Current issue: 54(1)

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Impact factor 1.683
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Silva Fennica 1926-1997
1990-1997
1980-1989
1970-1979
1960-1969
Acta Forestalia Fennica
1953-1968
1933-1952
1913-1932

Articles containing the keyword 'fuel wood'.

Category: Research article

article id 910, category Research article
Gernot Erber, Christian Kanzian, Karl Stampfer. (2012). Predicting moisture content in a pine logwood pile for energy purposes. Silva Fennica vol. 46 no. 4 article id 910. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.910
Determining the moisture content of naturally dried fuel stock without frequent measuring is a problem still unsolved. Modelling moisture content based on automatically captured meteorological data could provide a solution. An accurate model would allow the drying period and the point of chipping to be optimised. For the experimental study, a metal frame supported by load sensors and loaded with 17 tons of logwood was set up next to a meteorological station. A multiple linear regression model was used to link meteorological and load data to provide a formula for determining the moisture content. The pile dried for a period of 14 months (average temperature of 7.3 °C, a humidity of 81%, and 777 mm of rainfall). The overall moisture content dropped from 50.1% to 32.2%. The regression model, which based on daily means and sums of meteorological parameters, provided a mean deviance from the observed curve of –0.51%±0.71% within the period of investigation. Relative humidity was found to be most important parameter in drying. Increased moisture content resulting from rainfall greater than 30 mm per day reverted back to pre-rainfall values within two to three days, if no other rainfall events followed. Covering the pile would have a positive effect on the drying performance. In terms of economic benefit it could be shown that natural drying is beneficial. Overall this study shows that meteorological data used in site specific drying models can adequately predict the moisture content of naturally dried logwood.
  • Erber, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan-Strasse 82, 1190 Wien, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: gernot.erber@boku.ac.at (email)
  • Kanzian, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan-Strasse 82, 1190 Wien, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: christian.kanzian@boku.ac.at
  • Stampfer, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Peter Jordan-Strasse 82, 1190 Wien, Austria ORCID ID:E-mail: karl.stampfer@boku.ac.at

Category: Article

article id 4701, category Article
Veijo Heiskanen. (1960). Tutkimuksia koivuhalkojen painosta ja kosteudesta. Silva Fennica no. 108 article id 4701. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9136
English title: Studies on the weight and moisture of split birch fuel wood.

The purpose of this investigation is to examine the weight and moisture of split birch fuel wood and to calculate its heat values. The weight was measured of 255 truck loads in six different locations during the winter 1959–1960. Moisture analysis was made of sample specimens collected from the loads.

The dry matter weight of the birch fuel wood was in an average 333 kg/m3 piled measure. The lowest measured weight was 319 and the highest 341 kg/m3 piled measure. The moisture content in the different parts of the pile varies distinctly. Driest wood is found in the middle of the pile. Wood in the top and bottom of the pile have about similar moisture content.

The manner of storage influences the drying process. The moisture content of open piles is 20.5%, of paper-covered piles 19.9% and roofed multiple-piles of split fuel wood 19.3%. The 2-year-old piles were dryer than 1-year-old ones. Higher percentages (25% and 20 %, respectively) than those measured in the study, are recommended for practical use. The heat value of the wood stored in a pile was in average 1,435 Mcal/m3 piled measure, and 1,455 Mcal/m3 piled measure sampled from a truck load.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Heiskanen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4728, category Article
Yrjö Roitto. (1965). Polttopuun käyttö Euroopassa vv. 1950.1960 sekä mahdollisuudet polttopuun teolliseen käyttöön v. 1975. Silva Fennica no. 117 article id 4728. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14286
English title: Use of fuel wood in Europe in 1950-60 and possibilities of converting fuelwood to industrial uses by 1975.

According to the statistics, the fuel wood consumption in Europe has declined since 1925/1929, when the total fuel wood consumption was 144 million m3. In 1960 the consumption was 108 million m3. Because of insufficient statistics in the early years, the drop may even be larger than shown by the figures. The aim of this paper is to assess what part of European fuel wood removals in 1960 could be used for industrial purposes by 1975.

