that site quality classification is a necessity in organized forest management as it gives a basis for all forest calculations concerning with yield and profit. The principles of site classification and its meaning in forest management is discussed.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7395, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1949). Metsätyypit ja niiden merkitys. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 56 no. 4 article id 7395. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7395
English title: Forest types and their significance.

This special volume of Acta Forestalia Fennica is published in memory of professor A.K. Cajander (1879-1943), who was one of the founders of the Finnish Society of Forest Science. It contains a short biography, a complete list of his literary works and one of the papers on forest types he has written.

This PDF includes his article on forest types in Finnish. The translation of the text in English can be found in a separate PDF (article id 7396).

The idea of forest types was developed by professor Cajander first in 1904-1909, when he was working as a student in the Evo Forestry Institute. The first publication in 1909 was followed by intensive research and the findings of the investigations were published in 1929 in Acta Forestalia Fennica 29 (Metsätyyppiteoria, The theory of forest types).

When classifying forest growing sites, the purpose is to combine those having the same or approximately same yield capacity, and to separate into different classes those whose yield capacity is widely different. The article states that site quality classification is a necessity in organized forest management as it gives a basis for all forest calculations concerning with yield and profit. The principles of site classification and its meaning in forest management is discussed.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7395, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1949). Metsätyypit ja niiden merkitys. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 56 no. 4 article id 7395. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7395
English title: Forest types and their significance.

This special volume of Acta Forestalia Fennica is published in memory of professor A.K. Cajander (1879-1943), who was one of the founders of the Finnish Society of Forest Science. It contains a short biography, a complete list of his literary works and one of the papers on forest types he has written.

This PDF includes his article on forest types in Finnish. The translation of the text in English can be found in a separate PDF (article id 7396).

The idea of forest types was developed by professor Cajander first in 1904-1909, when he was working as a student in the Evo Forestry Institute. The first publication in 1909 was followed by intensive research and the findings of the investigations were published in 1929 in Acta Forestalia Fennica 29 (Metsätyyppiteoria, The theory of forest types).

When classifying forest growing sites, the purpose is to combine those having the same or approximately same yield capacity, and to separate into different classes those whose yield capacity is widely different. The article states that site quality classification is a necessity in organized forest management as it gives a basis for all forest calculations concerning with yield and profit. The principles of site classification and its meaning in forest management is discussed.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7384, category Article
Valter Keltikangas. (1945). Ojitettujen soitten viljavuus eli puuntuottokyky metsätyyppiteorian valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 53 no. 1 article id 7384. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7384
English title: Fertility of drained bogs and their production capacity in relation to the theory of forest types.

According to the theory of peatland types, particular peatland types, after sufficient drainage, change into certain forest types. It has been found, that the range of forest types in peatlands in different stages of draining is as large as on mineral soil; and comprise Cladina, Calluna, Vaccinium, Myrtillus Oxalis-myrtillus and grove types. Poor peatland types change into poor forest types, better for better types. However, a Swedish scientist Mellin suggested that after effective drainage especially oligotrophic bogs, when well drained, change usually into Myrtillus type.

The different conclusions are due to the fact that the same bog type may develop into different forest types according to the effectiveness and duration of the drainage. Greater the decay of the peat bog layer, the more exacting is the type of vegetation which appears. Bog types of classes V, IV and III (Finnish classification of site quality) change into a Myrtillus type, as do the poorer peatland types of class II. The types vary, however, in their economical drainage value. The fact that bogs which in their natural stage are clearly different in their site quality change after through drainage into the same forest type, is explained by the chemical quality of the peat. However, class I and the best types of class II bogs change into better forest types because they as eutropchic bogs are richer in nitrogen and lime. This difference persists despite of effective draining.

It has been shown that the development of eutrophic peatland types at the forest type stage also differs clearly from the development of oligotrophic peatland types. The Finnish classification of drainage value shows correctly the relative drainability when using normal spacing of ditches. The notes on forest types on mineral soil should, however, be replaced by corresponding notes on the transitive types between bog and forest types.

The PDF includes a summary in Swedish and English.

  • Keltikangas, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7329, category Article
V. E. Svinhufvud. (1937). Untersuchungen über die bodenmikrobiologischen Unterschiede der Cajander'schen Waldtypen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 44 no. 1 article id 7329. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7329
English title: Studies on the microbiological differences in soil between the forest types.

Earlier studies show that different kind of biological processes occur in the soil of different forest types. These differences may be due differences in microbiology of those soils. This article studies these differences.

Soil samples from five different forest types were collected from the Ruotsinkylä research forest in three different seasons: in January, March and September.

The amount of bacteria in the samples is at the lowest in March and highest in September.   During the winter more anaerobic bacteria were found. The amount of denitrifying bacteria is higher in the soil than amount of nitrifying bacteria.

The results indicate that the species composition of soil varies between the forest types in the same manner than the vegetation composition above the soil. However, this study is only a preliminary and more knowledge is needed about the discipline before practical implications can be drawn.

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish.  

  • Svinhufvud, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7261, category Article
K. Linkola. (1930). Über die Halbhainwälder in Eesti. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 36 no. 3 article id 7261. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7261
English title: On half-deciduous woodlands in Estonia.

Half-deciduous woodlands are the combination of deciduous forests and heath forests from their vegetation. The article describes three half-deciduous forest types from the commune of Hager, 40 kilometers south form Tallinn.

