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Articles containing the keyword 'genetic variation'.

Category: Research article

article id 7001, category Research article
Fei-Fei Zhai, Jun-Xiang Liu, Zhen-Jian Li, Jin-Mei Mao, Yong-Qiang Qian, Lei Han, Zhen-Yuan Sun. (2017). Assessing genetic diversity and population structure of Salix viminalis across Ergun and West Liao basin. Silva Fennica vol. 51 no. 3 article id 7001. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.7001
Highlights: High genetic diversity and moderate population differentiation were detected in twelve Salix viminalis populations; Populations from Ergun basin presented higher genetic diversity than populations from West Liao basin; Populations with short distances presented low differentiation.

Salix viminalis L. is an important shrub that has potential for use as a bioenergy crop, for phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil and sewage sludge treatment. It is mainly distributed in the northeast of China, but the species has not yet been used a resource here. We examined the genetic diversity and population structure of populations from the Ergun basin and West Liao basin using 20 microsatellite markers. A high level of genetic diversity (Na = 16.45, He = 0.742) was detected for S. viminalis, and populations from the Ergun basin exhibited higher genetic diversity and private alleles numbers than the West Liao basin. The 12 populations could be divided into two clusters by both Bayesian analysis and UPGMA clustering which were consistent with the populations derived from the two basins. Moderate population differentiation (FST = 0.076) was shown in S. viminalis, and AMOVA analysis confirmed that most of the genetic variation (86.13%) was attributed to individual differences within populations, while 11.49% was attributed to differences between basins and 2.38% to differences within each basin. Significant correlations of FST/(1–FST) with log (geographic distance) among 12 populations (r = 0.634, p < 0.00) and 10 populations within the Ergun basin (r = 0.482, p = 0.0002) indicated that geographical distance was the principal factor influencing genetic structure. As most of genetic variation exist within populations, so protection measures should be focused on populations with higher genetic diversity and unique alleles, such as Tuli, Mordaga downstream, Zhadun1 and Genhe.

  • Zhai, State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding; Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry; Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation, State Forestry Administration, Haidian District, Beijing, 10091, PR China; School of Architectural and Artistic Design, Henan Polytechnic University, Century Avenue, Jiaozuo, Henan, 454000, PR China ORCID ID:E-mail: lkyzff@163.com
  • Liu, State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding; Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry; Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation, State Forestry Administration, Haidian District, Beijing, 10091, PR China ORCID ID:E-mail: liu-jx295@163.com
  • Li, State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding; Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry; Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation, State Forestry Administration, Haidian District, Beijing, 10091, PR China ORCID ID:E-mail: zhenjianli@163.com
  • Mao, State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding; Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry; Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation, State Forestry Administration, Haidian District, Beijing, 10091, PR China; Research Institute of Economic Forest, Xinjiang Academy of Forestry, Anjunanlu, Urumqi, Xinjiang, PR China ORCID ID:E-mail: 350512173@qq.com
  • Qian, State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding; Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry; Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation, State Forestry Administration, Haidian District, Beijing, 10091, PR China ORCID ID:E-mail: qianyq@caf.ac.cn
  • Han, State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding; Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry; Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation, State Forestry Administration, Haidian District, Beijing, 10091, PR China ORCID ID:E-mail: hdd@caf.ac.cn
  • Sun, State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding; Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry; Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation, State Forestry Administration, Haidian District, Beijing, 10091, PR China ORCID ID:E-mail: lkyszy@126.com (email)
article id 304, category Research article
Joanna Kosinska, Andrzej Lewandowski, Wladyslaw Chalupka. (2007). Genetic variability of Scots pine maternal populations and their progenies. Silva Fennica vol. 41 no. 1 article id 304. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.304
The genetic variability of Scots pine was investigated in six populations from Poland representing two maternal populations and their natural and artificial progenies. Thirteen enzyme systems controlled by 25 allozyme loci were analyzed using starch gel electrophoresis. Progeny populations maintained a high and similar level of genetic variation to that observed in the maternal populations. As expected, much closer genetic relationships were observed between maternal populations and their respective progeny than between the two maternal populations themselves. Progeny populations had the same major alleles, but differed in the number of rare alleles. Therefore, probably not all rare alleles were transferred from the maternal stands to the progenies. In addition, new rare alleles appeared in the progeny populations, possibly as a result of external pollen flow into the maternal populations.
  • Kosinska, Department of Human Medical Genetics, Medical University of Warsaw, Oczki 1, 02-007 Warsaw, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Lewandowski, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Dendrology, 62-035 Kórnik, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Chalupka, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Dendrology, 62-035 Kórnik, Poland ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 326, category Research article
Xuejiang Zhang, Helena Korpelainen, Chunyang Li. (2006). Microsatellite variation of Quercus aquifolioides populations at varying altitudes in the Wolong Natural Reserve of China. Silva Fennica vol. 40 no. 3 article id 326. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.326
Genetic variation and differentiation were investigated among five natural populations of Quercus aquifolioides occurring along an altitudinal gradient that varied from 2000 to 3600 m above sea level in the Wolong Natural Reserve of China, by analyzing variation at six microsatellite loci. The results showed that the populations were characterized by relatively high intra-population variation with the average number of alleles equaling 11.33 per locus and the average expected heterozygosity (HE) being 0.779. The amount of genetic variation varied only little among populations, which suggests that the influence of altitude factors on microsatellite variation is limited. However, there is a significantly positive correlation between altitude and the number of low-frequency alleles (R2 = 0.97, P < 0.01), which indicates that Q. aquifolioides from high altitudes has more unique variation, possibly enabling adaptation to severe conditions. F statistics showed the presence of a slight deficiency of heterozygosity (FIS = 0.136) and a low level of differentiation among populations (FST = 0.066). The result of the cluster analysis demonstrated that the grouping of populations does not correspond to the altitude of the populations. Based on the available data, it is likely that the selective forces related to altitude are not strong enough to significantly differentiate the populations of Q. aquifolioides in terms of microsatellite variation.
  • Zhang, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 416, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China; Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Korpelainen, Department of Applied Biology, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Li, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 416, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China ORCID ID:E-mail: licy@cib.ac.cn
article id 601, category Research article
Ricardo Alía, Javier Moro-Serrano, Eduardo Notivol. (2001). Genetic variability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) provenances in Spain: growth traits and survival. Silva Fennica vol. 35 no. 1 article id 601. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.601
Plants obtained from seed of 16 Spanish and 6 German provenances of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were installed at five trial sites distributed throughout the natural range of the species in Spain. Five years after planting (7 years of age) the experimental material was measured for total height, diameter, number of twigs at the fourth year whorl and survival. The analysis confirmed that the rate of height growth of the Spanish is lower than that of the German provenances, whereas for the other traits the best Spanish compare favourably with the Germans. Provenance by site interaction was very significant (P < 0.01) for most traits. Attempts to model the interaction of Spanish provenances on height by simultaneous introduction of some climatic and geographic covariates on both factors were not successful but a multiplicative model with one bilinear term was enough to provide a sensible explanation of this interaction. Usually, provenances closest to each trial site were found better adapted than more distant ones but some provenances of close origin presented a different behaviour. Processes of adaptation and selection of these ancient populations could be considered as the main factors to cause this interaction.
  • Alía, CIFOR-INIA, Unidad de Mejora Forestal, 28080 Madrid, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Moro-Serrano, CIFOR-INIA, Unidad de Mejora Forestal, 28080 Madrid, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail: jmoro@inia.es (email)
  • Notivol, Unidad de Recursos Forestales, SIA-DGA, Ca de Montañana 179, 50080 Zaragoza, Spain ORCID ID:E-mail:

Category: Article

article id 5350, category Article
Heikki Hänninen, Paavo Pelkonen. (1988). Frost hardiness and over-wintering of forest trees. Silva Fennica vol. 22 no. 3 article id 5350. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a15507

This issue of Silva Fennica consists of eight articles, which are based on a co-nordic conference ”Frost hardiness and over-wintering in forest tree seedlings”, held in Joensuu, Finland, during December 1–3, 1986. The whole annual cycle of the trees is considered. Emphasis is given on methods for the study of frost hardiness, genetic variation in frost hardiness, nitrogen metabolism, bud dormancy release, and joint effect of natural and anthropogenic stress factors in the winter damage of forest trees. Practical implications for tree breeding and nursery management are discussed.

The PDF includes an abstract in Finnish.

  • Hänninen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
  • Pelkonen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 4868, category Article
Mikko Tormilainen. (1972). Havaintoja Oitin siemenviljelyksen mäntykloonien kukinnasta ja käpysadosta. Silva Fennica vol. 6 no. 2 article id 4868. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.a14671
English title: Studies of flowering and cone crop in a seed orchard of Scots pine.

Male and female flowering, cone crop, and some vegetative characteristics were studied in grafts 10 to 16 years of age in a clonal seed orchard of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Genetic variation was found between clones in flowering as well as in cone production. Clone evaluation resulted in similar classifications of clones in different years. A regression analysis showed that crown size clearly increased but previous height growth slightly decreased flowering and cone production. The percentage of pollinated female strobili did not differ between clones.

The PDF includes a summary in English.

  • Tormilainen, ORCID ID:E-mail:
article id 7620, category Article
Min-Sup Chung. (1981). Biochemical methods for determining population structure in Pinus sylvestris L. Acta Forestalia Fennica no. 173 article id 7620. https://doi.org/10.14214/aff.7620

Studies on Finnish Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plus tree clones by monoterpene and isozyme analyses was undertaken to further investigate mating system, population structure and pollination. Six allozyme systems (3 GOT, 1 GDH and 2 LAP) were properly analysed on the basis of segregation. Monoterpenes were analysed from needle material and segregation in high and low 3-carene content was found to depend on two alleles C and c. Thus, six allozyme systems and one monoterpene system were used as markers in this study.

It was shown that the northern clonal group maintains a much genetic variation as the central or southern clonal groups. The conditional probability of self-fertilization in about 20-year old clones estimated by the multilocus model was 14.1%, of which 8% originate from mating between trees that carry the same alleles to one of the maternal parent at some loci and 6% through self-fertilization.

There was no prominent difference in allele frequency of male gametes that pollinated the very early or very late flowering clones. The northern clonal group has higher a lower frequency of alleles GOT B2 and B3 respectively than of the southern clonal groups. The artificial plus tree selection, particularly in northern Finland, appears to favour heterozygous genotypes for the alleles that control 3-carene content n Scots pine.

The PDF includes a summary in Finnish.

  • Chung, ORCID ID:E-mail:

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