It was estimated that in 1975 the use of fuel wood in Europe will be about 45–55 million m3 less than in 1960 and about 10 million m3 of this amount will consist of coniferous species. It is believed that about 45 million m3 could be transferred to industrial use by 1975, and 55 million m3 is supposed to be the maximum reduction achievable by 1975. The estimates are based on the revised European fuel wood removal figures.

The new European timber trends and prospects study reveals a shortage of small-sized coniferous wood of about 25–43 million m3, depending on whether the exports from Europe are curtailed or not. The decrease of coniferous fuel wood of 10 million m3 could almost entirely be transferred for the use of industry.

A more important question is, is there demand for the extra small-size broadleaved wood. It is important to note that there is no longer any technical limitations on the use of this kind of wood for producing pulp, paper paperboard and wood-based panel products.

Fuelwood is often collected by the farmer and used near the farm. If the wood is to be used in the industry, harvesting and transport costs need to be decreased. However, productivity of the logging and transportation may be significantly improved by cutting the trees into longer lengths and professional harvesting. About 40% of the potential transfer of fuelwood to industrial uses is concentrated in Finland (7 million m3), France (5 million m3), and Italy (7 million m3). Other countries with significant potential shifts could be Romania, Spain and Yugoslavia.

The PDF includes a summary in French, German, Dutch, Russian and Finnish.

  • Roitto, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4472, category Article
Pienpuukomitea. (1933). Pienpuukysymys. Silva Fennica no. 31 article id 4472. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a9044
English title: The small timber problem.

A Committee was appointed in 1931 to prepare a program to improve the trade of small timber and to develop Finnish fuels and their production. The low demand for small timber is caused by the reduced export of Egyptian balks, and decreased demand of fuel wood that have been replaced by the imported fuels, like coal. At the same time, the supply of small timber has grown significantly due to increased thinnings, and better transport facilities that have made timber more accessible. Also, decreasing demand of large timber has increased the supply of small timber. The demand of small timber concentrates on Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.). The sales of small timber are crucial from the silvicultural point of view. Selection felling of large timber in the past has reduced the supply of logs and led to surplus of small timber.

The article discusses the uses of small timber and potential new fields, such as wood sugar as fodder or refining wood as fuel. The use of timber should be promoted especially in the domestic industry. The Committee suggests funding for an additional forestry teaching post in the University of Technology, for forest technology and forest economics research in the Forest Research Institute, for research in wood technics, and for follow-up of forest sugar and wood gas fields.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Pienpuukomitea, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4455, category Article
O Tähtinen. (1930). Katsaus Jokioisten kartanon eli n.s. Jokiläänin metsätalouden vaiheisiin. Silva Fennica no. 14 article id 4455. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a8989
English title: A short account of the history of the forestry of the Jokioinen Estate.

The Jokioinen Estate was established in 1562 when king Erik XIV of Sweden granted a large area around Jokioinen in the southwest Finland to Klas Kristersson Horn. The estate had several landlords until it was acquired in 1872 by Jokkis Stock Company, and finally sold to the government in 1918. The forestry of the estate was influenced by complications concerning the ownership of the land. A part of the tenants of the estate had originally been independent and owned their farms, but some farms were so-called family-right-farms, which were inherited from father to son, but the farmer did not own the land. A third type of farmers were ordinary tenants, who were directly dependent on the landlord. Especially ambiguous was the family-right-farmers’ right to harvest timber from the forests. The Finnish government acquired the estate to solve the problems and gave the tenants right to buy their farms.

Until the 18th century most of the farmers in Jokioinen area practiced shifting cultivation. This method of farming influenced strongly the forests, and continued until the increased market price of timber made it unprofitable. The forests were also the source of fuel wood for both the farmers and the landlord. The estate had own saw-mill industry since the 18th century. In 1871 a trained forester was hired for the estate. When the government acquired the estate, it comprised 32,000 hectares of land. The state retained 7,000 hectares of the forests. They were managed by a trained forester and administrated under the Board of Agriculture.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tähtinen, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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