The occurrence of half-deciduous forests depends on the soil conditions, especially on lime content of the soil, when the occurrence of other forest types is more a question of climate. They are important as an original site for many continental plant species.   

The PDF contains a summary in Finnish. 

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7253, category Article
K. Linkola. (1929). Zur Kenntnis der Waldtypen Eestis. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 40 article id 7253. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7253
English title: Knowledge on the forest types in Estonia.

The article summarizes the observations about forest types from different parts of Estonia. The chosen examples represent the normal forest where age class division is natural and the species composition has not been altered through felling or grazing. These are mainly found in the areas of earlier manors of the nobility. The samples are only from mineral soils. Vegetation analysis and middle-European height-over-age-survey were made.

Because of the great share of herb-rich-forest the forest type classification for Estonia is complex. There are many types that have not been described earlier.

The study describes the characteristics and the vegetation types of the heath forests, fresh forests, half-herb-rich-forests and herb-rich-forests.        

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7246, category Article
K. Kirstein. (1929). Lettlands Waldtypen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 33 article id 7246. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7246
English title: Forest types in Latvia.

The article discusses the different methods to classify forest sites and applies the methods to classify forests in Latvia. The three methods are: height-over-age classification, from standpoint of floristic (botanical- plant geographical standpoint), and forest types. A good classification method must: describe the main characters of a site illustratively, the classification units need to relate to each other, and the classification method is easy to use in practice. In contrast to other methods, by forest type classification the stand and the site are considered as whole and hence it is considered as the best of the three.

There is one classification system for the whole Latvia. The forests can be divided into permanent and transition types. In the permanent types the site factors stay rather unchanged and the site characters tally with the requirements of the dominant species. sites where the current tree species produces less than optimum growth are classified as transition types.

The forest types have changed over the time because of leaching of the nutrients from the soil.   

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Kirstein, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7236, category Article
K. J. Valle. (1929). Können die südfinnischen Seen vermittels der umgebenden Vegetation und Flora bonitiert werden. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 23 article id 7236. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7236
English title: Can the seas in southern Finland be classified according the productivity by means of surrounding vegetation and flora.

The aim of the study is to define to which extent the productivity of seas in south Finland, and especially the production of animals in sea bottom, can be determined according the forest site classification given to the land areas around the sea, meaning that the productivity class is the same for the forest and the sea. The data for the study has been collected in state owned forests in Evo in middle Finland, in Karelia around the Finnish and Russian border and in southern parts of Karelia.

Where the forests are more barren, VT or Ct types, also the seas have lower productivity, they are oligotrophic or mesotrophic. However, the less barren surrounding forests are not a clear sign of the productivity of the sea. As a result the productivity level of a sea can be estimated relatively good by the fertility of the surrounding areas, though not in all cases. 

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

The PDF contains a summary in German.

  • Valle, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7232, category Article
Edvard Wibeck. (1929). Erwägungen bei Wahl von Kulturmethoden in der schwedischen Nadelwaldwirtschaft. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 19 article id 7232. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7232
English title: Discussions on the choice of cultivation method in coniferous forests in Sweden.

In Sweden lot of state owned forests or earlier mining districts or districts of ironworks have been afforested during the last decade. The amount of afforested areas sinks from south to north. Afforestation has taken place also in privately owned forests.

The article discusses the common economic questions related to afforestation work and the biological viewpoints related to it. The best cultivation methods are presented for several common forest types, such as herb-rich forest types, moss-grown forests types, swampy forests with heavy raw humus and barren pine forest sites (lichen type).

The volume 34 of Acta Forestalia Fennica is a jubileum publication of professor Aimo Kaarlo Cajander.

  • Wibeck, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7224, category Article
C. H. Bornebusch. (1929). Danmarks skovtyper. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 34 no. 11 article id 7224. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7224
English title: Forest types in Denmark.

The paper describes plant species characteristic for ash (Fraxinus exelsior L.) forests in Denmark, and compares the vegetation to beech (Fagus ssp.) forests, the dominating tree species in Danish forests, which have notably simpler ground vegetation. The writer concludes that ground vegetation can be divided into distinct types. Beech grows in several types of soil differing in their fertility (bonitet). The writer has divided the different soil types by their flora (tilstandstyper). The flora is influenced by three factors: climate, fertility of the soil and soil moisture. The paper defines the types of vegetation which describe fertility of the sites (bonitet), and discusses how age, silvicultural condition and tree species affect the vegetation.

  • Bornebusch, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5587, category Article
Dina I. Nazimova, N.P. Polikarpov. (1996). Forest zones of Siberia as determined by climatic zones and their possible transformation trends under global change. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 2–3 article id 5587. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9232

A system of zonality in Siberia has been formed under the control of continentality, which provides the heat and humidity regimes of the forest provinces. Three sectors of continentality and four to six boreal sub-zone form a framework for the systematization of the different features of land cover in Siberia. Their climatic ordination provides the fundamental basis for the principal potential forest types (composition, productivity) forecasting the current climate. These are useful in predicting the future transformations and succession under global change.

  • Nazimova, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Polikarpov, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5572, category Article
Markku Lehtelä, Juha-Pekka Hotanen, Pentti Sepponen. (1996). Understorey vegetation in fresh and herb-rich upland forests in southwest Lapland. Silva Fennica vol. 30 no. 1 article id 5572. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9217

Fresh and herb-rich upland forest sites in the north-western part of the central boreal vegetation zone in Finland were studied with respect to vegetation structure and vegetation-environment relationships (soil, stand characteristics). Two fresh heath vegetation data sets, one from the northern boreal zone and the other from the central boreal zone, were compared with the data of this study using multivariate methods.

The variation in heath forest vegetation within the climatically uniform area was mainly determined by the fertility of the soil (primarily Ca and Mg) and the stage of stand development. N, P and K content of the humus layer varied little between the vegetation classes. Fertile site types occurred, in general, on coarse-textured soils than infertile site types, may be due to the fact that the sample plots were located in various bedrock and glacial till areas, i.e. to sampling effects.

The place of the vegetational units of the study area in the Finnish forest site type system is discussed. The vegetation of the area has features in common with the northern boreal zone as well as the southern part of the central boreal vegetation zone. The results lend some support to the occurrence of a northern Myrtillus type or at least that intermediate form of fresh and herb-rich mineral soil sites commonly occur in the studied area. It is argued that the older name Dryopteris-Myrtillus type is more suitable than Geranium-Oxalis-Myrtillus type for herb-rich heath sites in the study area.

  • Lehtelä, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Hotanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Sepponen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7193, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1926). The theory of forest types. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 29 no. 3 article id 7193. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7193

The forest sites have typically been classified by two principles, either as stand quality classes or as locality (site) classes. This article describes the principles of Finnish forest site types (forest quality classes) which are based on classification of localities according to their forest plant associations. All the stands that belong to the same forest site type are characterized by a distinct, more or less identical plant species composition. The forest site types are independent of the tree species. The forest site types in a larger area are relatively numerous, but can be grouped according to their normal form. The Finnish forests are separated to dry moss forest class, the moist moss-forest forest class and grass-herb forest class. The different forest site types belonging to the classes are described in detail. Growth of the trees is different for the different forest site types, but varies little within a same site type. The forest site types suit therefore well for the purposes of forest mensuration and for yield tables. The forest site types reflect also the properties of the soil.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7192, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1925). Metsätyyppiteoria. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 29 no. 2 article id 7192. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7192
English title: The theory of forest types.

The forest sites have typically been classified by two principles, either as stand quality classes or as locality (site) classes. This article describes the principles of Finnish forest site types (forest quality classes) which are based on classification of localities according to their forest plant associations. All the stands that belong to the same forest site type are characterized by a distinct, more or less identical plant species composition. The forest site types are independent of the tree species. The forest site types in a larger area are relatively numerous, but can be grouped according to their normal form. The Finnish forests are separated to dry moss forest class, the moist moss-forest forest class and grass-herb forest class. The different forest site types belonging to the classes are described in detail. Growth of the trees is different for the different forest site types, but varies little within a same site type. The forest site types suit therefore well for the purposes of forest mensuration and for yield tables. The forest site types reflect also the properties of the soil.

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5494, category Article
Jari Nieppola. (1993). Site classification in Pinus sylvestris L. forests in southern Finland. Silva Fennica vol. 27 no. 1 article id 5494. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15655

It was examined whether the present site classification method, and especially its applicability to site productivity estimation, could be improved in upland Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Southern Finland by developing a classification key based on Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN), and/or by inclusion of soil texture, stoniness and the humus layer depth more closely in the classification method. TWINSPAN clusters (TW) explained 71%, and forest site types (FST) 64% of the variation in site index (SI) (H100). When soil texture (TEXT) was added to the regression model, the explanatory power increased to 82% (SI = TW + TW * TEXT) and to 80% (SI = FST + FST * TEXT), respectively. Soil texture alone explained 69% of the variation in site index. The influence of stoniness on site index was significant (P <0.05) on sorted medium sand soils and on medium and fine sand moraine soils. The thickness of the humus layer (2–6 cm) was not significantly (P=0.1) related to site index.

It is suggested that the proposed TWINSPAN classification cannot replace the present forest site type system in Scots pine stands in Southern Finland. However, the TWINSPAN key may be used to aid the identification of forest types. The observation of dominant soil texture within each forest type is recommended.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Nieppola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7081, category Article
V. T. Aaltonen. (1923). Über die räumliche Ordnung der Pflanzen auf dem Felde und im Walde. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 6 article id 7081. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7081
English title: On the spatial order of plants on fields and in forests.
Original keywords: Wurzeln; Feldversuche; Mais; Waldtypen; Boden

The article contains a literature review about the spatial order of plants and a description of the small-scale experiments with corn. The literature is primarily of German origin. The question of the spatial conditions of trees in forest is important for practice of silviculture. The first part of the article illustrates based on the literature the importance of roots and root concurrence for the development of plants or forest stands. The second and third part deepens the methodological knowledge on root research. Fourth part is the field experiments with corn. There are no clear relation to be found between yield and the number of plants.  

  • Aaltonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7079, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1923). Was wird mit den Waldtypen bezweckt? Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 4 article id 7079. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7079
English title: What do the forest types stand for?
Original keywords: Waldtypen; Begriff; Zweck
English keywords: forest type; concept; purpose

The article aims to clarify the terminology and concepts related to forest type classification. The silvicultural meaning of forest type classification is to create classes so that the forests in one class have proximately same growth and yield conditions. The article describes the meaning of silvicultural forest type classification with seven objectives: to create a common height over age -site classification for all tree species; to achieve a common site classification practice for different countries; to achieve the natural height over age –site classifications that are easy to take into account by map drawing; to be able to treat the data for every class separately; to achieve a simple but illustrative description of the site characteristics; to have a foundation for special (applied) silviculture; to create as uniform classification of forests as possible for silvicultural, forest planning or forest policy purposes.     

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7078, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1923). Über die Verteilung des fruchtbaren Bodens in Finnland und über den Einfluss dieser Verteilung auf die wirtschaftlichen Verhältnisse im Lande. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 25 no. 3 article id 7078. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7078
English title: On the division of fertile soils in Finland and its influence on the economic conditions.

The article is a presentation given by the author on occasion of visit from Austrian timber industry and foresters (August 17th 1923) in Punkaharju, Finland.

The article presents the classification of soils as forest types to describe their fertility and their occurrence in different parts of Finland. The economic conditions are only shortly mentioned: the more fertile areas in southern and western Finland have been taken for agriculture and the less fertile soils have stayed forested.   

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7072, category Article
K. Linkola. (1922). Zur Kenntnis der Verteilung der landwirtschaftlichen Siedlungen auf die Böden verschiedener Waldtypen in Finnland. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 7072. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7072
English title: Distribution of the agricultural settlements on different forest soils in Finland.

The paper studies the relationship of settlements to the forest types and forest soil. The observations have been done and data collected in southern Finland, around lakes Päijänne and Saimaa during summer 1917. Because of the shortcomings in the data, the results in the paper can be seen only as indicative.

The settlements have spread out firstly to areas of grove alike soils and herb-rich forests. The human settlements are still on these days concentrated on those areas. When more land is needed for agricultural purposes, the more fertile areas were introduced first. With forest type classification this means moving from herb-rich Oxalis-Myrtillus-type to Pyrola-type and to some extent Myrtillus-type. The more barren types are used as fields only very seldom. The differences in the fertility of the soils affects strongly the welfare and development of the people and the communes. 

The study shows that when considering the soil and vegetation, preconditions for agriculture are very different in different part of Finland. Also the climate and the geographical characters vary. To win more agricultural land, the fertile peatlands should be considered.  

  • Linkola, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5318, category Article
Tapio Lindholm, Harri Vasander. (1987). Vegetation and stand development of mesic forest after prescribed burning. Silva Fennica vol. 21 no. 3 article id 5318. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15475

This study deals with the succession of vegetation and tree stand in 16 mesic Myrtillus site type Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantations after prescribed burning in Evo, Southern Finland. The oldest tree stands studied were about 30-year-old. The growth of trees followed the height index of Myrtillus type. The vegetation was first mesic, dominated by grasses and herbs, turning more xeric after four years. This change was accelerated by treatment with herbicides. After the closure of tree stand, vegetation became more characteristic of forest vegetation, but pioneer species and composition disappeared slowly. The basic characters of vegetation succession could be clearly described by DCA ordination and TWINSPAN classification. The study confirmed that Myrtillus type has succession phases which are typical for each age phases as Cajander’s forest site type theory has proposed. However, differences in primary and secondary site factors have their own effects on the vegetation of the succession phases.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Lindholm, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Vasander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7063, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1922). Vegetationsstatistische Untersuchungen über die Waldtypen. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 20 no. 3 article id 7063. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7063
English title: Statistical studies on the vegetation in different forest types.
English keywords: statistic; vegetation; forest type;

The article statistically studies the vegetation patterns in different forest types.  

467 sample plots with area varying from one fourth of a hectare to one eighth, even one tenth of a hectare were collected. There are different amount of sample plots representing every forest type. The sample plots are located in 58 communes in southern parts of Finland, reaching from the Gulf of Finland up to Oulujärvi –see in northern Ostrobothnia. The vegetation was examined from rectangle shaped study plots in even structured and even-aged stands with one primary tree species.

The results are shown in tables for every forest type. The amount of species is at highest in the most nutritious forest types, and decreases with the shift to more infertile types. However, some species occur in all forest types, and some only or mostly on more barren types. The occurrence and abundance of most plant species does not seem to depend on the tree species of the stand, but there are some exceptions to this.

The possible shortcomings of the research method are discussed. The importance of systematic studying of the sample plots with a method of survey lines is emphasized.  

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7061, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander, Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1921). Ueber Waldtypen II. Acta Forestalia Fennica vol. 20 no. 1 article id 7061. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7061
English title: About the forest types II.

The article contains tree lectures given in the meeting of the Geographical Society in Finland on February 25th 1921.  The titles of the lectures are I Forest types in general, II Forest types as a basis for new growth and yield tables in Finland, and III Other research on forest types.  

The first lecture is a follow-up of the Cajander’s 1909 published article on forest types. It deepens the theory on forest types. The classification into forest types represents primarily different plant communities of ground cover. The types are named after the characteristic plant species, indicator plants, however, many other species appear in different abundance.

The second lecture represents the research proceedings of mensuration of forest stands of different types to compile yield tables for pine.  The forest types differ from each other distinctly on their growing preconditions, but inside one class the variation of the growing conditions is so small, that the classification can be used for yield tables, determining the basis of taxation and for classification of forest based on height over age.

The third lecture is a summary of other studies about forest type classification.  They confirm the results presented in earlier lectures. 

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5217, category Article
Pentti Sepponen. (1984). Pohjoissuomalaisten metsäammattimiesten käsityksiä metsien ja soiden marjantuotoskyvystä. Silva Fennica vol. 18 no. 3 article id 5217. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15396
English title: Observations of forest specialists in Northern Finland on the berry yield capacity of forests and swamps.

A survey was carried out among forest foremen and forest technicians to record their observations on the value of various swamp and forest types as producers of berries and on the effect of drainage of peatlands upon the berry yields. Comparative agreement existed on the best blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) forest types and on the best lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) forest types of rather dry upland sites. Fuscum pine swamps or fuscum bogs were considered best for the most part as regards the yield of cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.). The replies showed rather great dispersion.

Agreement existed as well on the relation between drainage of peatlands and the yields of our economically most important swamp berries, cloudberry and cranberry. 90% of those responding were of the opinion that drainage reduces the cloudberry yield in the long term and a full 97% indicated that cranberry crop diminishes as well.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Sepponen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5201, category Article
Jussi Kuusipalo. (1983). Distribution of vegetation on mesic forest sites in relation to some characteristics of the tree stand and soil fertility. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 4 article id 5201. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15184

Vegetation data collected from a random sample of mature forest stands representing mesic upland forest sites in Southern Finland were analysed and classified using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN). The variation of some characteristics of the tree stand and soil fertility between the produced vegetation units were analysed statistically.

Both the species list and the sample list arranged by TWINSPAN reflects the overall site fertility considerably well. The results are in agreement with the main division of mesic forest sites in the Finnish forest site type classification: vegetation units which can be assigned to the Oxalis-Myrtillus site type are clearly separated from the remaining units, and the overall site fertility indicates a statistically significant difference. The within-type variation in the vegetation composition in the Oxalis-Myrtillus site type reflects the variation in site fertility, whereas the within-type variation in the Myrtillus site type is mainly caused by the tree stand factor.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kuusipalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 5190, category Article
Jussi Kuusipalo. (1983). Mustikan varvuston biomassamäärän vaihtelusta erilaisissa metsiköissä. Silva Fennica vol. 17 no. 3 article id 5190. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15173
English title: The distribution of blueberry biomass in different forest stands.

The study deals with the distribution of above-ground biomass of Vaccinium myrtillus L. along the vegetation continuum segregated by using phytosociological classification method composite clustering. The qualitative characteristics of forest sites corresponding to different vegetational clusters were defined on the basis of indirect gradient analysis of vegetation data and description of tree stand properties in stands in 160 sample areas in Southern Finland.

Six vegetation types differing from each other mainly in abundance of the most constant and dominant plant species were formed. Sample areas with rich grass-herb vegetation, as well as sample areas representing comparatively dry, barren site type were clearly separated from other groups of sample areas. Stand characteristics, particularly the proportional distribution of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) seems to be another important factor affecting the vegetation composition.

The lowest biomass values of blueberry were connected with herb-rich vegetation and shady spruce-dominated stands. Comparatively low values were connected to also other spruce-dominated sample areas. Pine-dominant or mixed pine-spruce stands the biomass values were significantly higher. Even if the site quality is essentially equal, the abundance relationships between Vaccinium myrtillus and other components of the ground vegetation may vary in wide ranges and cause difficulties in practical site classification.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Kuusipalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4972, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki. (1977). Deterioration of forest ground cover during trampling. Silva Fennica vol. 11 no. 3 article id 4972. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14823

The aim of the present study was to investigate the trampling tolerance of forest ground cover of the Calluna, Vaccinium and Myrtillus type sites. Positive correlation was found between the site fertility and trampling tolerance of plant communities. Annual trampling at level of about 16,000 visits per hectare decreased the biomass of the ground cover to almost half of the original amount, and annual trampling of about 160,000 visits per hectare completely destroyed the forest ground cover irrespective of site fertility. Comparisons made between herb and grass dominated forest ground cover showed that herb and grass cover is in the long run the best alternative for the management of ground cover in intensively used recreation areas.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4907, category Article
Heikki Wuorenrinne. (1974). Suomen kekomuurahaisten (Formica rufa coll.) ekologiasta ja levinneisyydestä. Silva Fennica vol. 8 no. 3 article id 4907. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14751
English title: About the distribution and ecology of Formica rufa -group in Finland.

The paper describes the systematics, distribution, abundance and nest sites of Formica rufa -group in different Finnish forest types. In addition, it has been estimated the availability of Finnish ants in the biological competition.

F. polyctena, F. aquilonia and F. lugubris are distributed over whole Finland. F. rufa and F. nigricans to Southern Finland only. The relative abundace of ant nests diminish to Northern Finland. F. rufa -group prefer most forest on moist land (Myrtillus and Oxalis-Myrtillus types), mixed forests of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karsts), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and birch (Betula sp.), and the silvicultural density 0.6–0.7 (good or satisfactory density), but they avoid broadleaved and pure one-tree species forests. For the biological competition the most competitive ant species seem to be F. polyctena and F. aquilonia.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Wuorenrinne, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7638, category Article
Jussi Kuusipalo. (1985). An ecological study of upland forest site classification in southern Finland. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 192 article id 7638. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7638

The vegetation and number of physical and chemical soil properties were studied on a random sample of closed upland forest stands in Southern Finland. The material consists of a total of 410 sample plots. Two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) was carried out in order to produce a hierarchical clustering of samples on the basis of the vegetation data. Discriminant analysis and analysis of variance were applied in order to find environmental correlations of the vegetation clustering.

The vegetation was found to indicate the nutrient regime of the humus layer well, but to a less extent the properties of the sub-soil. The understorey vegetation was found to be jointly dependent on the site fertility and on the properties of the tree stand, especially on the tree species composition. Although the forest vegetation appears to be distributed rather continuously along an axis of increasing site fertility, relatively unambiguous classification can be based on the appearance of indicator species and species groups.

The results of the study were interpreted as indication that operational site classification done using the vegetation is rather good method for classification in closed forest stands. Different methods produce relatively consistent, natural and ecologically interpretable classifications. The results also imply that the vegetation cover and the humus layer develop concurrently during the development of the ecosystem, but the differentiation of the site type is regulated simultaneously by a number of interacting factors ranging from mineralogical properties of the parent material to the topographical exposition of the site. As the plant cover depicts all these primary factors simultaneously, only a relatively rough ecological site classification can be based on the vegetation.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kuusipalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7588, category Article
Niilo Söyrinki, Risto Salmela, Jorma Suvanto. (1977). Oulangan kansallispuiston metsä- ja suokasvillisuus. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 154 article id 7588. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7588
English title: The forest and mire vegetation of the Oulanka National Park, Northern Finland.

The Oulanka National Park is situated in the district of Kuusamo on the eastern border of Finland, close to the Arctic Circle and within the coniferous forest zone. It covers a surface area of 107 km2, and is known for the richness of its vegetation and flora, a product of a varied bedrock pattern including occurrences of dolomite. A description is given of the vegetation of the 9 forest and 47 peatland types distinguishable in the area by means of tables based on quadrat surveys. The distribution of each forest and peatland type is described in a vegetation map. The vegetation types are discussed in terms of the structure of their soil and the ecological and floristic features of their plant cover.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Söyrinki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Salmela, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Suvanto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7581, category Article
Seppo Kellomäki, Varpu-Leena Saastamoinen. (1975). Trampling tolerance of forest vegetation. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 147 article id 7581. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7581

The trampling tolerance of ground vegetation of different types of forest stands has been examined in this study in the light of short-term trampling. The trampling treatment was simulated by a mechanical tamp. The relation between deterioration of the ground vegetation and the amount of the trampling was presumed to follow a curvilinear pattern when the material was being analysed. In order to quantify this relationship, a mathematical equation was developed for every plant community and their members of which the trampling tolerance was analysed. The trampling tolerance was compared using a parameter of the developed equations. Vegetation growing on sites of the Myrtillus, Vaccinium and Calluna types was included in the study.

The study showed a clear difference in the trampling tolerance between the ground vegetation of sites differing in their fertility. The ground vegetation typical of the Calluna type was found to have a lower trampling tolerance than the vegetation of the most fertile sites which were studied. It can be concluded that the relationship between the site fertility and the trampling tolerance of the ground vegetation is a curvilinear one such that the trampling tolerance of the vegetation on the poorest and the richest sites is lower than that of the vegetation growing on sites of medium fertility. However, it does appear that the most fertile sites have a higher trampling tolerance than the poorest sites. In addition, information about the trampling tolerance of a number of commonly occurring forest plants is also presented.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Kellomäki, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Saastamoinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7578, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo, Mikko Ilvessalo. (1975). Suomen metsätyypit metsiköiden luontaisen kehitys- ja puuntuottokyvyn valossa. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 144 article id 7578. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7578
English title: The forest types of Finland in the light of natural development and yield capacity of forest stands.

The aim of the present study was to describe the forest types of Finnish mineral forest lands as a uniform whole in the light of stand development and wood production.

The study shows that it has been possible to work out uniform age-based development series for different stand characteristics for forest types on mineral forest lands in Finland. There is generally a clear difference in the development series of various stand characteristics and their average values between different forest types. The exceptions in a few places have been explained as depending on certain factors. The differences between adjacent forest types in order of their quality are of varying magnitude, thus differing from a schematic site quality classification obtained through calculation. Consequently, each forest type has its own development series with regard to the stand characteristics.

The number of forest types in the whole country is rather high. However, the different forest types are limited to different parts cf the country in such a way that there is no need for more than 5–6 forest types and 4 northerly sub-forms (-types) in each region, except in the border areas between the regions. In Finland the forest types have been the basis of forest site classification in forest research and practical forestry over a period of half a century. In pointing out the necessity of further study of forest types, Cajander has stressed the examination of differences in the compositions of vegetation between different classes of density of tree-stand and building up average descriptions of vegetation in such classes in young, middle-age and old stands. The same may be caused by some other factors which also are of essential influence to the composition of the vegetation.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7542, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1970). Metsiköiden luontainen kehitys- ja puuntuottokyky Pohjois-Lapin kivennäismailla. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 108 article id 7542. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7542
English title: Natural development and yield capacity of forest stands on mineral soils in Northern Lapland.

The article is fifth part of a series of papers on fully stocked natural normal stands on mineral soils in Finland. This part studies the stands in Northern Lapland, dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). This investigation was concerned mainly with Scotch pine stands, using Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and birch (Betula sp.) stands for comparison only. 107 sample plots were measured.

The most common forest types in the area are Empetrum-Myrtillus-(Cladina) type, EM(C1), Ericacea-Cladinae type, ErCIT, P-L, and Cladina type, C1T. Stand development is more rapid and wood production greater in EM(C1) type than ErCIT, while the C1T stands are further behind in all respects. The average differences in stand characteristics between forest types are roughly similar, but for cubic volume and total production less, than between the more southerly forest types. Measurements made from increment cores taken at breast height have confirmed that variation of the pine annual ring width has on average been very considerable, in accordance with the climatic, mainly temperature, variations, in the investigation area close to the north pine forest limit.

The few plots from birch and spruce stands measured as samples in the northern Lapland investigation area indicate the generally poor development and wood production of these stands by comparison with pine stands.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4688, category Article
L. Heikurainen, Finnish Society of Forest Science. (1960). Symposio metsätyypeistä ja metsäekosysteemeistä Motrealissa elokuun 24. päivänä 1959. IX Kansainvälisen kasvitieteellisen kongressin yhteydessä. Silva Fennica no. 105 article id 4688. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14129
English title: Symposium on forest types and forest ecosystems during the IX international botanical congress Montreal, August 24th 1959.

The paper is a review on the topics of Symposium on forest types and forest ecosystems, held in connection to the IX internal botanical congress in Montreal in August 1959, the chairman of which was Ilmari Hustich. The article includes 18 preparatory papers that were distributed among the participants of the symposium. The common theme of the papers was the question of finding common platform for the different schools of forest types and forest ecosystems. In addition to the papers, the article includes a summary of the proceedings and discussions of the symposium.

 

The following papers were presented in the symposium:

Aichinger, E. Können wir eine gemeinsame Platform für die verscheidenen Schulen in der Waldtypenklassifikationen finden?

Arnborg, T. Can we find a common platform for the different schools of forest type classifications?

Dansereau, P. A combined structural and floristic approach to the definition of forest ecosystems.

Daubenmire, R. Some major problems in vegetation classification

Ellenberg, H. Können wir eine gemeinsame Platform für die verscheidenen Schulen in der Waldtypenklassifikationen finden?

Hills, G.A. Comparison of forest ecosystems (vegetation and soil) in different climatic zones

Kalela, A. Classification of the vegetation, especially of the forest, with particular reference to regional problems

Krajina, V.J. Can we find a common platform for the different schools of forest type classifications?

Kühler, A.W. Mapping tropical forest vegetation

Linteau, A. Y. a-t-il. Un terrain d’entente possible entre les différentes écoles au sujet de la classification de types forestiers?

Medvecka-Kornaś, A. Some problems of forest climaxes in Poland

Ovington, J.D. The ecosystem concept as aid to forest classification

Puri, G.S. The concept of climax in forest botany as applied in India

Rowe, J.S. Can we find a common platform for the different schools of forest type classifications?

Scamoni, A. Können wir eine gemeinsame Grundlage für die verscheidenen Schulen in der Waldtypenklassifikationen finden?

Sukachev, V.N. The correlation between the concept ’forest ecosystem’ and ’forest biogeocoenise’ and their importance for the classification of forests

Webb, L.J. A new attempt to classify Australian rain forest

  • Heikurainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Finnish Society of Forest Science, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7605, category Article
Yrjö Ilvessalo. (1969). Luonnonnormaalien metsiköiden kehityksestä Pohjanmaan kivennäismailla. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 96 article id 7605. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7605
English title: The development of natural normal forest stands on mineral soils in Ostrobothnia in Finland.

The article is third part of a series of papers on fully stocked natural normal stands on mineral soils in Finland. This part studies area between the ca. 62nd and 66nd parallels of the strip of land on the Gulf of Bothnia stretching from the coast to an altitude of 150 m above the sea level. The material consists of 121 sample plots in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands, 36 sample plots in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and 22 sample plots in birch (Betula sp.) stands.

Since the vegetation gradually changes from south to north, it was considered necessary to separate sub-types (marked s.) for certain southern-central forest types; these are poorer in vegetation but obviously more generally found than the main types. The Myrtillus s. sub-type shows slower development of pine stands than the Myrtillus type. The number of stems on the former is greater, owing to the slow initial development, but the mean diameter and height are smaller than on the latter. The difference in volume and growth increases with age. The slower the rate of self-thinning on the sub-type has the effect that the differences in total production are small.

The Vaccinium sub-type s. (VTs.) is poorer in vegetation than the southern-central type, differs from VT less than was the difference in the MT sub-types. The Empetrum-Vaccinium type (EVT) in general differs considerably from the VT but less from the VTs., in relation to which the difference shows mainly in the volume and total production. The EVT differs from the Calluna type as regards in all stand characteristics.

The results of this study suggest that the s.c. sub-type MT could be placed between the types MT and VT. This has significance especially in forest mensuration. However, in practical forest inventories it would seem possible to combine MT and MTs. to avoid having too many site classes. The types VT and VTs. can generally be considered nearly as one type. Similarly, CT and ECT (Empetrum-Calluna type) may be regarded as one site group. The differences may also partly be due to differences in early treatment of the forests.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Ilvessalo, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4721, category Article
S. A. Wilde. (1963). Theory of relativity, soil science, and forest mensuration. Silva Fennica no. 115 article id 4721. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14276

No other manifestation of life is allied more conspicuously to the theory of relativity as the growth of forest stands which is a function of the inherent growth potential of trees, the productive capacity of environment, and time.

The height over age quotient of a forest stand is usually the most reliable indicator of the productive forces of the habitat. Stem analysis have shown that increment of a tree at different ages is closely correlated with the extension of roots into individual geological horizons of different productive capacity. Growth curves of stands of a same tree species growing on different soils can be disparate due to different conditions. The temporal variety of tree growth on different sites is of prime importance in the construction of yield tables. Investigations of natural plant communities of Finland provided one rational approach towards the construction of yield tables. By confining mensuration analyses to define floristic types, the Finnish foresters harmonized their records with Einstein’s formula for space-time matrix of material events.

  • Wilde, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4687, category Article
V. Sukatsev. (1960). Metsätyyppien tutkimisen opas. Suomentanut Erkki Laitakari. Silva Fennica no. 99 article id 4687. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14125
English title: A guide to the study of forest types.

Professor V. Sukachev, a Soviet developer of the doctrine of forest types, published a guide to the study of forest types in 1931. He states in the introduction of the guide that his aim is to facilitate the work of beginners in determining forest types and to instruct them in developing methods for their description and classification.
This Finnish edition of the guide includes new picture material and has an extensive supplementary preface, written by the author, that presents his view on forest types. The guide describes the concept of forest types, methods of describing forest types, guidelines to material collected in the forests and principles of classification of the different forest types.

  • Sukatsev, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4678, category Article
W. Wittich. (1958). Kasvupaikkaopin kehitys ja merkitys metsänhoidolle Saksassa. (Helsingin yliopistossa 26.4.1958 pidetty esitelmä, suomentanut Peitsa Mikola). Silva Fennica no. 96 article id 4678. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9124
English title: Development and significance of the knowledge of site factors and site types in forestry in Germany.

The article is a summary of a presentation by W. Wittich, held in the University of Helsinki in 26.4.1958.
The significance of fertility of the site in tree growh was known already for over 100 years ago in Germany, but after the First World War the view was abandoned in forestry. According to the Dauerwald system of managing forests that was introduced at the time, the type of site was considered relatively insignificant in forest management. Therefore, similar practices were used in all kinds of sites. The opposition against the use of this method resulted in new research on the site factors.
Knowledge of the relation of the site types and vegetation makes it possible to improve productivity: in regional planning the production that is considered to be necessary is assigned to the sites that have best conditions for it. For instance, in Niedersachsen county about 6% of the forest lands are reserved for cultivation of oak.
Another line of soil science studies the root causes behind the hands-on experiences of forest management. The aim is to abandon rigid approaches in forestry. Studying the effects of forest management practices on soil has been targeted, for instance, on effects of clear cutting on decomposition and vegetation, how the soil affects choice of tree species, and decomposition of litter from different tree species. Knowledge of soil and the trees’s demand of nutrients helps to mend disturbancies, such as nutrient deficiensies. Consequently, fertilization has become a new tool to improve productivity in forestry.
The article includes a German summary.

  • Wittich, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4600, category Article
Aarne Nyyssönen. (1950). Vertailevia havaintoja hoidettujen ja luonnontilaisten männiköiden rakenteesta ja kehityksestä. Silva Fennica no. 68 article id 4600. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9091
English title: Comparative study on structure and development of managed and natural Scots pine stands.

The Forest Research Institute of Finland has established permanent sample plots to survey the effect of thinnings on the stands. This study compares the development of tended and natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands growing on three different forest types: Oxalis-Myrtillus, Vaccinium and Calluna site type. The effect of heavy thinning from below (Oxalis-Myrtillus and Vaccinium site types) and increment felling (Calluna site type) was assessed by dividing the trees of the stands in tree classification classes according to their crown storey and defects.

The results show that thinning from below and increment thinning increase the proportion of trees in the 1st crown storey, which is already large in the natural stands. Also the diameter distribution is more even and the mean diameter higher after the thinnings.

In Scots pine stands in natural state, volume increment per stem is highest in the 1st crown storey and diminishes strongly towards the lower crown storeys. Thinnings increased the increment. The study indicates that many of the objectives of the intermediate cuttings, including promoting the growth of the best trees and improving the quality of the stand, have in general been achieved. Consequently, the thinnings give means to achieve the most valuable yield in the stand.

The article includes a summary in English.

  • Nyyssönen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4597, category Article
Lauri Teivainen. (1949). Pisavaaran luonnonpuiston metsäkasvillisuudesta ja kasvistosta. Silva Fennica no. 65 article id 4597. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a13978
English title: Forest vegetation and flora of Pisavaara national park.

A vegetation survey was conducted in the Pisavaara national park in Northern Finland in 1946 and 1947. The national park (49,9 km2) includes southern half of the Pisavaara hills. The rock is quartzite. The most common vegetation type is dry upland forest type, but also fresh mineral soil sites are typical for the area.

The most common forest type, Empetrum-Myrtillus type coveres almost as much of the area as all the other forest types combined. The article describes in detail the vegetation of all forest types and gives a complete list of all plant species found in the survey. Total of 291 vascular plants was found, 242 of which were native to the area. In addition, 49 anthropochores had spread to the area when the forest ranger’s cottage was built. Number of species growing in the northern edge of their natural range is. Southern species can be found in the southern slopes of the hill.

The article includes an abstract in German.

  • Teivainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4456, category Article
Aimo Kaarlo Cajander. (1930). Wesen und Bedeutung der Waldtypen. Silva Fennica no. 15 article id 4456. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8990
English title: Characters and meaning of forest types.

The article contains three presentations given about forest type classification at the University of Tarto in Estonia. The article has an introduction, a part about the meaning of the natural classification of forest sites and up to now conducted studies on site classification. The second part presents the characteristics of plant communities and the forest types, and practical and theoretical meaning of forest types.

Classifying the forest sites is important in practical forestry, because the forest growth and forest valuation are dependent on the productivity of the soil. The classification of the sites for forest management purposes needs to result in classes that are easily distinguished in the forest. This then leads to forest management that best fits to a certain forest site. 

  • Cajander, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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